•Tomato production, processing and technology, Third edition, 1992, W A Gould, Woodhead Publishing Limited
•Tomato harvesting, systems and methods
– The harvester
– Operation of harvester
– When to harvest
– Importance of sorting
– Mechanical harvesting problems
– Cost of mechanical harvesting
• – Hampers
– Field boxes
– Plastic boxes
– Bulk containers
– Water tanks
– Bulk trailers
• – History and development of grades
– Inspectors and inspections
– Grading platforms
– Grade standards
– Extraneous material
– Grade determination by color
– Agtron color management
– Hunter color measurement
•Preparation of tomatoes for processing
• – Dry sort
– Size grading
– Final sorting and trimming
– Steam peeling
– Lye peeling
– Infrared peeling
– Other peeling methods
•PART 2 :PROCESSING:
– Salting and firming
– Process time and temperature
– Other tomato products
•Tomato juice manufacture
• – Preparation for processing
– Crushing or chopping
– Salting and filling
– Thermal processing
– Tomato juice from concentrate
– New products
•Tomato pulp and paste manufacture
• – Definition
– Manufacture of tomato pulp
– Determination of total solids
– Tomato paste
– Bulk storage
•Tomato catsup and chili sauce manufacture
• – Tomato catsup
– Manufacturing tomato catsup
– Constituents of catsup
– Filling and sterilization
– Quality control of catsup
– Chili sauce
•PART 3 TECHNOLOGY:
• – Definition of quality
– Standards for quality
– Legal standards
– Company or voluntary label standards
– Grade/industrial/consumer standards
– Methods for determining quality
– Purposes of QA program
– Bases of QA program
– Standards and specifications
– The laboratory
– Definition of terms used in statistical QC
• – Problem solving techniques
– Brainstorming principles
– Pareto principles
– Cause and effect diagram.
Quality evaluation of processed tomatoes and tomato products
• – Determination of the standard of fill of container
– Procedure A – General method for water capacity of containers
– Procedure B – General method for fill of containers
– Procedure C – Percentage of the total capacity of the can
•Color and color measurement
• – Factors contributing to tomato color
– Color perception
– Light and lighting
– Systems of color measurement
• – Composition of the tomato
– Total solids
– Degree brix/soluble solids
– Water soluble solids
– Alcohol insoluble solids
– Blotter test
– Precipitate weight ratio
– Serum separation
– Specific gravity
– Refractive index
•Consistency (viscosity) of tomato products
• – Classification
– Tomato juice
– Continuous measurement of catsup
– Tomato paste
– Tomato pulp
– Tomato soup
– Factors affecting consistency in tomato products
•Total acidity and pH
– pH Determination
•Defects and material other than tomatoes
• – MOT and other material
– Sand and inorganic residues
– Dark specks, seeds, pieces of seeds – Peel, hard core material
– Defects in catsup
•Flavor and flavor evaluation
• – Judging
– For each judge
– For each treatment
– All treatments/all judges
•Drosophila and insect control
• – Life cycle habits and other functions
– Drosophila control before and during harvesting
– Drosophila control at the plant and during processing
– Methods of detection
– GOSUL method
– AOAC method
– Staining method
– Determination of insect fragments in tomato products
•Mold–counting methods and principles
• – The microscope
– Histology of the tomato
– Parts of the tomato
– Types of mold
– Characteristics of mold hyphae
– Filaments often confused with mold
– Howard mold count method of tomato products
– Characteristics of mold
– Genera of molds frequently encountered
– AOAC mold count procedure
– Regulatory action guidance
Spoilage of canned tomatoes and tomato products
• – Flat sour spoilage
– Characteristics of flat-sour spoilage in tomato juice
– Heat resistance of spores
– Causes of flat-sour spoilage
– Controlling flat-sour spoilage
– Water activity
– Spoilage of canned tomatoes
– Spoilage of catsup
•Composition of tomatoes
• – Solids
– Proteins and amino acids
– Pectin in tomatoes
– Nutrient composition of tomatos and tomato products
– Factors affecting the nutrient composition of fresh tomatoes
– Factors affecting retention of nutrients in tomato products
– Retention of vitamins during storage
– Tomato flavor
•Tomato Processing Industry
•On a global scale, the annual production of fresh tomatoes accounts for approximately 100 million tonnes.
•In comparison, 3 times more potatoes and 6 times more rice are grown around the world (FAO, 2002).
•However, more than a quarter of those 100 million tonnes are grown for the processing industry, which makes tomatoes the world’s leading vegetable for processing.
•More than 27 million tonnes of tomatoes are processed every year in factories belonging to the greatest labels of the global food industry.
