Preparation of Tomato Juice, Puree and Paste
Tomato juice is a healthy beverage
It characterizes not only by its taste, colour and aroma but also by its vitamin content close to those of fresh tomatoes
Tomato puree and paste are concentrated form of tomato juice and is most popular product
They may be in natural form without any additives or may be with added sugar, salt and preservative
Used as base for making juice, soup, sauce and ketchup
A good quality juice contain about 0.4 % acid (citric acid), 0.5 % salt and 1.0 % sugar
Tomato puree is of two types:
Medium tomato puree contains not less than 9.0 % of salt free tomato solids, while
Heavy tomato puree contains not less than 12.0 % solids
Tomato paste contains not less than 25.0 % tomato solids.
Select deep red ripe tomatoes, wash & trimmed to remove tops, green/yellow portions
Cut or crushed the tomato and cooked till soft (8-10 minutes)
Passed the lot through Pulper to collect the juice/pulp or stainless steel sieve may be used at home
The air from the extracted juice removed by using a deaerator under high vacuum
Add sugar, salt and flavouring substances
After flash pasteurization at 130 – 150OC for 8 to 12 seconds the juice is cooled at 90 OC.
Filled in cans or glass bottles at the same temperature (90 OC)
Containers are closed followed by their inversion for about 5 – 7 minutes to sterilize the container and closure and then cooled
PURPOSE: The aim of this experiment is to analyse the different types of tomato paste with respect to their quality and making a comparison of found result with usual TSE standards.
THEORY: Tomatoe puree was made by concentration the strained liquid pulp of good quality tomatoes. The raw tomato is converted into double concentrate and triple concentrate.
During incoming of tomato, the below parameters should be checked;
Uniformity of color, presence of under or over ripe fruit, presence of mold growth and insect infectation, presence of excessive dirt, presence of incorrect variety of fruit.
Simply the tomatoe processing can be indicated as in below diagram;
Seed and Peel Separation
The following discussion applies to the production of tomato paste; however, most factors also apply to diced tomatoes.
(A) Tomato Product Quality that not only meets the user’s specifications, but is consistent from container to container.
(1) Higher quality fresh tomatoes;
(2) Faster and gentler handling of fresh tomatoes from field to hot-break tank;
(3) Good hot-break temperatures followed by lower evaporation and sterilization process temperatures;
(4) Faster movement of product through the process, decreasing the time product is exposed to elevated temperatures, and;
(5) Maximum blending of fresh tomato loads and product through a dedicated process line to equalize the naturally varying quality of incoming fresh tomatoes.
(B) Tomato Product Price that provides a competitive edge in favor of the user.
(C) A Tomato Product Supplier intently responsive to the user’s need for:
(1) prompt, accurate invoicing and shipping service;
(2) sound technical support service for product issues;
(3) quick, authoritative decisions on issues impacting the business relationship;
(4) knowledge of technologies and industry forces impacting their business and the structure of the tomato industry, and;
(5) personnel and ownership intent on maintaining themselves at the forefront of tomato processing–as innovators and true professionals.
(A) Tomato Paste Quality.
The best quality is that which consistently meets the customer’s specifications. However, most customers’ specifications have acceptable parameters rather than absolute targets. For example, viscosity may be specified as 5 to 7 cm. Bostwick, instead of 6 cm. This is due primarily to historical technological limitations, as well as the relative acceptance of product variability by the consumer. However, if such technology and ability were available to the producer, a specific or narrower range of targets would be advantageous in most users’ manufacturing environments. Furthermore, with a narrow range of targets, manufacturing would benefit from using tomato paste that is consistent from container to container during the daily manufacturing process, be it a 5.2 cm. or a 6.5 cm. Bostwick specification.
Aside from individual user’s unique specifications for particular finished products, “high quality” tomato paste is considered to have high color, nutrient retention and serum viscosity (assuming “hot-break” paste), plus low mold and defect levels.
How is the level and consistency of quality achieved by the tomato paste producer?
