E100 – E181

Number

Name

Comments
E100# Cur
cumin
orange-yellow
colour; derived from the root of the curcuma (turmeric) plant, but can be artificially
produced; used in cheese, margarine, baked sweets and fish fingers
E101# Riboflavin,
Riboflavin-5′-phosphate
‘Vitamin
B2’ and colour; occurs naturally in greenveges, eggs, milk, liver and kidney;
used in margarine and cheese
E102 Tartrazine
FD&C
Yellow No.5; known to provoke asthma attacks (though the US FDA** do not
recognise this) and urticaria (nettle rash) in children (the US FDA**
estimates 1:10 000); also linked to thyroid tumours, chromosomal damage,
urticaria (hives) and hyperactivity; tartrazine sensitivity is also linked to
aspirin sensitivity; used to colour drinks, sweets, jams, cereals, snack
foods, canned fish, packaged soups;
banned in Norway and Austria
E104 Quinoline
Yellow
FD&C
Yellow No.10; used in lipsticks hair products, colognes; also in a wide range
of medications; cause dermatitis;
banned in USA and Norway
E107 Yellow
7G
yellow
colour; the HACSG* recommends to
avoid it;
people who suffer Asthma may also show an allergic reaction to it; typical
products are soft drinks;
banned in Australia and USA
E110# Sunset
Yellow FCF, Orange Yellow S
FD&C
Yellow No.6; used in cereals, bakery, sweets, snack foods, ice cream, drinks
and canned fish; synthetic; also in many medications including Polaramine,
Ventolin syrup; side effects are urticaria (hives), rhinitis (runny nose),
nasal congestion, allergies, hyperactivity, kidney tumours, chromosomal
damage, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, indigestion, distaste for food;
seen increased incidence of tumours in animals;
banned in
Norway
E120# Cochineal,
Carminic acid, Carmines
red
colour; made from insects; rarely used; the HASCG* recommends to
avoid it
E122 Azorubine,
Carmoisine
red
colour; coal tar derivative; can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and
people allergic to aspirin; typical products are confectionary, marzipan,
jelly crystals;
banned in Sweden, USA, Austria and Norway  
E123 Amaranth
FD&C
Red No.2; derived from the small herbaceous plant of the same name; used in
cake mixes, fruit-flavoured fillings, jelly crystals; can provoke asthma,
eczema and hyperactivity; it caused birth defects and foetal deaths in some
animal tests, possibly also
cancer; banned in
the USA, Russia, Austria and Norway and other countries
E124 Ponceau
4R, Cochineal Red A
FD&C
Red No.4; synthetic coal tar and azo dye, carcinogen in animals, can produce
bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin;
banned in
USA & Norway
E127 Erythrosine
FD&C
Red No.3; red colour used in cherries, canned fruit, custard mix, sweets,
bakery, snack foods; can cause sensitivity to light; can increase thyroid
hormone levels and lead to hyperthyroidism, was shown to cause thyroid cancer
in rats in a study in 1990;
banned in January 1990, but
not recalled by the US FDA**;
banned in Norway
E128 Red 2G Banned in
Australia and many other places
except UK
E129 Allura
red AC
FD&C
Red No.40; Orange-red colour used in sweets, drinks and condiments,
medications and cosmetics, synthetic; introduced in the early eighties to
replace amaranth which was considered not safe due to conflicting test
results; allura red has also been connected with
cancer in
mice;
banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden,
Austria and Norway
E131 Patent
blue V
Banned in
Australia, USA and Norway
E132# Indigotine,
Indigo carmine
FD&C
Blue No.2, commonly added to tablets and capsules; also used in ice cream,
sweets, baked goods, confectionary, biscuits, synthetic coal tar derivative;
may cause nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure, skin rashes, breathing
problems and other allergic reactions.
Banned in Norway
E133 Brilliant
blue FCF
FD&C
