Etiket Arşivleri: additives

Biscuit Additives ( Kenan ÖZ )


Prepared  by Kenan ÖZ

What is biscuit?

Title: Biscuit

Document Type and Number: United States Patent 4650685

Link to this page:


1.A biscuit, consisting of agglomerated granules of an extrusion cooked base, which are coated with a binder.

2.The biscuit has a density of from 0.3 to 0.8 g/cm3 and a water content of from 1.5 to 4.5% by weight.

3.The base consists of from 40 to 80 parts by weight of cereal flour, from 0 to 20 parts by weight of sucrose and from 0.5 to 3 parts by weight of oil or fat.

4.The base has a specific weight of from 0.1 to 0.3 g/cm3.

5.The binder consists of from 8 to 30 parts by weight of sucrose and/or mixtures of glucose and its polymers.

How biscuits are made?

INGREDIENTS: Flour with baking powder, sugar, salt, vegetable oil and food additives as that glucose, invert sugar, egg, milk powder, whey powder, starch and enough water.

DOUGH: This is a process where all ingredients are  put together in right proportion for dough formation. These ingredient are then fed into Mixers where mixing is done and dough is prepared for molding .

MOULDING: We laminate the dough into sheet which then passes down to gauge rollers and sheet thickness achieved for cutting . Here we have a cutter or a moulder as per the variety where one gets the shape and sizes of biscuits.

BAKING: The area where we pass these moulded wet biscuit into baking oven. The biscuits are baked on desired temperatures. Various type of heating are available now days as per the convenience and cost. Different type ovens are available.

COOLING: These baked biscuits are then passed on to cooling conveyors for natural cooling prior to packing .The temperatures are brought down to room temperatures .

PACKING: These biscuit are then stacked and fed into packing machine for packing. Different packing material are available for packing of these biscuit in different packs,slug packs, pouch pack or family packs etc. These packs are then put into secondary packaging like cbbs or cartons  to be transported to retailers.

Steps of Manufacturing Biscuits

   The store is responsible for issuing materials for the production process according to the planned requirements. It is only at this point that biscuits start to be made. Manufacturing biscuits comprises a number of steps:

  1. Flour, water and sugar is dispensed into large mixers. The ingredients that are used in smaller quantities are hand weighed and added into the mixing bowl for each batch of dough to be mixed.

  2. The ingredients are then mixed to form dough in the mixing bowl according to a specific mixing procedure.

  1. The dough is then tipped into a hopper and gravity-fed into the dough sheeting section of the machine. In this process the dough is fed through various rollers to form a sheet of dough. Depending on what type of biscuit is being produced, this process varies.

  2. Different forming techniques are used to get the required shape and size of the piece of dough which will form the biscuit.

  1. The raw biscuits are transported through a gas-fired oven on a metal conveyor band where they are baked to form fresh, warm and deliciously smelling biscuits. While still hot, the savory biscuits are sprayed with oil and one of a number of types of flavoring is added to produce what is required for that particular biscuit.

  2. Biscuits are baked rather than fried, so the oil merely assists the flavour particles to cling to the biscuit surface. The flavored biscuits then travel along a cooling conveyor in order to cool off.

  1. Once the biscuits have been cooled, they are packed into wrappers, cartons and cases, ready for distribution to one of the warehouses.

  2. Quality checks are conducted at key points in the process to ensure process control and product quality is constantly maintained at a high standard.

  3. The finished product is then transported in cases to state-of-the-art distribution warehouses.  Stock is loaded as per delivery orders and sent to the various customers.

Some common food additives in biscuits







Anticaking agents

Thickening agents

Ulker Biskrem Cookies with Cream Filling


Wheat Flour

Cocoa Cream %30

Hydrogen Vegetable Oil (Cottonseed Oil and/or Sunflower Oil and/or Palm Oil)



Milk Powder

Cocoa Powder(%8)


Emulsifier (Soya Lecithin)

Artificial Flavors (Ethyl Vanillin)

Fructose Syrup

Corn Syrup


Raising Agent (Bicarbonates of Sodium and Ammonium )

SÜSSE Petit Beurre Biscuit by BİFA A.Ş.



  • What : Flavor enhancer (MSG) .

  • Found : Snack foods, instant

noodles, biscuits, prepared meals, sauces, gravies, stocks and stock cubes, canned tuna, many frozen foods.

Food Additives Summary


The use of food additives is an emotional topic which continues to provoke consumer concern.

Despite modern-day associations food additives have been used for centuries. Food preservation began when man first learned to safeguard food from one harvest to the next and by the salting and smoking of meat and fish. The Egyptians used colours and flavourings, and the Romans used saltpetre (potassium nitrate), spices and colours for preservation and to improve the appearance of foods. Cooks regularly used baking powder as a raising agent, thickeners for sauces and gravies, and colours, such as cochineal, to transform good-quality raw materials into foods that were safe, wholesome and enjoyable to eat. The overall aims of traditional home cooking remain the same as those prepared and preserved by today’s food manufacturing methods.

Over the last 50 years, developments in food science and technology have led to the discovery of many new substances that can fulfil numerous functions in foods. These food additives are now readily available and include; emulsifiers in margarine, sweeteners in low-calorie products and a wider range of preservatives and antioxidants which slow product spoilage and rancidity whilst maintaining taste.

Food additives serve five main functions:

1. Maintain product consistency

Emulsifiers provide a consistent texture and prevent products from separating. Stabilizers and thickeners provide a uniform texture. Anticaking agents enable substances to flow freely.

2. Improve or preserve the nutrient value

Fortification and enrichment of foods has made it possible to improve the nutritional status of the U.S. population. For example, vitamins and minerals are added to many foods including flour, cereal, margarine, and milk. This helps to make up for vitamins or minerals that may be low or completely lacking in a person’s diet. All products that contain added nutrients must be labeled.

3. Maintain the wholesomeness of foods

Contamination from bacteria can allow food-borne illnesses to occur. Preservatives reduce the spoilage that air, fungi, bacteria, or yeast can cause. Preservatives such as antioxidants help baked goods preserve their flavor by preventing the fats and oils from becoming rancid. They also keep fresh fruits from turning brown when exposed to the air.

4. Control the acidity and alkalinity, and to provide leavening

Specific additives help change the acidity or alkalinity of foods to obtain a desired taste, color, or flavor. Leavening agents that release acids when they are heated react with baking soda to help biscuits, cakes, and other baked goods rise.

5. Provide color and enhance flavor

Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. There are many spices and natural and synthetic flavors that bring out the best in the flavor of food.