All manufacturers of tomato paste have similar processes; however, each is unique in the type of equipment utilized and manner in which the equipment is combined to form a “process.” A more consistent and higher level of tomato paste quality will be produced with:
(1) Most critical tomato paste quality attributes are inherent in the fresh tomato. The tomato paste manufacturing process can only be designed and operated with the objective of not deteriorating the natural quality of the fresh tomato–the process can not improve quality attributes not present in the fresh tomato. Therefore, it is critical that “high quality” be present in the fresh tomato in order to obtain “high quality” in the tomato paste.
(2) Assuming a given level of quality in the fresh tomatoes, shorter time and gentler methods of handling, from the growers’ fields to initial processing, will result in a minimum of deterioration of the fresh tomato’s quality. The standard method in the industry is to detour loads of tomatoes to a grading station somewhere between the fields and the facilities, increasing distance and delays. At Morning Star, as well as about 50% of the facilities, tomatoes are hauled directly from the fields to our facility where the weighing and grading of tomatoes takes place by State supervised inspectors, saving precious time.
When tomato loads are weighed and graded, the information is entered into our computer, and a special program operates to blend loads by assigning an unloading order for each load based on its potential viscosity and mold level. Tomatoes are unloaded in a covered shed, elevated over twenty feet above grade, and transferred by gravity between wash systems, eliminating severe handling, which is inherent in processes using elevators. This unloading and handling system is unique to the Morning Star facilities.
(3) The specific impact the tomato paste manufacturing process has on the color and viscosity of tomato paste is in the quantity of heat units applied to the product. This is a combined function of time and temperature. Shorter holding times and lower evaporation and sterilization process temperatures (beyond the initial high temperature “hot-break” stage), result in higher quality tomato paste.
The process times and temperatures in each facility should be compared. Most new facilities have installed four-effect (utilizing steam energy input four times), four or five stage evaporators. We have installed triple-effect evaporators to accomplish ninety percent (90%) of the evaporation task and double-effect finishing evaporators for the balance. The advantages of lower temperatures, less maintenance, and higher operating efficiency with triple and double effect evaporators considerably outweighs any steam energy savings. Morning Star has steam injection sterilizing and standard flash cooling. This sterilization process is very efficient in achieving a rapid increase to sterilization temperature and an immediate decrease in temperature upon achieving sterilization in the flash cooler. Low fill temperatures arrest chemical degradation of the product once packaged.
4) Fast movement of product through the process to minimize the residence time of product at elevated temperatures is achieved by: (a) high and continuous product flow rates, plus (b) a minimum of product “tankage.” One should review facilities for simplicity of design and process, characterized by low energy and low labor input per unit of production as an indication of the amount of work required by the process. This translates into high and continuous flow rates due to fewer breakdowns and complications.
The best measure of residence time is the throughput rate relative to the total tankage in the facility.
(5) A thorough blending of tomato loads from the fields and through the process is absolutely critical in the production of tomato paste that is consistent from container to container! Consistent quality ingredients are required for a using manufacturer to produce consistent quality finished products with minimal formulation changes, resulting in lower costs.
The viscosity (as well as other quality attributes), inherent in each load of fresh tomatoes, varies widely. This is due not only to the many different varieties grown, but to the irregularities within a variety resulting from variable growing conditions. From 20 to 40 different varieties are purchased by a given processor, in a given year, from over 160 commercially grown varieties in California today. Normal variation in the viscosity potential of fresh tomatoes from load to load is one to two centimeters Bostwick.
(One load of fresh tomatoes will produce approximately 8,700 pounds of 31% NTSS tomato paste. Therefore, over five loads of tomatoes are necessary to fill an order for a truck load and 17 tomato loads for a railcar of finished tomato paste. Unloading eight to 20 loads per hour, a truck load of tomato paste is produced every twelve to 35 minutes and a railcar in 0.7 to two hours. Blending throughout the system will result in excellent consistency of quality from container to container. The higher the throughput capacity, the less each fresh tomato load impacts the variability of finished product quality. If one load is high viscosity and the next low viscosity, the production process has enough capacity for blending and the result is higher consistency of the finished product.