•The main production regions are located in temperate zones, close to the 40th parallels North and South.
•However, most of this production is based in the Northern hemisphere, where an average of 91 % of the world’s crop is processed between the months of July and December.
•The remaining 9 % are processed in the Southern hemisphere between January and June.
•Brazil is an exception, being the only country of the Southern hemisphere to process more than one million tonnes per year at the same time as the Northern hemisphere
•Despite the fact that many countries have a tomato processing industry, this production is strongly concentrated and the 8 largest producing countries account for some 84 % of the world’s yearly production.
Average figures for these countries between 1999 and 2003 were:
California (9.33 million metric tonnes)
Italy (4.87 million tonnes)
China (1.74 million tonnes)
Spain (1.52 million tonnes)
Turkey (1.5 million tonnes)
Brazil (1.17 million tonnes)
Greece (1.01 million tonnes)
Portugal (950 000 tonnes)
•In commercial terms, exchange volumes and commercial results also position the tomato processing sector among the main players of the global food industry.
•It can be said that in the 1999/2000 financial year, the four main production and exchange regions (the EU, China, the USA and Chile) exported approximately 1.1 million tonnes of finished products in the two leading tomato categories : paste and whole peeled tomatoes.
•Paste is the main tomato product, both in production volume and in commercial results : annual exports of tomato paste generate more than USD 510 million (EUR 500 million).
•The undeniable importance of the tomato producing industry is also rooted in the regular growth in consumption observed over the past twenty years.
•Mainly a trait of nations with a high standard of living, the highest overall consumptions of tomato products are found in Europe with 19 kg per year and in the USA with 30 kg per year.
•Results from other countries (23 kg per capita per year in Canada) confirm the importance of the role played by tomato products in the eating habits of a wide variety of countries.
•Throughout these areas, the increase in tomato consumption has been steady for several years, albeit at different rates.
•This has led to the appearance of new producing countries on the market.
•Some of them, like China, have dedicated heavy capital investment to this branch of the food industry.
•In only a few years, they have became able to threaten the dominant position of the two main producers, the USA and Italy.
•The international tomato processing industry is organised around two main professional federations that together account for about 91 % of the world’s production : the AMITOM and the WPTC.
•In the Mediterranean region, the industry is organised within the AMITOM
•The AMITOM is an association gathering professional organisations of tomato processors in the Mediterranean region.
•For the last twenty years, this international association has been collecting and storing technical and economic data and information on processing tomatoes, from research to final sale.
•To that effect, the AMITOM works in a variety of areas, and regular meetings bring together delegations from the member states, making up the executive committee.
•The AMITOM currently includes eleven member states – 5 European Union countries: France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain, 6 non-EU countries: Algeria, Occupied Palestine, Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey, and three associate members: Malta, Syria and the United Arab Emirates.
•For more information on the AMITOM, visit the web site www.amitom.com
•The World Processing Tomato Council (WPTC) was created in 1998.
•It gathers professional growers and/or processors’ organisations representing their respective production areas.
•Professional organisations from the following countries were the founding members of the Council: AMITOM countries, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, USA (California).
•They have since been joined up by Algeria, Jordan and more recently by Morocco, as well as Japan and South Africa.
•Brazil is no longer a member of the WPTC. For more information on the WPTC, visit the web site www.wptc.to
The following table summarizes the world’s processing tomato production over 3 years.
•Opportunities for tomato processing
•As EU agricultural production subsidies are expected to be entirely phased out by 2013, opportunities for local production and processing may arise for African producers of fruit and vegetable products, which were previously subsidised in the EU.
•In this regard tomato may be the product with the most potential, especially as it is a most commonly-used ingredient in African cooking and the continent has a tradition of tomato processing.
•According to the World Processing Tomato Council, an international non-profit-making organisation for the tomato processing industry, the world processed an average of 33m tons per year of tomatoes in the three years ended 2006;
•SA (157,000t) and Senegal (70,000t) were the only sub-Saharan African countries which processed more than 15,000t/year in that period.
•This was not always the situation. In the early 1970s Senegal promoted the farming of tomatoes and erected processing plants to establish an industry that made Senegal the 23rd largest processor in the world.
•A study in 2007 revealed that Senegal’s processing had dropped from 73,000t of concentrate in 1990 to 20,000t in 1996/7, while the EU’s exports of tomato concentrate to Senegal increased from 62t in 1994 to 5,348t in 1996.
•Senegalese processors apparently eventually found it was cheaper to buy and dilute Italian paste than purchase tomatoes from local farmers.