2. What are food additives and why are they necessary?

A food additive is defined as “any substance not normally consumed as a food in itself and not normally used as a characteristic ingredient of food whether or not it has nutritive value, the intentional addition of which to food for a technological purpose in the manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packaging, transport or storage of such food results, or may be reasonably expected to result, in it or its by-products becoming directly or indirectly a component of such foods” (Council Directive 89/107/EEC). Many food additives are naturally occurring and some are even essential nutrients; it is the technical purpose that leads to these being classified as food additives and given an E number.

Food additives play an important role in today’s complex food supply. Never before has the range and choice of foods been so wide either in supermarkets, specialist food shops or when eating out. Whilst a shrinking proportion of the population is engaged in primary food production, consumers are demanding more variety, choice and convenience alongside higher standards of safety and wholesomeness at affordable prices. Meeting these consumer expectations can only be achieved using modern food processing technologies which include the use of a variety of food additives proven effective and safe through long use and rigorous testing.

Additives carry out a variety of useful functions which we often take for granted. Foods are subjected to many environmental conditions, such as temperature changes, oxidation and exposure to microbes, which can change their original composition. Food additives play a key role in maintaining the food qualities and characteristics that consumers demand, keeping food safe, wholesome and appealing from farm to fork. Food additives are very carefully regulated and the general criteria for their use is that they perform a useful purpose, are safe and do not mislead the consumer.

3. How is the safety of food additives evaluated in Europe?

All food additives must have a demonstrated useful purpose and undergo a rigorous scientific safety evaluation before they can be approved for use. Until the creation of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the safety evaluation of additives in Europe was done by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF). At present, it is the EFSA Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC Panel), who is in charge of this task. At an international level there is a Joint Expert Committee, from the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the World Health Organisation (WHO), on Food Additives (JECFA).

Assessments are based on reviews of all available toxicological data in both humans and animal models. From the available data, the maximum level of additive that has no demonstrable toxic effect is determined. This is called the “no-observed-adverse-effect level” (NOAEL) and is used to determine the “Acceptable Daily Intake” (ADI) for each food additive. The ADI provides a large safety margin and is the amount of a food additive that can be consumed daily over a lifetime without any adverse effect on health.

The SCF before and now the European Food Safety Authority, encourage the lowest possible levels of an additive in a food. To ensure people do not exceed the ADI by consuming too much of, or too many products containing a particular additive, EU legislation requires that studies are done to look at the ranges of intakes across a population and to address any changes in consumption patterns. Occasional intakes over the ADI are unlikely to cause any harm because of the 100-fold safety margin. However, if the ADI might be exceeded by particular sectors of the population, the Commission would assess the need to review levels in foods or reduce the range of foods in which the additive is permitted.

The Codex Alimentarius Commission, a joint FAO/WHO activity which develops guidelines for food safety globally, is also drawing up new “General Standards for Food Additives” (GSFA), with the aim of establishing a harmonised, workable and indisputable international standard for world trade. Only those additives that have been evaluated by the JECFA are included.

Thanks to strict regulation and thorough testing, food additives can be considered safe components in our diet that are contributing to the rapid evolution of the food supply in Europe and throughout the world

4. How are food additives regulated in Europe?

A true single market for food products could not exist without harmonised rules for authorisation and conditions for the use of additives. In 1989, the European Community adopted a Framework Directive (89/107/EEC) which set out the criteria by which additives would be assessed and provided for the adoption of three specific technical directives: Directive 94/35/EC on sweeteners; Directive 94/36/EC on colours and Directive 95/2/EC on additives other than sweeteners and colours. These three directives establish the list of additives which could be used (to the exclusion of others), the foods in which they could be used and any maximum levels. The purity required for these additives is laid down in directives defining specific purity criteria.

5. What is an E-number?

An E-number signifies approval of an additive by the EU. To obtain an E-number, the additive must have been fully evaluated for safety by the SCF or the European Food Safety Authority. The E-number system also serves as a simple and convenient way to label permitted additives across the range of languages in the European Union. To see the list of permitted additives with an E-number.

6. Do food additives cause hyperactivity?

In the 1970s, some researchers suggested that changes in diet had coincided with a rise in the number of children with behaviour problems. The idea that food additives, and food colours in particular, could be linked to hyperactivity generated much interest and considerable controversy. Scientific studies have found no association between food additives, including food colours and behavioural problems or hyperactivity. The evidence in the current scientific literature gives no support for the use of elimination diets as a primary therapy for behavioural problems.

7. Can food additives cause allergies or food intolerance reactions?

There has been much public concern that additives cause adverse reactions although careful investigations show that this is often based on misconception rather than on identifiable adverse reactions. Food additives have only rarely been shown to cause true allergic (immunological) reactions. Among the food additives reported to cause adverse reactions are:


Reactions to tartrazine (E 102, a yellow food colour) and carmine (E 120 or red cochinille) have been reported occasionally in sensitive individuals. Symptoms include skin rashes nasal congestion and hives, although the incidence is very low (estimated to be 1-2 persons per 10,000) and very rare. IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been reported for carmine. Tartrazine has also been reported to cause asthma in sensitive individuals although the incidence is extremely low.


One group of additives that can cause problems in sensitive individuals is the sulfiting agents. This group includes several inorganic sulphite additives (E 220-228), including sodium sulphite, potassium bisulphite and metabisulphite containing sulphur dioxide (SO2). These preservatives are used to control microbial growth in fermented beverages and they have been widely used in wines, beers and fruit products for over 2000 years. In sensitive (asthmatic) individuals, sulphites may trigger asthma characterised by breathing difficulties, shortness of breath, wheezing and coughing.

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame

MSG is made up of sodium and glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is an amino acid found naturally in high protein foods such as meats and dairy products like Camembert cheese. MSG is also a flavour enhancer used in prepared meals, some Chinese food, certain sauces and soups. MSG has been “blamed” for a variety of side effects including headaches and body tingling, however scientific studies show no link between MSG and these reactions suggesting that some other component of the meal, or even psychological responses, may be responsible for any adverse effects.

Similarly, the high-intensity sweetener aspartame (another substance made from naturally occurring amino acids, aspartic acid and phenylalanine) has been blamed for a wide variety of adverse effects, none of which have been validated by scientific studies.

While food additives pose no problems for most people, a small number of people with specific allergies may be sensitive to certain food additives. It appears that where food additives have an adverse effect, they exacerbate a pre-existing condition rather than induce it. These adverse reactions, which are rarely allergic, and the foods or food components responsible, should be validated by a health professional or dietician to ensure that unnecessary dietary restrictions are not imposed. As all food additives are clearly labelled, those with specific sensitivities and those who believe they have sensitivity to a food additive, can readily avoid any that may pose problems.

8. What food additives are used in Europe?

Food additives that are commonly added to foods in Europe include:

8.1. Additives that maintain freshness and prevent deterioration

Some food additives help to keep foods fresh and safe. They help increase shelf-life by protecting foods against deterioration caused by oxidation or by micro-organisms. They can be divided into two categories based on their principal function.