Care is required in evaluating process flow lines as an indication of the potential for production consistency, since a few “large” facilities actually consist of a number of smaller process lines, giving a false indication of process flow rates and capacities–appearing high when they are, in fact, quite low.
As one studies tomato paste manufacturing processes, an understanding of the variations and differences between each manufacturing system will be realized. In order to rigorously evaluate the potential of a manufacturer to produce a high quality tomato paste, a number of issues must be analyzed. These issues should include the incentives present for the selection of tomato varieties, tomato handling techniques, and process characteristics such as flow pattern, temperatures, tankage, and rate of throughput.
For the determination of the quality of the tomato puree, we applied following analysis.
Testing for Black Points: 1 gram of paste was placed between two glasses and pressed. Thus a thin film can be seen through the glass and the black points were counted.
Determination of Sugar Content: this was done by Lane and Eynon’s method
Determination of Color: this was assessed by means of the Lovibon Tintometer.
Determination of Total Solid in Tomato Paste: the total solid was measured in Refractometer by direct measurement.
Determination of Acidity: a 1: 3 dilution was prepared and filtered. Then, 10 ml of filtrate was mixed with 50ml of water and 1 ml of phenolphtalein and this was titrated with 0,1 N NaOH.
Determination of Salt: 10 grams of puree was weighed and it was warmed slightly after addition of 90 ml of water. Then it was cooled and mixed, filtered respectively. To the 50 ml of this filtrate, we added 5% potassium chromate and titrated with 0,05N silver nitrate solution.
No of blac.
DISCUSSION: In this experiment we tried to analyse some chemical properties of different types of tomato psree types in order to make a comparison with TSE results.
The results of TSE are given in laboratory book. From this table we can make a comparison such that;
From the point of black point, all groups have found suitable values (max.2/g)
From the point of hunter value (a/b) all groups have found suitable values (min.1,8)
From the point of
Tomato is a very popular vegetable throughout the country and it is grown in many states. Apart from use in vegetables, its down stream products like soup, concentrates, sauce, puree, ketchup are also equally popular and they have a longer shelflife unlike fresh tomatoes. Tomato is perishable and needs to be transported carefully to avoid damage during transit. With the advent of new technology, many down the line products are made and are consumed round the year as table enrichers.
The products suggested are sauce, ketchup and puree. They are made from tomato juice and many other ingredients and preservatives are added to it to enhance its shelf life and taste. These products are consumed by people of all age groups and demand is going up. These products can be made in states like Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, UP, HP, North Eastern states and so on, but this note considers Assam as the preferred location in view of the growing market.
2.2 Availability of know-how, Quality Standards and Compliances.
CFTRI, Mysore, has successfully developed the technical know-how. BIS has laid down the quality standards vide IS 3881/2/3:1966. Compliances under FPO and PFA Act are mandatory.
Processed Products Of Tomato Fruits
Processing of fruits results in high amount of waste materials like peels, seeds, stones, oilseed meals etc.
It creates problem that is further provoked by legal restrictions.
Thus new aspects relating to the use of these wastes as by-products for additional exploitation on the production of food additives with high nutritional value have gained increasing interest since these are high-value products and may be economically attractive.
Products from tomato
If you love tomatoes, you’ll love Tomato Jam. Promise! Tomato jams are a great way to use up a bumper crop of tomatoes.
It can be used on everything from toast to fish to pork. It gives an amazing real taste.
Tomato juice was usually used as a beverage. It is frequently used as a packing liquid for canned tomatoes and in the preparation of tomato juice agar.
Vitamin A is available in tomato juice that helps to maintain good bones and teeth as well as eyesight. It also helps in fighting infectious diseases. Vitamin B in tomato juice includes increased energy, healthy nervous system, good digestion, healthy skin, hair and nails.
Drinking the byproduct of tomatoes such as tomato juice helps protect people against immune system deficiencies as well as prenatal health problems.
There are no known side effects of drinking tomato juice.