•For similar reasons, Ghana closed a processing plant that was producing around 100t/day of paste. Ghana is now the largest importer of paste in Africa – it imports 10,000t/year, while the farmers, established to supply the processor, continue to produce a glut, resulting in very low prices for sales to households.
•This situation is not unique to Senegal and Ghana, nor to tomatoes. Therefore the new lack of the EU subsidies may offer opportunities.
•The key is to produce products which will have shelf life and a market, at a cost that is not inflated by investment in infrastructure and capacity that is under-utilised, while still allowing the existing small farmers to make a return on their investment in production.
•For the industrial market, tomato paste is the most important ingredient because it is used as the basis for a wide range of other products such as ketchups, sauces, soups, salsas, tinned meat and fish, etc.
•The tomato is washed, sorted and prepared by crushing, peeling or cutting to the required size.
•Depending on the particular requirements, the prepared tomato then undergoes all/some of the following:
•One of the largest constraints of processing (leading to underutilization of infrastructure) is short harvest periods, which vary from 60 to 100 days.
•In Pakistan, projects have focused on processing other fruits during the periods when tomatoes are not available.
•Constraints on processing cheaply in Africa are the lack of automation in farming, which increases input costs, and the lack of access to capital and qualified technical staff.
•Also, the farming sector has generally suffered from the failure in processing, which has meant farmers are unorganized and possibly suspicious.
•This tends to reduce the assured supply of tomatoes to the processor – until trust can be built again.
•Production of concentrated tomato products can be carried out at a range of scales – from small scale (kilograms per hour) to large industrial operations (200-300t/hour) in which both the unit energy consumption and damage to the tomato are vastly reduced.
•In the smallest plants, prepared (hand-sorted, washed, peeled and separated) tomato pulps are boiled in open pans over a fire to achieve the required final concentration (44% pulp – 40% puree – 34% concentrated juice, 17-19% juice and 10-12% juice).
•At this level the concentration process constrains the product both because of the large cost of energy and the damage to the tomato by uncontrolled heating, which results in darker and duller pastes, often with a stronger cooked taste.
•In the largest plants, pulp is prepared via mechanical processes, then vacuum-evaporated;
•this reduces both the energy required by using evaporated water as heating steam by subjecting the pulp to a lower temperature for a shorter time, which also results in the retention of the traditional bright red colour and a fresher taste.
•But there are intermediate processes that can be used:
•The degree of darkening can be reduced by using steam heating of the pulp in jacketed cooking vessels.
•However, there is no system to gain the advantages of vacuum evaporation on a small scale.
•A filtration process was developed in Bangladesh, which produces products that match the colour of commercial pastes.
•However, only purees can be produced and salt needs to be added to increase the concentration. Gratis Foundation of Ghana has installed one of these plants in Techiman.
•Smaller-scale plants have been developed. For example, a Pakistani company produces a plant with capacity to process 2t/hour of tomato. This plant is based on a single-effect, high-vacuum, scraped surface heat exchanger.
•A 2003 feasibility study determined a total cost (equipment, land, buildings and installation) for this of around $1.5m – for a capacity to produce 750t/year and 1,900t/year of tomato paste and fruit pulp respectively.
•A Chinese plant with a capacity to process 5t/hour of tomato, made by Shanghai Triowin Tech, offers a two-stage, low-vacuum thin film evaporator.
•In South Africa …
•A large tomato paste factory is being planned for the Coega Industrial Development zone in the Eastern Cape.
•Funding of $12m is being sought by Post Harvest Technologies (PHT), which initiated the project in conjunction with refrigeration contractors Club Refrigeration and Italian-based food-engineering company, FencoSpA.
•It is hoped that about half of the eventual capacity of 50,000t/year of paste will be produced by mid-2008. However, construction of the factory has not yet started, as finances still had to be tied up, according to Gus Robinson, MD of PHT.
•If successful, tomato paste will be produced in bulk for the local market as well as for export to the rest of Africa and abroad.
•Commercial farmers will be recruited to grow tomatoes in the Sundays River area, which, according to Robinson, is uniquely positioned to produce two growing cycles a year.
•In Angola …
•The Development Bank of Angola recently approved the funding of a project to install a $10.7m tomato paste factory in Matala district, south Huíla province.
•Local newspapers report that the factory will have a capacity of 6t/hr of fresh tomato, to obtain an output of “at least” 1t/hr of tomato paste.
•It is estimated that the factory will process about 12,500t/year of fresh tomatoes.
•The project will reportedly use Spanish technical assistance.
•In Nigeria …
•The Sokoto State government in Nigeria is seeking investment for small and medium scale enterprises in tomato juice and puree production.