8.1.1. Antioxidants

Antioxidants prevent the oxidation of foods that results rancidity or discoloration. They are used in baked foods, cereals, fats, oils and salad dressings. The major fat soluble antioxidants are:

  • Tocopherols (E 306-309), BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole or E 320) and BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene or E 321) – these protect edible fats, vegetable oils and salad dressings from turning rancid.

  • Ascorbic acid (E 300) and citric acid (E 330) – which preserve the colour of freshly cut fruits and vegetables.

8.1.2. Preservatives

Preservatives limit, retard or arrest the growth of micro-organisms (e.g. bacteria, yeast, mould) that are present in or gain entry to the food, preventing spoilage or food poisoning. They are used in baked foods, wine, cheese, cured meats, fruit juices and margarine among others. Examples include:

  • Sulphur dioxide and sulphites (E 220-228) – these help to prevent colour changes in dried fruits and vegetables. Sulphites also inhibit the growth of bacteria in wine and fermented foods, some snack foods and baked goods. Sulphites also have antioxidant properties.

  • Calcium propionate (E 282) – prevents bread and baked foods from turning mouldy.

  • Nitrates and nitrites (sodium and potassium salts) (E 249-252) – are used as a preservative in processed meats such as ham and frankfurters to keep the products safe by preventing the growth of botulinum bacteria, Clostridium botulinum, which is highly pathogenic.

8.2. Additives that amplify or promote sensory qualities

Additives are also useful for imparting certain characteristics to foods, improving texture or helping in food processing.

8.2.1. Taste and texture modifiers

Examples are:

  • Emulsifiers and stabilisers – The purpose of these food additives is to maintain      consistent texture and to prevent the separation of ingredients in such products as margarine, low-fat spreads, ice cream, salad dressings and mayonnaise. Many reduced-fat and low-fat versions of common foods are dependent on this technology. Any recipe that requires the mixing of ingredients that normally do not mix, such as fat and water, need emulsifiers and stabilisers to impart and maintain the desired consistency. Examples include lecithin, mono- and digycerides.

  • Thickeners – these substances help increase the viscosity of foodstuffs. They are added to foods such as salad dressings and flavoured milk. Gelatin or pectin are often used as thickening agents.

  • Sweeteners – Both “bulk” and “intense” sweeteners impart a sweet taste to foodstuffs and are useful in low-calorie products and for special dietary products, such as those for diabetics. Intense sweeteners, such as acesulfam K (E 950), aspartame (E 951) and saccharin (E 954) are 130-200 times, 200 times and 300-500 times sweeter, respectively, than sugar-and they have zero calories. Thaumatin (E 957), a naturally sweet protein extracted from the fruit of the plant Thaumatococcus danielli, is 2500 times sweeter than sugar and is used at very low levels for its flavouring properties. Bulk sweeteners include sorbitol (E 420), isomalt (E 953) and maltitol (E 965) and these can be incorporated into “table-top” sweeteners and in energy-reduced foods, in which they provide volume and mouth feel. These substances have reduced caloric value, providing 2.4 kcal/gram compared with 4 kcal/gram for other carbohydrates.

  • Flavour enhancers – Probably the best known is monosodium glutamate (MSG; E 621), which is used to bring out and enhance the flavours in the foods to which it is added. It is used mainly in savoury products and in a wide variety of oriental dishes.

  • Others – this group includes acids, acidity regulators (used to control acidity and      alkalinity in various types of food products), anti-caking agents (used to keep powders flowing freely), anti-foaming agents (reduce foams, e.g. when jams are boiled), and packaging gases (used in certain types of sealed packages, such as for meat, fish, seafood and ready-prepared vegetables and salads found in chill cabinets).

8.2.2. Colours

Colour is one of the first and most important sensory qualities and it helps us to accept or reject particular foods. Whilst adding colour may appear to some to be purely cosmetic, there is no doubt that colour is important in consumer perception of a food and it is often associated with a specific flavour and intensity of flavour. Colours are used to add or restore colour in a food in order to enhance its visual appeal and to match consumer expectations. The processing of peas and the preparation of jams can lead to loss of colour, and hence food colours can compensate for these losses. Some colours are used purely for visual decoration on cakes and confectionery items. Masking or disguising inferior quality, however, are unacceptable uses of colours.

The primary reasons for adding colours to foods include:

  • To offset colour loss due to exposure to light, air, extremes of temperature, moisture and storage conditions

  • To compensate for natural or seasonal variations in food raw materials or the effects of processing and storage to meet consumer expectations (Masking or disguising inferior quality, however, are unacceptable uses of colours.).

  • To enhance colours that occur naturally but at levels weaker than those usually associated with a given food.

Gıda Katkı Maddeleri Ders Notu

Bursa Tarım Meslek Lisesi
Gıda Teknolojisi –3
Ders Notları
Gıda Katkı Maddeleri
Ders Öğretmeni
İlker GÜL
Ziraat Mühendisi
Tanımı :
Uygarlığa paralel olarak gelişen teknolojilerin getirdiği değişik üretim teknik leri ve tüketici beğenisinin giderek değişmesi, bilinçlenmesi ve dünyamızın daralan gıda kaynaklarının zorlamasıyla farklı üretim yöntemleri gelişmiş ve gıdaların çeşitli lik kazanmasına yol açmıştır. Böylece gıdalara istenilen niteliklerin verilebilmesi için bunların yapılarına bazı özel katkıların ilâvesi gerekli olmuştur. Bu özel maddeler gü nümüzde gıda endüstrisi ile uğraşan üreticiler tarafından amaçlı ve bilinçli olarak ya saların öngördüğü miktarlarda ve üretimin belirli aşamalarında kullanılmaktadır. Ay rıca, teknolojinin ve modernizasyonun getirdiği koşullara bağlı olarak gıdalara elde olmayan nedenlerle bulaşan ve sağlık açısından sakınca yaratan maddeler de bulun maktadır.
Buna göre, gıdalara çeşitli kaynaklardan bulaşan veya bilinçli olarak katılan, gıdanın doğal öğelerinden farklı yapılara sahip olan bu tür maddeler aşağıda gösterilen şekilde sınıflandırılabilir.