Blue Dye No.1; used in dairy products, sweets and drinks, synthetic usually
occurring as aluminium lake (solution) or ammonium salt;
banned in
Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, Norway
E140 Chlorophylis,
Chlorophyllins
green
colour occurs naturally in all plants; used for dyeing waxes and oils, used
in medicines and cosmetics
E141 Copper
complexes of chloropyll and chlorophyllins
olive
colour, no adverse effects are known
E142 Green S
green
colour; synthetic coal tar derivative; used in canned peas, mint jelly and
sauce, packet bread crumbs and cake mixes;
banned inSweden, USA and
Norway
E150(a) Plain
caramel
dark
brown colour made from sucrose; the HACSG* recommends to
avoid it. used
in oyster, soy, fruit and canned sauces, beer, whiskey, biscuits, pickles
E150(b) Caustic
sulphite caramel
see
E150(a)
E150(c) Ammonia
caramel
see
E150(a)
E150(d) Sulphite
ammonia caramel
see
E150(a)
E151 Brilliant
Black BN, Black PN
coloor;
coal tar derivative; used in brown sauces, blackcurrant cake mixes;
banned in
Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, USA, Norway
E153# Vegetable
carbon
black
colour, charcoal pigment; used in jams, jelly crystals, liquorice; only the
vegetable derived variety permitted in Australia,
banned in
the United States
E154 Brown
FK
banned in
USA
E155 Brown
HT (Chocolate)
brown
colour, coal tar and azo dye; used in chocolate cake mixes; can produce bad
reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; also known to induce
skin sensitivity;
banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden,
Austria, USA, Norway
E160(a)# Carotene,
alpha-, beta-, gamma-
orange-yellow
colour; human body converts it to ‘Vitamin A’ in the liver, found in carrots
and other yellow or orange fruits and vegetables
E160(b)# Annatto
(Arnatto, Annato), bixin, norbixin
red
colour; derived from a tree (Bixa orellana); used as a body paint, fabric
dye, digestive aid and expectorant; used to dye cheese, butter, margarine,
cereals, snack foods, soaps, textiles and varnishes; known to cause urticaria
(nettle rash), the HACSG* recommends to
avoid it
E160(c)# Paprika
extract, capsanthin, capsorubin
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E160(d)# Lycopene
red
coloured carotenoid found in tomatoes and pink grapefruit, can cause
decreasing risk of cancer
E160(e)# Beta-apo-8′-carotenal
(C 30)
orange
colour, no adverse effects are known
E160(f)# Ethyl
ester of beta-apo-8′-carotenic acid (C 30)
orange
colour, no adverse effects are known
E161(b) Xanthophylls
– Lutein
yellow
colour derived from plants, naturally found in green leaves, marigolds and egg
yolks
E161(g)# Xanthophylls
– Canthaxanthin
yellow
colour possibly derived from animal sources (retinol); the pigment is found
in some mushrooms, crustacea, fish, flamingo feathers
E162 Beetroot
Red, Betanin
purple
colour derived from beets; no adverse effects are known
E163 Anthocyanins
violet
colour matter of flowers and plants; seems safe
E170# Calcium
carbonate
mineral
salt, used in toothpastes, white paint and cleaning powders; may be derived
from rock mineral or animal bones; sometimes used to deacidify wines and firm
canned fruit and veg.; toxic at ‘high doses’
E171 Titanium
dioxide
white
colour used in toothpaste and white paint, pollutes waterways; no adverse
effects are known
E172 Iron
oxides and hydroxides
black,
yellow, red colour used in salmon and shrimp pastes; toxic at ‘high doses’
E173 Aluminium
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E174 Silver avoid it,
banned in some countries
E175 Gold avoid it,
banned in some countries
E180 Latolrubine
BK
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E181 Tannic
acid, tannins
clarifying
agent in alcohol; derived from the nutgalls and twigs of oak trees; occurs
naturally in tea

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