•The project involves the construction and operation of the facility.
•For this project, contact Alhaji Sani Garba Shuni, Permanent Secretary of Economic Planning, via email: email@example.com
S. A. Barringer, 2004
•The composition of the tomato is affected by the variety, state of ripeness, year, climactic growing conditions, light, temperature, soil, fertilization, and irrigation.
•Tomato total solids vary from 5 to 10%, with 6% being average.
•Approximately half of the solids are reducing sugars,
with slightly more fructose than glucose. Sucrose
concentration is unimportant in tomatoes and
rarely exceeds 0.1%.
•A quarter of the total solids consist of citric, malic and dicarboxylic amino acids, lipids, and minerals.
•The remaining quarter, which can be separated as alcohol-insoluble solids, contains proteins, pectic substances, cellulose, and hemicellulose.
•Tomatoes are mostly water (94%), a disadvantage when condensing the product to paste.
•Tomatoes are a reasonably good source of vitamin C and A.
•In 1972 tomatoes provided 12.2% of the recommended daily allowance of vitamin C, and only oranges and potatoes
contribute more to the American diet.
•Tomatoes provided 9.5% of the vitamin A, second only to carrots.
•When major fruit and vegetable crops were ranked on the basis of their content of 10 vitamins and minerals, the tomato occupied sixteenth place.
•However, when the amount that is consumed is taken into consideration, the tomato places first in its nutritional contribution to the American diet.
•This is because the tomato is a popular food, added to a wide variety of soup, meat, and pasta dishes.
•The red carotenoid in tomatoes, lycopene, does not have any vitamin activity, but it may act as an antioxidant when consumed.
•A review of epidemiological studies found that evidence for tomato products was strongest for the prevention of prostate, lung, and stomach cancer, with possible prevention of pancreatic, colon and rectal, esophageal, oral cavity, breast, and cervical cancer.
•The consumption of fresh tomatoes, tomato sauce, and pizza has been found to be significantly related to a lower incidence of prostate cancer, with tomato sauce having the strongest correlation.
•Since anticancer correlations are typically stronger to processed tomatoes than to fresh tomatoes, several studies have looked at the effect of processing on
•Tomato juice and paste have more bioavailable
(absorbed into the blood) lycopene than fresh tomatoes when both are consumed with corn oil.
•This may be because thermally induced rupture of cell walls and weakening of lycopene-protein complexes releases the lycopene, or because of improved extraction of lycopene into the lipophilic corn oil.
•Fresh tomatoes are the fifth most popular vegetable consumed in the United States (16.6 pounds per capita), after potatoes (48.8), lettuce (23.3), onions (17.9), and watermelon (17.4).
•Canned tomatoes are the most popular canned vegetable, at 74.2 pounds per capita in the United States.
•In the condiment category, salsa and ketchup are number one and two, respectively.
•RAW MATERIALS PREPARATION
•The flowchart for processing tomatoes into juice,
paste, whole, sliced, or diced tomatoes is shown in
•After harvesting, tomatoes are transported to the processing plant as soon as possible.
•Once at the plant, they should be processed immediately, or at least stored in the shade.
•Fruit quality deteriorates rapidly while waiting to be processed.
•To unload, either the tomatoes are off-loaded onto an inclined belt, or the gondolas are filled with water from overhead nozzles.
•If water is used, gates along the sides or undersides of the gondolas are opened, allowing the tomatoes to flow out into water flumes.
•The first step the tomatoes go through is grading, to
determine the price paid to the farmer.
•This is done at the processing facility or at a centralized station before going to the processing facility.
•Individual companies may set their own grading standards, use the voluntary USDA grading standards, or use locally determined standards, such as those of the Processing Tomato Advisory Board in California.
•The farmer is paid based on the percentage of tomatoes in each category. Typically, companies hire
USDA graders or hold an annual grading school to
train their graders.
•The USDA divides tomatoes for processing into
categories A, B, C, and culls.
•Grading is done on the basis of color and percentage of defects.
•Color can be determined visually by estimation
of what percentage of the surface is red, or with
an electronic colorimeter on a composite raw juice
•Defects include worms, worm damage, freeze damage, stems, mechanical damage, anthracnose,
mold, and decay.
•The allowable percentage of extraneous matter may also be specified.
•Extraneous matter includes stems, vines, dirt, stones, and trash.
•Tomatoes for canning whole, sliced, or diced are
graded on the basis of color, firmness, defects, and
•Solids content is unimportant, unlike in tomatoes for juice or paste.
•Graders must be trained to evaluate and score color and firmness.