1. Yardımcı Yabancı Maddeler (Additives)
1. Gıda Katkı Maddeleri (Food Additives)
2. İngrediyenler (Ingredients)
1. Bulaşan Yabancı Maddeler
1. İlâç Kalıntıları (Pesticide Residues)
2. Metalik Bulaşanlar (Metalic Contaminants)
3. Temizlik ve Dezenfektan Madde Kalıntıları (Detergent and Disin-fectant esidues)
4. Sentetik Madde Kalıntıları (Synthetic Material Residues)
5. Radyoaktif Madde Kalıntıları (Radioactive Fallout)
6. Diğerleri
1. Hile amacı ile Katılan Yabancı Maddeler

Yardımcı Yabancı Maddeler (Additives) :
Gıda katkı maddesi adı verilen “Food Additives” sözcüğü için genellik le, “gıdalara katılan ve gıdaların içinde kalan, yani gıdalarla birlikte tüketilen mad delerdir. Bunlar hem doğal kaynaklı (vitaminler, mineral maddeler, doğal aroma mad deleri) hem de yapay olarak üretilen (konserve edici maddeler, tatlılaştırıcılar, emülgatörler, antioksidanlar vb.) maddelerdir” şeklinde tanımlama yapılmaktadır.
Gıda maddesine katılan herhangi bir maddeyi “Gıda Katkı Maddesi” olarak düşün memek gerekir.
METİN ve SALDAMLI (1976)’ya göre,
“Gıda katkı maddesi gıdanın yapısında doğal olarak bulunmayan üretim imalât depolama, paketleme gibi işlemler sırasında gıda maddesinin tat, koku, görünüm, yapı ve diğer niteliklerini düzeltmek, arzu edil meyen değişikliklere mani olmak ve biyolojik değerini düzeltmek veya kalitesini uzun süre muhafaza etmek amacıyla kullanılan madde veya maddeler karışımıdır.”
FURIA (1972)’ya göre,
“Gıdanın temelini oluşturan ana öğelerin dışındaki madde veya maddeler karışımı olup üretim, imalat, depolama ve paketleme gibi iş lemler görmüş son üründe bulunur. Gıda katkı maddeleri kavramı, tesadüfen oluşan metal bulaşmalarını hiçbir zaman içermez.”
Amerika Birleşik Devletleri Ulusal Araştırma Konseyi (U.S.A. National Research Counsil) Gıda Koru ma Komisyonu’nun yapmış olduğu tanıma göre gıda katkı maddesi,
“Gıdayı oluşturan temel öğelerin dışındaki mad de veya maddeler karışımı olup, gıda maddesinin üretimi, imalatı, depolanması ve paketlenmesi gibi işlemler sırasında konulan ve son üründe yer alan maddelerdir.”
LEBENSMITTEL – LEXIKON’da ise ; “Bu maddeler, gıdalara katılan ve gıda larda kalan yani gıdalarla birlikte tüketilen maddelerdir. Doğal kaynaklı olabildikleri gibi (vitaminler, mineral maddeler, doğal aroma maddeleri) yapay olarak da elde edilmiş (koruyucu maddeler, tatlılaştırıcılar, emülgatörler, kalınlaştırıcılar, antiok-sidanlar, yapay renk maddeleri vb.) olabilirler.”
Yapay olarak elde edilen gıda katkı maddeleri aynı zamanda yabancı madde olarak nitelendirilebilirler.
Uluslararası bir kuruluş olan FAO/VVHO Birleşik Kodeks Komitesi’nin tanımın da ise ‘Tek başına besin değeri taşımayan ancak gıda maddesine bilinçli olarak direkt veya indirekt katılan, onların görünüşlerini ve yapılarını düzeltmek için veya muhafaza olanağını artırmak için sınırlı miktarda katılan maddelerdir” denilmektedir. Buna göre besin değerini arttırıcı vitaminler ve mineral maddeler ile pestisidler, çevre kirliliğinden bulaşanlar ve teknolojik proseslerin artıkları gıda katkı maddesi kapsamına girmektedir.
Çekoslovakyalı bilim adamlarının yapmış oldukları tanımda ise “Gıda maddesinde yan üründe veya son üründe doğal olarak bulunmayan, gıdalara katıldığı şekliyle hiçbir zaman gıda olarak tüketilmeyen inorganik veya organik maddelerdir”
Gıda katkı maddeleri ile ilgili yasal tanımlamalarda daha kesin ifadeler kulla nılmıştır. 1958 Yılında, A.B.D. de Gıda, İlaç ve Kozmetik Yasası’na ilişkin olarak çıkarılan Gıda Katkıları Bildirisi’nde “Bir nedene bağlı olarak veya olmayarak, direkt veya indirekt yolla gıda maddesinin bileşimini veya niteliğini etkileyen (radyasyon işlemi dahil) paketleme, işleme, ambalajlama, dağıtım ve depolama sırasında katılan maddelere gıda katkı maddesi denilir” şeklinde bir tanım yapılmıştır.
1974 Yılında yürürlüğe giren Alman Gıda Kanunu’nün 2. Maddesinde, gıda katkı maddeleri şöyle bir tanım içine sığdırılmıştır. “Gıda maddelerinin özeliklerini etkilemeyen veya ürünlerde belirli nitelikler veya etkiler sağlamak üzere ilave edilen maddeler gıda katkı maddeleridir. Doğal kökenli veya eşdeğer nitelikteki besleyici öğeler, koku – tat maddeleri ile keyif verici maddeler, içme suları ve maden suları (yapay ve doğal) bu kapsam içinde yer almazlar.”
Bütün bu tanımlardan da anlaşılacağı gibi gıda maddesinin yapısına giren her türlü maddeye gıda katkı maddesi demek yanlış olacaktır.

Gıda Katkı Maddelerinin Sınıflandırılması :

Yapılmış olan sınıflandırmalarda gıda katkı maddeleri bazen ait oldukları madde grubuna göre, bazen kullanılış amacına göre, bazen de üretiminde kullanıldığı gıda maddesine göre gruplandırılmaktadır
Oser’e göre gıda katkı maddeleri,
1. Besleyici
2. Tazeliği koruyucu
3. Duyusal nitelikli
4. İmalat tekno gereğini yerine getirici maddeler şeklinde sınıflandırılmaktadır.

Bir başka sınıflandırmada ise gıda katkı maddeleri,
1. Gıdaların görünümünü düzeltici maddeler
1. Renk maddeleri
2. 1.2. Ağartıcı ve renk düzeltici maddeler
1. Yapı düzeltici maddeler
1. Kalınlaştırıcılar
2.2. Emülgatörler ve stabilizörler
2.3. Yapıyı koruyucu ve düzelticiler
1. Aroma maddeleri
2. Tatlılaştırıcı maddeler
3. Biyolojik değeri arttırıcı maddeler
1. Vitaminler
5.2. Mineraller
5.3. İz elementler
1. Gıdaların depolama sürelerini arttırıcı maddeler
1. Koruyucu maddeler (prezervatifler)
6.2. AntioksidanUr ve sinerjistler
şeklinde sınıflandırılmaktadır.

