Etiket Arşivleri: Annatto

Chemistry of Food Colors ( Kiran NAZ )

Chemistry of food colors

• Food color:-

‘’Food color is any substance that is added to food or drink to change its color.’’

Food coloring is used both in commercial food production and in domestic cooking. Due to its safety and general availability, food coloring is also used in a variety of non-food applications, for example in home craft projects and educational settings etc

• Purpose of food coloring:-

People associate certain colors with certain flavors, and the color of food can influence the perceived flavor in anything from candy to wine. For this reason, food manufacturers add dyes to their products. Sometimes the aim is to simulate a color that is perceived by the consumer as natural, such as adding red coloring to glace cherries (which would otherwise be beige), but sometimes it is for effect, like the green ketchup that Heinz launched in 2000. While most consumers are aware that food with bright or unnatural colors (such as the green ketchup, or children’s cereals such as Froot Loops) likely contain food coloring, far fewer people know that seemingly “natural” foods such as oranges and salmon are sometimes also dyed to mask natural variations in color. Color variation in foods throughout the seasons and the effects of processing and storage often make color addition commercially advantageous to
maintain the color expected or preferred by the consumer. Some of the primary reasons include

 Offsetting color loss due to light, air, extremes of temperature, moisture, and storage conditions.

 Masking natural variations in color.

 Enhancing naturally occurring colors.

 Providing identity to foods.

 Protecting flavors and vitamins from damage by light.

 Decorative or artistic purposes such as cake icing.

• Regulation:-

Food colorings are tested for safety by various bodies around the world and sometimes different bodies have different views on food color safety. In the United States, FD&C numbers (which generally indicates that the FDA has approved the colorant for use in foods, drugs and cosmetics) are given to approved synthetic food dyes that do not exist in nature, while in the European Union, E numbers are used for all additives, both synthetic and natural, that are approved in food applications. Most other countries have their own regulations and list of food colors which can be used in various applications, including maximum daily intake limits. Natural colors are not required to be tested by a number of regulatory bodies throughout the world, including the United States FDA. The FDA lists “color additives exempt from certification” for food in subpart A of the Code of Federal Regulations – Title 21 Part 73. However, this list contains substances which may have synthetic origins There are 26 colors permitted to be used in food and 28 to be used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

There are major three categories of food colors;

1) Natural colors

2) Synthetic colors

3) Lakes and dyes

• Natural Food Color:-

Natural Food Color is any dye, pigment or any other substance obtained from vegetable, animal, mineral, or source capable of coloring food drug, cosmetic or any part of human body, colors come from variety of sources such as seeds, fruits, vegetables, algae & insect.

A growing number of natural food dyes are being commercially produced, partly due to consumer concerns surrounding synthetic dyes. Some examples include:

 Caramel coloring (E150), made from caramelized sugar, used in cola products and also in cosmetics.

 Annatto (E160b), a reddish-orange dye made from the seed of the Achiote.

 A green dye made from chlorella algae (chlorophyll, E140)

 Cochineal (E120), a red dye derived from the cochineal insect, Dactylopius coccus.

 Betanin extracted from beets.

 Turmeric (curcuminoids, E100)

 Saffron (carotenoids, E160a)

 Paprika (E160c)

 Elderberry juice

To ensure reproducibility, the colored components of these substances are often provided in highly purified form, and for increased stability and convenience, they can be formulated in suitable carrier materials (solid and liquids) According to the application a suitable Natural Color can be achieved by keeping in mind the factors such as PH. heat, light storage and the other ingredients of the formula or recipe. The storage conditions for natural colors depend on the particular need of the product.
A tight sealed container is best to store he product in a cool storage to preserve color strength and quality, along with its degree of cooling point. Here is a list of few natural food colors:-