•Color should be a uniform red across the entire surface of the
•Color is graded using USDA issued plastic color comparators, the Munsell colorimeter or the Agtron colorimeter, or the tomato is ground into
juice and used in a colorimeter with a correlation equation to convert it to the Munsell scale.
•Firmness, or character, is important to be sure the tomato will survive canning.
•Soft, watery cultivars or cultivars possessing large seed cavities give an unattractive appearance and therefore receive a lower grade.
•Size is not a grading characteristic per se, but all tomatoes must be above a minimum agreed upon size.
•The Processing Tomato Advisory Board inspects all tomatoes for processing in California. Their standards are similar to those of the USDA, but more geared for the paste industry.
•They inspect fruit for color, soluble solids, and damage.
•A load of tomatoes may be rejected for any of the following reasons:
Ø> 2% of fruit is affected by worm or insect damage,
Ø> 8% is affected by mold,
Ø> 4% is green, or
Ø> 3% contains material other than tomatoes, such as extraneous material, dirt, and detached stems.
•Washing is a critical control step in producing tomato products with a low microbial count.
•A thorough washing removes dirt, mold, insects, Drosophila eggs, and other contaminants.
•The efficiency of the washing process will determine microbial counts in the final product.
•Several methods can be used to increase the efficiency of the washing step.
•Figure 1. Flow diagram for tomato processing
•Agitation increases the efficiency of soil removal. The warmer the water spray or dip, up to 90°C, the lower the microbial count, although warm water is not typically used because of economic concerns.
•Lye or surfactants may be added to the water to improve the efficiency of
dirt removal; however, surfactants have been shown to promote infiltration of some bacteria into the tomato fruit by reducing the surface tension at the pores.
•The washing step also serves to cool the fruit. Since tomatoes are typically harvested on hot summer days, washing removes the field heat, slowing respiration and therefore quality loss.
•Tomatoes are typically transported in a water flume to minimize damage to the fruit.
•Therefore, tomato washing can be a separate step in a water tank or it can be built into the flume system.
•A water tank also serves to separate stones from the fruit, since the stones settle to the bottom.
•The final rinse step uses pressurized spray nozzles at the end of the soaking process.
•Flume water may be either recirculated or used in a counterflow system, so that the final rinse is with fresh water, while the initial wash is done with used water.
•In either system, the first flume frequently inoculates rather than washes the tomatoes because all of the dirt in the truck is washed into the flume water.
•When the water is reused, high microbial counts on the fruit may result if careful controls are not kept.
•Chlorine is frequently added to the water. Chlorine will not significantly reduce spores on the tomato itself because the residence time is too short.
•However, chlorine is effective at keeping down the number of spores present in the flume water.
•When there is a large amount of organic material in the water, such as occurs in dirty water, chlorine is used up rapidly, so it must be continuously monitored.
•During fluming to the next step, upright stakes may be placed at intervals within the flume.
•Vines and leaves that have made it this far in the process are caught on the stakes.
•Periodically, workers remove the trapped vines.
•A series of sorters are used in a plant. The first sorter, especially in small plants, is an inclined belt.
•The tomatoes are off-loaded onto the belt. The round fruit rolls down the belt and into a water flume.
•The leaves, sticks, stones, and rotten tomatoes are carried up by the belt and dropped into a disposal bin.
•Photoelectric color sorters are used in almost every plant to remove the green and pink tomatoes.
•These sorters work by allowing the tomatoes to fall between conveyor belts in front of the sensor.
•Unacceptable tomatoes are ejected by a pneumatic finger.
•A small percentage of green tomatoes in tomato juice does not adversely affect the quality.
•Green tomatoes bring down the pH, but do not affect the color of the final product.
•In addition, less mature tomatoes result in a higher viscosity paste.
•Pink or breaker tomatoes are a problem, however, because they decrease the redness of the juice.
•Both pink and green tomatoes need to be removed from the whole peel or dice line.
•Size sorters remove excessively small tomatoes, which would be undesirable in the
•The small tomatoes are diverted to the juice or crushed tomato line.
•The final sorting step is to go past human sorters, who are more sensitive than mechanical sorters.
•Employees remove extraneous materials and rotten tomatoes from sorting tables.
•Sorting conveyors should require employees to reach no more than 20 inches, move no more than 25 feet/minute, and consist of roller conveyors that turn the tomatoes as they travel, exposing all sides to the inspectors.
CORING AND TRIMMING
•In the past, tomatoes were cored by machine or, more frequently, by hand, to remove the stem scar.
•Modern tomato varieties have been bred with very small cores so that this step is no longer needed.