Hence, tomato juices are safe to drink and safe to enjoy its health benefits.
Tomato pastes have been a tradition for many generations. Tomato paste can be used to make a fresh spaghetti sauce, lasagna, chili, or other tomato-based meals.
Paste is thicker than tomato sauce or tomato puree and also the real essence of ripe tomatoes.
A good tomato sauce is the basis for so many wonderful dishes such as pizza, pasta, chicken, and fish. Tomato sauce you make from scratch is yummy and delicious and so easy.
Tomato sauce is delicious any time of year. Extended cooking thickens the sauce as the water cooks off and long simmering melds flavors together.
Tomato soup may be served hot or cold. It can be made in different styles. It is one of the top soothe foods in the US. Tomato soup really tastes gorgeous.
It is very easy to make and very tasty served with warm crusty bread.
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•Tomato production, processing and technology, Third edition, 1992, W A Gould, Woodhead Publishing Limited
•Tomato harvesting, systems and methods
– The harvester
– Operation of harvester
– When to harvest
– Importance of sorting
– Mechanical harvesting problems
– Cost of mechanical harvesting
• – Hampers
– Field boxes
– Plastic boxes
– Bulk containers
– Water tanks
– Bulk trailers
• – History and development of grades
– Inspectors and inspections
– Grading platforms
– Grade standards
– Extraneous material
– Grade determination by color
– Agtron color management
– Hunter color measurement
•Preparation of tomatoes for processing
• – Dry sort
– Size grading
– Final sorting and trimming
– Steam peeling
– Lye peeling
– Infrared peeling
– Other peeling methods
•PART 2 :PROCESSING:
– Salting and firming
– Process time and temperature
– Other tomato products
•Tomato juice manufacture
• – Preparation for processing
– Crushing or chopping
– Salting and filling
– Thermal processing
– Tomato juice from concentrate
– New products
•Tomato pulp and paste manufacture
• – Definition
– Manufacture of tomato pulp
– Determination of total solids
– Tomato paste
– Bulk storage
•Tomato catsup and chili sauce manufacture
• – Tomato catsup
– Manufacturing tomato catsup
– Constituents of catsup
– Filling and sterilization
– Quality control of catsup
– Chili sauce
•PART 3 TECHNOLOGY:
• – Definition of quality
– Standards for quality
– Legal standards
– Company or voluntary label standards
– Grade/industrial/consumer standards
– Methods for determining quality
– Purposes of QA program
– Bases of QA program
– Standards and specifications
– The laboratory
– Definition of terms used in statistical QC
• – Problem solving techniques
– Brainstorming principles
– Pareto principles
– Cause and effect diagram.
Quality evaluation of processed tomatoes and tomato products
• – Determination of the standard of fill of container
– Procedure A – General method for water capacity of containers
– Procedure B – General method for fill of containers
– Procedure C – Percentage of the total capacity of the can
•Color and color measurement
• – Factors contributing to tomato color
– Color perception
– Light and lighting
– Systems of color measurement
• – Composition of the tomato
– Total solids
– Degree brix/soluble solids
– Water soluble solids
– Alcohol insoluble solids
– Blotter test
– Precipitate weight ratio
– Serum separation
– Specific gravity
– Refractive index
•Consistency (viscosity) of tomato products
• – Classification
– Tomato juice
– Continuous measurement of catsup
– Tomato paste
– Tomato pulp
– Tomato soup
– Factors affecting consistency in tomato products
•Total acidity and pH
– pH Determination
•Defects and material other than tomatoes
• – MOT and other material
– Sand and inorganic residues
– Dark specks, seeds, pieces of seeds – Peel, hard core material
– Defects in catsup
•Flavor and flavor evaluation
• – Judging
– For each judge
– For each treatment
– All treatments/all judges
•Drosophila and insect control
• – Life cycle habits and other functions
– Drosophila control before and during harvesting
– Drosophila control at the plant and during processing
– Methods of detection
– GOSUL method
– AOAC method
– Staining method
– Determination of insect fragments in tomato products
•Mold–counting methods and principles
• – The microscope
– Histology of the tomato
– Parts of the tomato
– Types of mold
– Characteristics of mold hyphae
– Filaments often confused with mold
– Howard mold count method of tomato products
– Characteristics of mold
– Genera of molds frequently encountered
– AOAC mold count procedure
– Regulatory action guidance
Spoilage of canned tomatoes and tomato products
• – Flat sour spoilage
– Characteristics of flat-sour spoilage in tomato juice
– Heat resistance of spores
– Causes of flat-sour spoilage
– Controlling flat-sour spoilage
– Water activity
– Spoilage of canned tomatoes
– Spoilage of catsup
•Composition of tomatoes
• – Solids
– Proteins and amino acids
– Pectin in tomatoes
– Nutrient composition of tomatos and tomato products
– Factors affecting the nutrient composition of fresh tomatoes
– Factors affecting retention of nutrients in tomato products
– Retention of vitamins during storage
– Tomato flavor
•Tomato Processing Industry
•On a global scale, the annual production of fresh tomatoes accounts for approximately 100 million tonnes.