Bir diğerinde ise gıda katkı maddeleri aşağıdaki gruplar içinde incelenmektedir.
1. Renk maddeleri
1. Renk verenler
1.2. Renk koruyanlar
1.3. Renk kuvvetlendiriciler
1. Aroma maddeleri
1. Tat vericiler
2. Tuz tadı verenler
3. Baharat ve çeşni vericiler
1. Asitler ve bazlar
2. Koku verenler
3. Aramayı geliştiriciler
1. Koruyucu maddeler
1. Antimikrobiyaller
2. Antioksidanlar
3. Tütsü maddeleri
4. Kaplama maddeleri
1. Gıdanın yapı ve görünüşünü etkileyen maddeler
1. Stabilizörler
2. Emülgatörler
3. Tamponlar
4. Yüzey aktif maddeler
5. Topaklaşmayı önleyici maddeler
6. Olgunlaştırıcı tuzlar
7. Kalınlaştırıcı maddeler
8. Köpük yapıcı ve köpük tutucular
9. Tutucu ve birleştirici maddeler
10. Yumuşatıcı ve plastik yapı kazandırıcılar
11. Kristalleşmeyi önleyici maddeler
12. Rutubetilendiriciler
13. Berraklaştırma ve durultma maddeleri
1. Biyolojik değeri arttırıcı maddeler
1. Vitaminler
2. Mineral maddeler
3. Amino asitler

Bu sınıflandırmalara daha pek çokları eklenebilir, ancak gıda katkı maddelerine ilişkin sınıflandırmalar gelişen bilim ve teknoloji doğrultusunda değişmekte ve sayıla rı artmaktadır. Bu nedenle sınıflandırmalara değişken gözüyle bakarak konuları bu görüşlerle yorumlamakta yarar vardır.

İngrediyenler :

DUDEN’e göre, “bir şeyin bileşimine giren mad de” olarak belirtilmekte,
REDHOUSE DICTlONARY’de “Bir karışımdaki madde lerden herbiri”
VVEBSTER’de ise “Element, bir karışı mın yapısına giren madde veya maddeler topluluğu,bir bileşiğin parçası” denilmek tedir.
Gıda endüstrisi içindeki konumunu belirleyen bir başka tanıma göre İngredi yenler, “Üretimde hammaddeden sonra ağırlıklı bir önemi olan ve işleme tekniği gereği gıdalara katılan, üretimin özeliğine göre farklı amaçlarla kullanılması zorunlu olan maddelerdir.”
İngrediyenler çeşitlerine göre gıdaları, kazanmaları gereken niteliğe kavuştur maktadırlar. Bu bileşikler her gıda için aynı işlevi yürütemiyebilirler yada bir gıdada ingrediyen konumunda olan bir bileşik bir başka gıdada gıda katkı maddesi olarak kullanılabilmektedir.

İngrediyenler kullanılma şekillerine göre üç grupta sınıflandırılabilirler.
1. Zorunlu İngrediyenler
2. İsteğe bağlı İngrediyenler
3. Zenginleştirici İngrediyenler
İngredivenleri bileşimlerine göre bir sınıflandırmaya tabi tutmak doğru olma yıp, bu grubu gıda bazında incelemekte yarar vardır. Bu nedenle, gıda katkı maddesi ve ingrediyenleri bir gıda örneği üzerinde incelemek konuya açıklık getirecektir. Ör neğin, peynir imalatında kullanılan süt bir hammaddedir. Buna karşın rennet, laktik asit bakterilerinden oluşan uygun starter ve tuz gibi maddeler ise ingrediyen görevi üslenmektedirler. Sayılan bu İngrediyenler kullanılmaksızın peynir üretimi gerçekleştirilemez. Buna karşın yine peynir üretiminde kullanılan kalsiyum klorür, renk maddeleri aroma maddeleri ve antimikrobiyal maddeler ise teknolojide gıda katkı maddesi konumundadırlar. Çünkü bu maddeler üretimde iyi kalitede bir pıhtı teşekkülünü, bir renk ve aroma kazanılmasını sağlamaktadırlar. Bunlar olmaksızın da peynir yapmak mümkündür. Şekerli yoğurtta ingrediyen konumunda olar şeker, aromalı yoğurtta bir gıda katkı maddesi durumuna girmektedir. Bu konuda benzeri pek fak örnekler verilebilir
Bu bölümde gıda endüstrisinde çok yaygın kullanımını gördüğümüz gıda katkı maddelerinden bazı örnekler üzerinde durulacak, bu maddelerin fiziksel, kimyasal vce teknolojik özelikleri ile kullanıldıkları yerler ve kullanılış şekillerine ilişkin bilgilere yer verilecektir.

1. RENK MADDELERİ (Color additives, coloring agents) :
Katkı maddelerinin bir grubunu oluşturan renk maddeleri günümüzde ,ayrı ve özel bir önem taşımaktadır.
Teknolojik işlem görmüş et, sebze, meyve, fırıncılık ve sütçülük ürünlerinin renkleri çoğu kez işlem görmeden önceki renklerine benzetilmeye çalışılmaktadır. Modern gıda endüstrisi açısından renk maddeleri günümüzde vazgeçilmez bileşikler haline gelmiştir. Bu nedenle boyalar ve pigmentler yeni gıdaların üretilmesinde, ima lat sırasında veya sonunda yada depolamada meydana gelebilecek renk değişmelerini düzelmek amacıyla çok sık kullanılmaktadır.
Bu dönemde söz konusu katkı maddelerinin bileşimleri bilinmekte ve insanlar tarafından tüketilmeleri halinde fizyolojik yan etki lere neden olmadıkları ortaya konulmuş bulunmaktadır.
Bunlar sırasıyla,
Light green
Orange 1
Naphtol yellovv
Ponceau 3R gibi maddelerdir.
Daha sonraki dönemlerde yasanın kapsamında çeşitli ve gerekli değişmeler yapılmış ve eldeki listelere yeni renk maddeleri ilave edilmiştir. Bu arada konuyla ilgili fizyolojik ve farmakolojik çalışmalar yoğunlaştırılmış sonuç olarak da sertifika sistemi ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Kronolojik sıralamaya göre yeni renk maddelerinin ser tifikalı listeye alınışları ile ilgili uygulamalardan bazı örnekler aşağıda gösterilmiştir.
Sertifikalı ve sertifikasız renk maddeleri adı altında iki ana grupta toplanan renk katkılarının yasal tanımı ve sınıflandırması yapılmıştır. Ayrıca, sertifikalı renk maddelerinin gıdalarda kullanılma miktarlarına göre zararlı ve zararsız olduğu limitler saptanarak gıda endüstrisinde kullanılan renk katkılarına ikinci bir kısıtlama getirilmiştir. Bu çalışmaların sonunda tüketiciler için kullanılmasında sakınca görülmeyen renk katkıları bir liste haline getirilmiştir. Bu konuda yapılan bütün çalışmalarda hareket noktası, renk katkılarının “sıfır toksisite etkisinde“ olmaları, yani ne miktarda kullanılırsa kullanılsın hiçbir şekilde toksik etki yaratmayacak nitelikte olmaları dır.
Böylece, 12 Haziran 1960’da yasa haline getirilen renk katkıları listesi, iki bölüm den oluşmuştur. Birinci bölüm, her türlü araştırması tamamlanmış, sakıncası görül memiş ve kullanımına izin verilmiş renk katkılarını içermektedir. İkinci bölümde ise geçici bir liste yer almakta, bu geçici listeye girmiş olan renk katkılarının kullanımı ile ilgili çalışmalar sürdürülmektedir. Ancak şurası bilinmelidir ki herhangi bir renk katkısı, kesin listede yer almasına rağmen bununla ilgili bir sorun ortaya çıktığında derhal ikinci listeye alınarak yeniden araştırmaya kaynak olabilmektedir. Renk kat kıları ait oldukları madde grubu içinde sınıflandırıldığı zaman aşağıda görüldüğü şe kilde gruplara ayrılmaktadır.