•Trimming to remove rot or green portions is not practiced in the United States due to the high cost of labor.
•JUICE, PASTE, AND SAUCE PRODUCTION
•The majority of processed tomatoes are made into juice, which is condensed into paste.
•The paste is remanufactured into a wide variety of sauce products.
•The tomatoes are put through a break system to be chopped.
•Some break systems operate under vacuum to minimize oxidation.
•In an industrial plant operating under vacuum, no degradation of ascorbic acid occurs during the break process.
•When vacuum is not used, the higher the break temperature, the greater the loss of ascorbic acid.
•Tomatoes can be processed into juice by either a hot break or cold break method.
•Most juice is made by hot break. In the hot break method tomatoes are chopped and heated rapidly to at least 82°C to inactivate the pectolytic enzymes polygalacturonase
(PG) and pectin methylesterase (PME).
• Inactivation of these enzymes helps to maintain the maximum viscosity.
•Most juice is made by the hot break method, since most juice is concentrated to paste, and high viscosity is important in tomato paste used to make other products.
•Most hot break processes occur at 93–99°C.
•In the cold break process, tomatoes are chopped and then mildly heated to accelerate enzymatic activity and increase yield.
•Pectolytic enzyme activity is at a maximum at 60–66°C.
•Cold break juice has less destruction of color and flavor but also has a lower viscosity because of the activity of the enzymes.
•This juice can be made into paste, but its lower viscosity is a special advantage in tomato juice and juice-based drinks.
•In practice, both hot and cold break paste with excellent color and high viscosity can be purchased.
•After the break system, the comminuted tomatoes are put through an extractor, pulper, or finisher to remove the seeds and skins.
• Juice is extracted with either a screw-type or paddle-type extractor.
•Screw-type extractors press the tomatoes between the screw and the screen. The screw is continually expanding along its length, forcing the tomato pulp through the screen.
•The expanding screw with the screen removed is shown in Figure 29.2.
•Screw-type extractors incorporate very little air into the juice, unlike paddle-type extractors, which beat the tomato against the screen, incorporating air.
•Air incorporation during extraction should be minimized because it oxidizes both lycopene and ascorbic acid.
•The screen size determines the finish, or particle size, which will affect viscosity and
•Figure 2. Inside of a screw-type tomato extractor
•Deaeration to remove dissolved air incorporated during breaking or extraction is frequently the next step.
•The juice is deaerated by pulling a vacuum as soon as possible, because oxidation occurs rapidly at high temperatures.
•Deaeration also prevents foaming during concentration.
•If the product is not deaerated, substantial loss of vitamin C will occur.
•The juice is homogenized to increase product viscosity and minimize serum separation.
•The homogenizer is similar to that used for milk and other dairy products.
•The juice is forced through a narrow orifice at high pressure, shredding the suspended solids.
•The creation of a large particle surface area increases product viscosity.
•CONCENTRATION INTO PASTE
•If the final product is not juice, the juice is next concentrated to paste.
•Concentration occurs in forced circulation, multiple effect, vacuum evaporators.
•Typically, three- or four-effect evaporators are used, and most modern equipment now uses four effects.
•The temperature is raised as the juice goes to each successive effect. A typical range is 48–82°C.
•Vapor is collected from later effects and used to heat the product in previous effects, conserving energy.
•The reduced pressure lowers the temperature, minimizing color and flavor loss.
•The paste is concentrated to a final solids content of at least 24% NTSS (natural tomato soluble solids) to meet the USDA definition of paste.
•Commercial paste is available in a range of solids contents, finishes, and Bostwick consistencies.
•The larger the screen size, the coarser the particles and the larger the finish. Bostwick may range from 2.5 to 8 cm (tested at 12% NTSS).
•The paste is
heated in a tube-in-tube or scraped surface heat exchanger,
held for a few minutes to pasteurize the product,
then cooled and filled into sterile containers, in an aseptic filler.
•A typical process might heat to 109°C, then hold 2.25 minutes, or heat to 96°C and hold for 3 minutes.
•Aseptically processed products must be cooled before filling, both to maintain high quality and because many aseptic packages will not withstand temperatures above 38°C.
•An aseptic bag-in-drum or bag-in-crate filler is used to fill the paste into bags previously steam sterilized.
•Paste is typically sold in 55-gallon drums or 300-gallon bag-in-box containers.
REMANUFACTURING INTO SAUCE
•Manufacturers of convenience meals buy tomato paste and remanufacture it by mixing it with water, particulates, and spices to create the desired sauce.
•Some sauce is made directly from fresh tomatoes during the tomato season, but this is less common.