E100 – E181



E100# Cur
colour; derived from the root of the curcuma (turmeric) plant, but can be artificially
produced; used in cheese, margarine, baked sweets and fish fingers
E101# Riboflavin,
B2’ and colour; occurs naturally in greenveges, eggs, milk, liver and kidney;
used in margarine and cheese
E102 Tartrazine
Yellow No.5; known to provoke asthma attacks (though the US FDA** do not
recognise this) and urticaria (nettle rash) in children (the US FDA**
estimates 1:10 000); also linked to thyroid tumours, chromosomal damage,
urticaria (hives) and hyperactivity; tartrazine sensitivity is also linked to
aspirin sensitivity; used to colour drinks, sweets, jams, cereals, snack
foods, canned fish, packaged soups;
banned in Norway and Austria
E104 Quinoline
Yellow No.10; used in lipsticks hair products, colognes; also in a wide range
of medications; cause dermatitis;
banned in USA and Norway
E107 Yellow
colour; the HACSG* recommends to
avoid it;
people who suffer Asthma may also show an allergic reaction to it; typical
products are soft drinks;
banned in Australia and USA
E110# Sunset
Yellow FCF, Orange Yellow S
Yellow No.6; used in cereals, bakery, sweets, snack foods, ice cream, drinks
and canned fish; synthetic; also in many medications including Polaramine,
Ventolin syrup; side effects are urticaria (hives), rhinitis (runny nose),
nasal congestion, allergies, hyperactivity, kidney tumours, chromosomal
damage, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, indigestion, distaste for food;
seen increased incidence of tumours in animals;
banned in
E120# Cochineal,
Carminic acid, Carmines
colour; made from insects; rarely used; the HASCG* recommends to
avoid it
E122 Azorubine,
colour; coal tar derivative; can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and
people allergic to aspirin; typical products are confectionary, marzipan,
jelly crystals;
banned in Sweden, USA, Austria and Norway  
E123 Amaranth
Red No.2; derived from the small herbaceous plant of the same name; used in
cake mixes, fruit-flavoured fillings, jelly crystals; can provoke asthma,
eczema and hyperactivity; it caused birth defects and foetal deaths in some
animal tests, possibly also
cancer; banned in
the USA, Russia, Austria and Norway and other countries
E124 Ponceau
4R, Cochineal Red A
Red No.4; synthetic coal tar and azo dye, carcinogen in animals, can produce
bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin;
banned in
USA & Norway
E127 Erythrosine
Red No.3; red colour used in cherries, canned fruit, custard mix, sweets,
bakery, snack foods; can cause sensitivity to light; can increase thyroid
hormone levels and lead to hyperthyroidism, was shown to cause thyroid cancer
in rats in a study in 1990;
banned in January 1990, but
not recalled by the US FDA**;
banned in Norway
E128 Red 2G Banned in
Australia and many other places
except UK
E129 Allura
red AC
Red No.40; Orange-red colour used in sweets, drinks and condiments,
medications and cosmetics, synthetic; introduced in the early eighties to
replace amaranth which was considered not safe due to conflicting test
results; allura red has also been connected with
cancer in
banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden,
Austria and Norway
E131 Patent
blue V
Banned in
Australia, USA and Norway
E132# Indigotine,
Indigo carmine
Blue No.2, commonly added to tablets and capsules; also used in ice cream,
sweets, baked goods, confectionary, biscuits, synthetic coal tar derivative;
may cause nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure, skin rashes, breathing
problems and other allergic reactions.
Banned in Norway
E133 Brilliant
blue FCF
Blue Dye No.1; used in dairy products, sweets and drinks, synthetic usually
occurring as aluminium lake (solution) or ammonium salt;
banned in
Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, Norway
E140 Chlorophylis,
colour occurs naturally in all plants; used for dyeing waxes and oils, used
in medicines and cosmetics
E141 Copper
complexes of chloropyll and chlorophyllins
colour, no adverse effects are known
E142 Green S
colour; synthetic coal tar derivative; used in canned peas, mint jelly and
sauce, packet bread crumbs and cake mixes;
banned inSweden, USA and
E150(a) Plain
brown colour made from sucrose; the HACSG* recommends to
avoid it. used
in oyster, soy, fruit and canned sauces, beer, whiskey, biscuits, pickles
E150(b) Caustic
sulphite caramel
E150(c) Ammonia
E150(d) Sulphite
ammonia caramel
E151 Brilliant
Black BN, Black PN
coal tar derivative; used in brown sauces, blackcurrant cake mixes;
banned in
Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, USA, Norway
E153# Vegetable
colour, charcoal pigment; used in jams, jelly crystals, liquorice; only the
vegetable derived variety permitted in Australia,
banned in
the United States
E154 Brown
banned in
E155 Brown
HT (Chocolate)
colour, coal tar and azo dye; used in chocolate cake mixes; can produce bad
reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; also known to induce
skin sensitivity;
banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden,
Austria, USA, Norway
E160(a)# Carotene,
alpha-, beta-, gamma-
colour; human body converts it to ‘Vitamin A’ in the liver, found in carrots
and other yellow or orange fruits and vegetables
E160(b)# Annatto
(Arnatto, Annato), bixin, norbixin
colour; derived from a tree (Bixa orellana); used as a body paint, fabric
dye, digestive aid and expectorant; used to dye cheese, butter, margarine,
cereals, snack foods, soaps, textiles and varnishes; known to cause urticaria
(nettle rash), the HACSG* recommends to
avoid it
E160(c)# Paprika
extract, capsanthin, capsorubin
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E160(d)# Lycopene
coloured carotenoid found in tomatoes and pink grapefruit, can cause
decreasing risk of cancer
E160(e)# Beta-apo-8′-carotenal
(C 30)
colour, no adverse effects are known
E160(f)# Ethyl
ester of beta-apo-8′-carotenic acid (C 30)
colour, no adverse effects are known
E161(b) Xanthophylls
– Lutein
colour derived from plants, naturally found in green leaves, marigolds and egg
E161(g)# Xanthophylls
– Canthaxanthin
colour possibly derived from animal sources (retinol); the pigment is found
in some mushrooms, crustacea, fish, flamingo feathers
E162 Beetroot
Red, Betanin
colour derived from beets; no adverse effects are known
E163 Anthocyanins
colour matter of flowers and plants; seems safe
E170# Calcium
salt, used in toothpastes, white paint and cleaning powders; may be derived
from rock mineral or animal bones; sometimes used to deacidify wines and firm
canned fruit and veg.; toxic at ‘high doses’
E171 Titanium
colour used in toothpaste and white paint, pollutes waterways; no adverse
effects are known
E172 Iron
oxides and hydroxides
yellow, red colour used in salmon and shrimp pastes; toxic at ‘high doses’
E173 Aluminium
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E174 Silver avoid it,
banned in some countries
E175 Gold avoid it,
banned in some countries
E180 Latolrubine
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E181 Tannic
acid, tannins
agent in alcohol; derived from the nutgalls and twigs of oak trees; occurs
naturally in tea