1. Sertifikalı renk maddeleri (Certified Color Additives)
1. Boyalar (Dyes)
2. Lake boyalar (Laf es)
2. Sertifikasız renk maddeleri (Uncertified Color Additives)

Sertifikalı renk maddeleri (Certified Color Additives) :
Sertifikalı renk katkılarının hepsi yapay kaynaklı boyalardır. 1959 Yılından önce bu grupta yalnızca boyalar yer alırken, daha sonra boyaların lake türünde olan ları da bu gruba dahil edilmiştir. Lake boyalar diğer bir deyişle pigmentlerdir. Bilin diği gibi boyalar, renk verme güçlerini çözündükten sonra, lake boyalar ise çözünme yen pigmentler olarak dispersiyon yolu ile ortaya koymaktadırlar,
Örneğin FD &C lake boyası, yalnızca alüminyum hidroksitten oluşan ve boyayı adsorblamış biçim de tutan bir bileşiktir.
FD &: C boyaları suda çözünen ancak organik çözücülerde erimeyen bir karak tere sahiptirler. Renk maddelerinin bir alt sınıfını oluşturan boyaların suda çözünür lükleri çok yüksek olduğundan gıda endüstrisinde kullanımları çok kolaydır ve sorun çıkarmamaktadır. Bu grup içinde yalnızca FD & C Blue No. 2 (indigotine) ayrıca lıklı bir boyadır. Gıda endüstrisinde kullanılan FD & C boyalarının çözünürlüğü ile ilgili değerler Cetvel 1’de gösterilmiştir.

Cetvel l — FD & C boyalarının çeşitli çözücülerde gösterdikleri çözünürlük durum ları







derived from whale

Arachidonic acid#

derived from liver, brain, animal origin gland or oil


derived from aronia arbutifolia; used as a taste expander in jelly, pudding, powdered deserts, yoghurt, milk deserts, creams, homogenised cheeses, confectionery products, crispy cakes, fruit creams, ice-creams and instant beverages

Aspartic acid#

derived from aspartame (see E951)


derived from oil


colourless crystalline growth vitamin of the vitamin B complex found especially in yeast, liver, and egg yolk; no side effects are known, it is being tested


an alkaloid that exists naturally in tea, kola nut and coffee; clearly toxic in high doses, can cause heart palpitations, high blood pressure, vomiting, convulsions, headache, diarrhoea, frequent urination, dehydration, insomnia, stomach cramps, hand tremors, muscle twitches; acts as laxative, also saps the body’s supply of calcium; used as a mild stimulant in moderation


phosphoprotein of milk, which has a molecular structure that is extremely similar to that of gluten; celiac people have to avoid


derived from cattle liver



spice made from bark; may be allergic

Citrus Red No.2

cancer in animals; used for dying skins of oranges


derived from cat

Clove Bud Oil

natural essential oil steamed-distilled from clove buds (syzygium atmaticum); may be allergic

Colin bitartrate#

animal origin tissue




produced through a fermentation process that begins with dextrose (a simple sugar derived from corn starch), also derived from calf stomach; used as a sweetener for beverages and confectionery products

Ethyl Vanillin

a perfumed artificial vanilla flavouring, it is 3 1/2 times more powerful than the real thing and cheaper too, this explains why manufacturers like to use it in soft drinks, ice creams and baked goods; generally recognized as safe

Evans Blue CI Direct Blue 53

contact dermatitis

FD&C Green No.3 Fast Green

bladder tumours

FD&C Red No.102 New Coccine

it is an allergen; not permitted to use for foods

FD&C Yellow No.11

contact dermatitis


this carbohydrate and simple sugar (monosaccharide) occurs naturally in honey and fresh fruits; commercial bakers use it in cakes, breads and cookies to make them brown better

Gentian Violet CI Basic Violet No.3

contact dermatitis

Glucuronolactone, Glucuronic acid#

a naturally occurring substance in the body, made in the liver from glucose, helps to stimulate the metabolism and thus helps to detoxify the body; also occurs in plants, mainly in gums; also an important constituent of fibrous and connective tissues in all animals


components of fats; used to stabilize sausages, lard, vegetable oils, margarines and shortenings, the most widely used of them is monoglyceride citrate, although the FDA* imposes strict limits



wheat is the first consideration; it is a major ingredient in breads, rolls, pastry, cakes, cookies and most baked products; noodles macaroni and spaghetti are typically made with wheat; celiac people have to avoid


has been used for decades in compounded products as an expectorant


Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein (HVP)

cereal gluten; glutens are proteins found in the plant kingdom subclass of monocotyledonae (monocots); these plants are members of the grass family of wheat, oat, barley, rye and triticale and their derivatives, (derivatives include: malt, grain starches, hydrolysed vegetable/plant proteins, textured vegetable proteins, grain vinegars, soy sauce, grain alcohol, flavourings and the binders and fillers found in vitamins and medications.); celiac people have to avoid, celiac disease(also known as celiac sprue or gluten-sensitive enteropathy) is a chronic disease in which malabsorption of nutrients is caused by a characteristic lesion of the small intestine mucosa; used in smallgoods, packaged convenience foods, gravies and many canned products. It is also present in excipients in pharmaceutical preparations, particularly vitamin and mineral supplements