•Sauce production from paste is more economical because it can be done during the off season using the equipment in tomato processing plants that would otherwise be unused.
•It is also cheaper to ship paste than sauce.
CANNED WHOLE OR SLICED TOMATO PRODUCTION:
•Tomatoes are typically peeled before further processing.
•The FDA standard of identity does allow for canned, unpeeled tomatoes if the processor so desires. This is not common on the market, though there are some unpeeled salsas.
•This is probably because the peel is very tough and undesirable to the consumer;
•in addition, unpeeled tomatoes would show many blemishes that are hidden from the consumer by peeling.
•Some easy-peel varieties have been bred that may be suitable for canning with the peel on, since the peel is less tough.
•However, these varieties also have less resistance to insect and microbial attack on the plant and so are not typically used by growers.
•There are two commonly used peeling methods:
•In California, most peeling is done by steam, while in the mid-western United States and Canada peeling is done with a hot lye solution.
•In steam peeling, the tomatoes are placed on a moving belt one layer deep and pass through a steam box in a semi-continuous process.
•Steam peeling is done at 24–27 psig, which equals about 127°C, for 25–40
•Peel removal is possible because of rupture of the cells just underneath the peel.
•Due to the high temperature and pressure, the temperature of the water inside these cells exceeds the boiling point, but remains in a liquid state.
•When the pressure in the chamber is released, the water changes to steam, bursting the cells.
•Time and temperature are the most critical factors to control to optimize the peeling
•The higher the temperature, the shorter the time required, and the more complete the peel removal.
•At higher temperatures, there is also less mushiness in the fruit due to cooking.
•The process uses relatively little water and produces little waste effluent.
•The waste peels that are produced can be used as fertilizer or animal feed or processed into other products, such as lycopene extract.
•In lye, or caustic peeling, the tomatoes pass on a conveyor belt under jets of hot lye (sodium hydroxide) or through a lye tank in a continuous operation.
•The tomatoes go through a solution of 12–18% lye at 85–100°C for 30 seconds, followed by holding for 30–60 seconds to allow the lye to react.
•The lye dissolves the cuticular wax and hydrolyzes the pectin.
•The hydrolysis of the pectin in the middle lamella causes the cells to separate from each other, or rupture, causing the peel to come off.
•This produces wastewater that contains a high organic load and high pH.
•Potash, or potassium hydroxide, can be used instead of lye.
•The advantage of potash peeling is that the potash waste can be discarded in the fields, since it does not contain the sodium ion that is detrimental to soil quality.
•One processor has done this for several years with no apparent detrimental effect.
•In some cases, potassium hydroxide can be used at almost half the concentration of
sodium hydroxide to produce the same result.
•Time in the lye, temperature of the bath, and concentration are the three major controllable factors that determine peeling efficiency.
•Increasing any of these factors increases the extent of peel removal.
•Time and temperature are linearly correlated, while time and concentration are correlated exponentially.
•With lye peeling, various additives are frequently added to the lye bath to improve peeling.
•These additives work by removing the wax, speeding the penetration of lye into the peel;
•Or decreasing the surface tension of water, increasing the wettability of the cuticle.
•C6-C8 saturated fatty acids, especially octanoic acid, have been claimed to be very effective.
•One processor tried octanoic acid but reported that the odor was so objectionable that the workers threatened to quit.
•Wetting agents are typically used at a level of approximately 0.5 percent in the lye bath.
•Lye peeling typically produces a higher yield of well-peeled tomatoes than steam peeling, but disposal of the lye wastewater can be difficult.
•Steam gives a higher total tomato yield, but removes much less of the peel than lye.
•A 65% peel removal is considered good for steam peeling, while peel removal with lye is close to 100%.
•For this reason, lye is used exclusively in the mid-western United States, where peeled tomatoes are the most important tomato product produced.
•After either steam or lye peeling, the tomatoes pass through a series of rubber disks or through a rotating drum under high-pressure water sprays to remove the adhering peel).
•Fruits with irregular shape and wrinkled skin are difficult to peel and result in excessive loss during the peeling step.
•Thus varieties prone to these characteristics are undesirable.
•Over-peeling is undesirable because it lowers the yield, results in higher waste, and strips the fruit of the red, lycopene-rich layer immediately underneath the peel, exposing the less attractive yellow vascular bundles.
•Both fruit variety and maturity affect the efficiency of the peeling process.
•One study attempted to determine how well a tomato would peel based on physical structure.
•They found that an abrupt cell size change in the pencarp and the absence of small cells in the mesocarp correlate to better peeling.