•In comparison, 3 times more potatoes and 6 times more rice are grown around the world (FAO, 2002).
•However, more than a quarter of those 100 million tonnes are grown for the processing industry, which makes tomatoes the world’s leading vegetable for processing.
•More than 27 million tonnes of tomatoes are processed every year in factories belonging to the greatest labels of the global food industry.
•The main production regions are located in temperate zones, close to the 40th parallels North and South.
•However, most of this production is based in the Northern hemisphere, where an average of 91 % of the world’s crop is processed between the months of July and December.
•The remaining 9 % are processed in the Southern hemisphere between January and June.
•Brazil is an exception, being the only country of the Southern hemisphere to process more than one million tonnes per year at the same time as the Northern hemisphere
•Despite the fact that many countries have a tomato processing industry, this production is strongly concentrated and the 8 largest producing countries account for some 84 % of the world’s yearly production.
Average figures for these countries between 1999 and 2003 were:
California (9.33 million metric tonnes)
Italy (4.87 million tonnes)
China (1.74 million tonnes)
Spain (1.52 million tonnes)
Turkey (1.5 million tonnes)
Brazil (1.17 million tonnes)
Greece (1.01 million tonnes)
Portugal (950 000 tonnes)
•In commercial terms, exchange volumes and commercial results also position the tomato processing sector among the main players of the global food industry.
•It can be said that in the 1999/2000 financial year, the four main production and exchange regions (the EU, China, the USA and Chile) exported approximately 1.1 million tonnes of finished products in the two leading tomato categories : paste and whole peeled tomatoes.
•Paste is the main tomato product, both in production volume and in commercial results : annual exports of tomato paste generate more than USD 510 million (EUR 500 million).
•The undeniable importance of the tomato producing industry is also rooted in the regular growth in consumption observed over the past twenty years.
•Mainly a trait of nations with a high standard of living, the highest overall consumptions of tomato products are found in Europe with 19 kg per year and in the USA with 30 kg per year.
•Results from other countries (23 kg per capita per year in Canada) confirm the importance of the role played by tomato products in the eating habits of a wide variety of countries.
•Throughout these areas, the increase in tomato consumption has been steady for several years, albeit at different rates.
•This has led to the appearance of new producing countries on the market.
•Some of them, like China, have dedicated heavy capital investment to this branch of the food industry.
•In only a few years, they have became able to threaten the dominant position of the two main producers, the USA and Italy.
•The international tomato processing industry is organised around two main professional federations that together account for about 91 % of the world’s production : the AMITOM and the WPTC.
•In the Mediterranean region, the industry is organised within the AMITOM
•The AMITOM is an association gathering professional organisations of tomato processors in the Mediterranean region.
•For the last twenty years, this international association has been collecting and storing technical and economic data and information on processing tomatoes, from research to final sale.
•To that effect, the AMITOM works in a variety of areas, and regular meetings bring together delegations from the member states, making up the executive committee.