Hydrolyzed Plant Protein (HPP)

same as HVP


derived from nail or hair

Lipid, Lipoid#



same as erythritol

Maltodextrin, Mdltrin

natural, complex carbohydrate, it is not a simple sugar (dextrose, fructose, sucrose etc.); can be derived from potato or corn starch; used in food industry such as sweets, drink, bear, ice cream, preserved fruit, milk powder, malted mild, cake, biscuit and bread, as well as in medicine, textile, printing and dyeing, paper making, casting and petroleum drilling; generally recognized as safe


crystalline alcohol that occurs especially in mint oils, has the sharp fragrance and cooling properties of peppermint; may be allergic


derived from protein

Neutral Red

contact dermatitis

Nucleıc acid#

derived from cells

Oleamine, Oleic acid#


cheese yeast derived from calf stomach


Palmitic acid#



Phenylalanine, Phenylanine

essential amino acid; the body uses it to produce some hormones (epinephrine, norepinephrine, thyroxine, cholecystokinin) and melanin, (a brown skin pigment); cholecystokinin causes suppression of the appetite (this may be useful to sports people who need to reduce body fat or maintain a certain weight); pain relieving effects of phenylalanine may be of use to athletic people who experience pain due to muscle, ligament, joint and tendon injury, inflammation and spasms which commonly result from intense exercise


decongestant which helps relieve nasal congestion; used in pharmacy; side effects are nausea, stomach upset, loss of appetite, nervousness, restlessness, dizziness, headache, chest pain, rapid heart rate, anxiety, fear, difficult or painful urination and sleeplessness


cheese yeast


PolyVinylPolyPyrrolidone, PVPP

white powder added to beer for removing phenolic compounds, then beer is clear and has long shelf life



salt of salicylic acid; used in candies, pies, soft drinks and sweet rolls

Quinine dihydrochloride, Quinine sulfate

toxic alkaloid extracted from the bark of chinchona tree; used as flavourings in carbonated beverages (primarily bitter lemon and tonic water), bitters and as a treatment for malaria; side effects are headache, nausea, ringing in the ears and blurred vision; FDA strictly limits the amounts of it that can be used


nonessential amino acid; produced by synthesis of the amino acids methionine and cysteine in the liver, vitamin B6 helps the process; diabetic and hypoglycaemic patients should use taurine under medical supervision as it may have an effect on insulin activity, excessive consumption of taurine may result in diarrhoea and peptic ulcer formation


a source of vitamin B1; functions as a coenzyme in energy metabolism, keeps appetite, digestive tract and nervous system healthy; adverse effects in high doses are headache, irritability, rapid pulse, trembling and weakness


very effective preservative that contains mercury and has been used in some vaccines and other products; FDA* estimates that it is used in more than 30 licensed vaccines and biologics; mercury is excreted from the body over time; nervous system is very sensitive to all forms of mercury, methyl mercury and metal vapours are more harmful than other forms, exposure to high levels of metallic, inorganic or organic mercury can permanently damage the brain, kidneys and developing foetus, effects on brain functioning may result in irritability, shyness, tremors, changes in vision or hearing and memory problems


high-protein derived from wood sugars as a by-product of the pulping process in paper making; type S is used in baby food and cereals, type F is used in feed supplements for cattle, fish and chickens; allergen for hay fever and asthma


essential element for humans; naturally occurs in meat (especially liver), fish (especially shellfish), lentils, green leafy vegetables, whole cereals (including wheat germ), brewer’s yeast, cheese, milk, nuts, sunflower and sesame seeds; toxic doses of zinc cause vomiting, diarrhoea, restlessness, stomach irritation, depressed immune function and anaemia; excessive zinc doses may decrease the level of HDL (“good”) cholesterol and increase the risk for heart disease

E300 – E385




treating agent, ‘vitamin C’; may be made synthetically from glucose,
naturally occurs in fruit and vegetables; added to products as diverse as
cured meat, breakfast cereals, frozen fish and wine
salt of vitamin C
C, may increase the formation of calcium oxalate stones
salt of vitamin C
palmitate, Ascorbyl stearate
acid esters of ascorbic acid, same function as E300
E306, E307,

E308, E309

E’; found in many vegetable oils, including soy, wheat germ, rice germ,
cottonseed, maize; works as an antioxidant for fatty acids and tissue fats,
preventing vitamin A from oxidation; used in margarine and salad dressings
used to
prevent rancidity in oily substances; derived from nutgalls; may cause
gastric or skin irritation, gallates are not permitted in foods for infants
and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood
disorder, methaemoglobinemia; used in oils, margarine, lard and salad
dressings, sometimes used in packaging
see 310
see 310
from sucrose
from E317
based; the HACSG* recommends to
avoid it. May
cause nausea, vomiting, delirium. A dose of 5g is considered fatal. Typical
products are fats, oils, margarine
hydroxy-anisole (BHA)
derivative, retards spoilage due to oxidation; used in edible oils, chewing
gum, fats, margarine, nuts, instant potato products, polyethylene food wraps;
not permitted in infant foods, can provoke an allergic reaction in some
people, may trigger hyperactivity and other intolerances; serious concerns
over carcinogenicity and estrogenic effects, in large doses caused tumours in
lab animals,
banned in Japan in 1958, official committees of experts
recommended that it be banned in the UK, however due to industry pressure it
was not banned, McDonald’s eliminated BHT from their US products by 1986, see
also Butyl compounds
hydroxy-toluene (BHT)
derivative; see E320
derived from soy beans, egg yolks, peanuts, corn or animal resources; non
toxic but overdose can upset the stomach, kill the appetite and cause profuse
sweating; used to allow combination of oils in margarine, chocolate,
mayonnaise, milk powder; must be chosen vegetable type
from milk (lactic acid); may contain pork rennin or whey in process,
young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions
see 325
see 325
see 325
see 325
acid, naturally derived from citrus fruit, used in biscuits, canned fish,
cheese and processed cheese products, infant formulas, cake and soup mixes,
rye bread, soft drinks, fermented meat products
acid; no known adverse effects
acid; no known adverse effects
acid; no known adverse effects in small quantities
acid, obtained from unripe fruit, grape juice;
no known adverse effects in small quantities
acid; no known adverse effects
acid; no known adverse effects
potassium tartrate
acid; no known adverse effects
acid, derived from phosphate ore; used in cheese products;
no known adverse effects
salt, used as a laxative and a fixing agent in textile dyeing; high intakes
may upset the calcium/phosphorus equilibrium
see 339
salt found in rocks and bones; used in medicines as an antacid and polishing
agent in enamels
mineral, anticaking agent found in salt substitutes
known adverse effects
known adverse effects
known adverse effects
known adverse effects
acid from the root adipose (pertaining to fat?)
known adverse effects
avoid it,
banned in some countries
acid, salt of fumaric acid (derived from plants of the genus Fumaria
esp. F.officianalis)
known adverse effects
known adverse effects
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E375Niacin vitamin
B3; naturally occurs in bean, pea and other legumes, milk, egg, meat,
poultry, and fish; at doses in excess of 1,000 mg per day can cause liver
damage, diabetes, gastritis, eye damage, and elevated blood levels of uric
acid (which can cause gout); at amounts as low as 50-100 mg may cause
flushing (harmless but painful), headache, and stomach-ache especially if
taken on an empty stomach
interfere with liver and pancreas function
ferric citrates
mineral, food acid derived from citric acid; used as a dietary iron
supplement in breakfast cereals and dietary formulas
disodium EDTA
avoid it,
banned in some countries