•The AMITOM currently includes eleven member states – 5 European Union countries: France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain, 6 non-EU countries: Algeria, Occupied Palestine, Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey, and three associate members: Malta, Syria and the United Arab Emirates.
•For more information on the AMITOM, visit the web site www.amitom.com
•The World Processing Tomato Council (WPTC) was created in 1998.
•It gathers professional growers and/or processors’ organisations representing their respective production areas.
•Professional organisations from the following countries were the founding members of the Council: AMITOM countries, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, USA (California).
•They have since been joined up by Algeria, Jordan and more recently by Morocco, as well as Japan and South Africa.
•Brazil is no longer a member of the WPTC. For more information on the WPTC, visit the web site www.wptc.to
The following table summarizes the world’s processing tomato production over 3 years.
•Opportunities for tomato processing
•As EU agricultural production subsidies are expected to be entirely phased out by 2013, opportunities for local production and processing may arise for African producers of fruit and vegetable products, which were previously subsidised in the EU.
•In this regard tomato may be the product with the most potential, especially as it is a most commonly-used ingredient in African cooking and the continent has a tradition of tomato processing.
•According to the World Processing Tomato Council, an international non-profit-making organisation for the tomato processing industry, the world processed an average of 33m tons per year of tomatoes in the three years ended 2006;
•SA (157,000t) and Senegal (70,000t) were the only sub-Saharan African countries which processed more than 15,000t/year in that period.
•This was not always the situation. In the early 1970s Senegal promoted the farming of tomatoes and erected processing plants to establish an industry that made Senegal the 23rd largest processor in the world.
•A study in 2007 revealed that Senegal’s processing had dropped from 73,000t of concentrate in 1990 to 20,000t in 1996/7, while the EU’s exports of tomato concentrate to Senegal increased from 62t in 1994 to 5,348t in 1996.
•Senegalese processors apparently eventually found it was cheaper to buy and dilute Italian paste than purchase tomatoes from local farmers.
•For similar reasons, Ghana closed a processing plant that was producing around 100t/day of paste. Ghana is now the largest importer of paste in Africa – it imports 10,000t/year, while the farmers, established to supply the processor, continue to produce a glut, resulting in very low prices for sales to households.
•This situation is not unique to Senegal and Ghana, nor to tomatoes. Therefore the new lack of the EU subsidies may offer opportunities.
•The key is to produce products which will have shelf life and a market, at a cost that is not inflated by investment in infrastructure and capacity that is under-utilised, while still allowing the existing small farmers to make a return on their investment in production.
•For the industrial market, tomato paste is the most important ingredient because it is used as the basis for a wide range of other products such as ketchups, sauces, soups, salsas, tinned meat and fish, etc.
•The tomato is washed, sorted and prepared by crushing, peeling or cutting to the required size.
•Depending on the particular requirements, the prepared tomato then undergoes all/some of the following:
•One of the largest constraints of processing (leading to underutilization of infrastructure) is short harvest periods, which vary from 60 to 100 days.
•In Pakistan, projects have focused on processing other fruits during the periods when tomatoes are not available.
•Constraints on processing cheaply in Africa are the lack of automation in farming, which increases input costs, and the lack of access to capital and qualified technical staff.
•Also, the farming sector has generally suffered from the failure in processing, which has meant farmers are unorganized and possibly suspicious.
•This tends to reduce the assured supply of tomatoes to the processor – until trust can be built again.
•Production of concentrated tomato products can be carried out at a range of scales – from small scale (kilograms per hour) to large industrial operations (200-300t/hour) in which both the unit energy consumption and damage to the tomato are vastly reduced.
•In the smallest plants, prepared (hand-sorted, washed, peeled and separated) tomato pulps are boiled in open pans over a fire to achieve the required final concentration (44% pulp – 40% puree – 34% concentrated juice, 17-19% juice and 10-12% juice).
•At this level the concentration process constrains the product both because of the large cost of energy and the damage to the tomato by uncontrolled heating, which results in darker and duller pastes, often with a stronger cooked taste.