E100 – E181



colour; derived from the root of the curcuma (turmeric) plant, but can be artificially
produced; used in cheese, margarine, baked sweets and fish fingers
B2’ and colour; occurs naturally in greenveges, eggs, milk, liver and kidney;
used in margarine and cheese
Yellow No.5; known to provoke asthma attacks (though the US FDA** do not
recognise this) and urticaria (nettle rash) in children (the US FDA**
estimates 1:10 000); also linked to thyroid tumours, chromosomal damage,
urticaria (hives) and hyperactivity; tartrazine sensitivity is also linked to
aspirin sensitivity; used to colour drinks, sweets, jams, cereals, snack
foods, canned fish, packaged soups;
banned in Norway and Austria
Yellow No.10; used in lipsticks hair products, colognes; also in a wide range
of medications; cause dermatitis;
banned in USA and Norway
colour; the HACSG* recommends to
avoid it;
people who suffer Asthma may also show an allergic reaction to it; typical
products are soft drinks;
banned in Australia and USA
Yellow FCF, Orange Yellow S
Yellow No.6; used in cereals, bakery, sweets, snack foods, ice cream, drinks
and canned fish; synthetic; also in many medications including Polaramine,
Ventolin syrup; side effects are urticaria (hives), rhinitis (runny nose),
nasal congestion, allergies, hyperactivity, kidney tumours, chromosomal
damage, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, indigestion, distaste for food;
seen increased incidence of tumours in animals;
banned in
Carminic acid, Carmines
colour; made from insects; rarely used; the HASCG* recommends to
avoid it
colour; coal tar derivative; can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and
people allergic to aspirin; typical products are confectionary, marzipan,
jelly crystals;
banned in Sweden, USA, Austria and Norway  
Red No.2; derived from the small herbaceous plant of the same name; used in
cake mixes, fruit-flavoured fillings, jelly crystals; can provoke asthma,
eczema and hyperactivity; it caused birth defects and foetal deaths in some
animal tests, possibly also
cancer; banned in
the USA, Russia, Austria and Norway and other countries
4R, Cochineal Red A
Red No.4; synthetic coal tar and azo dye, carcinogen in animals, can produce
bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin;
banned in
USA & Norway
Red No.3; red colour used in cherries, canned fruit, custard mix, sweets,
bakery, snack foods; can cause sensitivity to light; can increase thyroid
hormone levels and lead to hyperthyroidism, was shown to cause thyroid cancer
in rats in a study in 1990;
banned in January 1990, but
not recalled by the US FDA**;
banned in Norway
E128Red 2G Banned in
Australia and many other places
except UK
red AC
Red No.40; Orange-red colour used in sweets, drinks and condiments,
medications and cosmetics, synthetic; introduced in the early eighties to
replace amaranth which was considered not safe due to conflicting test
results; allura red has also been connected with
cancer in
banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden,
Austria and Norway
blue V
Banned in
Australia, USA and Norway
Indigo carmine
Blue No.2, commonly added to tablets and capsules; also used in ice cream,
sweets, baked goods, confectionary, biscuits, synthetic coal tar derivative;
may cause nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure, skin rashes, breathing
problems and other allergic reactions.
Banned in Norway
blue FCF
Blue Dye No.1; used in dairy products, sweets and drinks, synthetic usually
occurring as aluminium lake (solution) or ammonium salt;
banned in
Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, Norway
colour occurs naturally in all plants; used for dyeing waxes and oils, used
in medicines and cosmetics
complexes of chloropyll and chlorophyllins
colour, no adverse effects are known
E142Green S
colour; synthetic coal tar derivative; used in canned peas, mint jelly and
sauce, packet bread crumbs and cake mixes;
banned inSweden, USA and
brown colour made from sucrose; the HACSG* recommends to
avoid it. used
in oyster, soy, fruit and canned sauces, beer, whiskey, biscuits, pickles
sulphite caramel
ammonia caramel
Black BN, Black PN
coal tar derivative; used in brown sauces, blackcurrant cake mixes;
banned in
Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, USA, Norway
colour, charcoal pigment; used in jams, jelly crystals, liquorice; only the
vegetable derived variety permitted in Australia,
banned in
the United States
banned in
HT (Chocolate)
colour, coal tar and azo dye; used in chocolate cake mixes; can produce bad
reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; also known to induce
skin sensitivity;
banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden,
Austria, USA, Norway
alpha-, beta-, gamma-
colour; human body converts it to ‘Vitamin A’ in the liver, found in carrots
and other yellow or orange fruits and vegetables
(Arnatto, Annato), bixin, norbixin
colour; derived from a tree (Bixa orellana); used as a body paint, fabric
dye, digestive aid and expectorant; used to dye cheese, butter, margarine,
cereals, snack foods, soaps, textiles and varnishes; known to cause urticaria
(nettle rash), the HACSG* recommends to
avoid it
extract, capsanthin, capsorubin
avoid it,
banned in some countries
coloured carotenoid found in tomatoes and pink grapefruit, can cause
decreasing risk of cancer
(C 30)
colour, no adverse effects are known
ester of beta-apo-8′-carotenic acid (C 30)
colour, no adverse effects are known
– Lutein
colour derived from plants, naturally found in green leaves, marigolds and egg
– Canthaxanthin
colour possibly derived from animal sources (retinol); the pigment is found
in some mushrooms, crustacea, fish, flamingo feathers
Red, Betanin
colour derived from beets; no adverse effects are known
colour matter of flowers and plants; seems safe
salt, used in toothpastes, white paint and cleaning powders; may be derived
from rock mineral or animal bones; sometimes used to deacidify wines and firm
canned fruit and veg.; toxic at ‘high doses’
colour used in toothpaste and white paint, pollutes waterways; no adverse
effects are known
oxides and hydroxides
yellow, red colour used in salmon and shrimp pastes; toxic at ‘high doses’
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E174Silver avoid it,
banned in some countries
E175Gold avoid it,
banned in some countries
avoid it,
banned in some countries
acid, tannins
agent in alcohol; derived from the nutgalls and twigs of oak trees; occurs
naturally in tea