•Other proposed peeling methods include freeze- heat peeling, and hot calcium chloride.
•Freeze-heat peeling submerges the tomatoes in liquid nitrogen, refrigerated calcium chloride, or Freon to rupture the cells, releasing pectolytic enzymes.
•The tomatoes are then transferred into warm water to encourage enzyme activity.
•The hot calcium chloride process is similar to peeling in boiling water, which was the standard before the discovery of lye peeling.
•The disadvantages of the process are that it is patented, that the tomatoes may take up more calcium than allowed in the standards of identity, and that the method requires trained operators to adjust conditions based on maturity and variety.
•These methods have been tested in laboratories but never put into commercial practice.
•The other peeling method, no longer used in the United States, is to blanch the tomatoes in boiling water then hand-peel them.
•Peeled tomatoes are inspected by hand before filling into the can.
•Sorters are mainly looking for rotten parts that cannot be detected by photoelectric sorters.
•The main defects of concern are those included in the USDA grading standards for canned product:
presence of peel,
extraneous vegetable material,
discolored portions, and
objectionable core material (USDA 1990).
•Inadequately peeled, blemished, small, or misshapen fruits are diverted to the juice line.
•For greatest efficiency, roller conveyors should be used to turn the tomatoes as they travel, exposing all sides to the sorters.
•FILLING, ADDITIVES, AND CONTAINERS
•Cans may be filled by hand; however, due to labor costs almost all manufacturers use mechanical filling.
•The container must be filled to not less than 90% of the container volume, and drained weight must be at least 50% of the water weight, to meet standards of identity [Code of Federal Regulations Part II: Applications (CFR) 2000].
•The exact drained weight affects the USDA grade (USDA 1990).
•A headspace is left in the can to allow for expansion during retorting.
•Because of the acidic nature of the fruit, enameled cans and lids are used.
•When un-enameled cans are used, hydrogen swells may occur.
•These are caused by a reaction between the metal of the can and the acid in the fruit.
•Glass can also be used, but it is not common in the market.
•The tomatoes are packed into the can and filled with tomato juice.
•FDA standards of identity require that some form of tomato juice or puree be used as the packing medium (CFR 2000).
•Alternately, tomatoes may be in a “solid pack,” where no packing medium is used, but this product is not currently on the market.
•Heating softens the tomatoes, so calcium is typically added.
•Calcium can be added in the form of calcium chloride, calcium sulfate, calcium citrate, or mono-calcium phosphate.
•The final amount of calcium cannot exceed 0.045% by weight in whole tomatoes and 0.08% in dices, slices, and wedges (CFR 2000).
•The calcium ion migrates into the tomato tissue, creating a salt bridge between methoxy groups on adjacent pectin chains and forming calcium pectate or pectinate.
•This minimizes the softening that occurs during canning.
•The calcium may be mixed with the cover juice or added directly to the can.
•Tablets may be added directly, but typically the calcium is mixed with the juice.
•The amount of calcium added is adjusted based on the firmness of the tomatoes.
•The typical range is 0 – 1%, with an average of 1/2%.
•Most tomatoes are high-acid foods naturally; however, overly mature tomatoes and certain cultivars can result in a higher pH.
•The standard of identity allows organic acids to be added to lower the pH as needed. Citric acid is most common, although malic and fumeric acids are also used.
•Sugar may be added to offset the tartness from the added acid. Sodium chloride is frequently added for taste.
•The standard of identity allows calcium, organic acids, sweeteners, salt, spices, flavoring, and vegetables to be added (CFR 2000).
•Because of the presence of other natural components that inhibit botulinum growth, the United States allows tomatoes up to a pH of 4.7 (rather than the pH 4.6 required for other foods) to be canned as high-acid foods.
•EXHAUSTING AND SEALING
•Cans are typically exhausted and sealed at the same time.
•The old style of filling the tomatoes cold then conveying the cans through an exhaust box to be heated before sealing is seldom used.
•Tomatoes peeled either by steam or lye are already hot and are immediately filled, cover juice is added, and the cans are sealed.
•Steam is injected into the headspace of the can as the can is sealed. When the steam condenses, a partial vacuum is created, preventing “flippers,” which appear spoiled to the consumer.
•A headspace is critical if the product is going to be retorted since the product will expand during heating.
•Without adequate headspace, the ends of the can will bulge out. This is referred to as a “flipper” if the end can be pushed back down, or a “hard swell” if it cannot.
•Because tomatoes are a high-acid food, they do not have to be sterilized.
•Tomato products can be hot filled and held, or can be processed in a retort as needed to minimize spoilage.
•Most tomato products undergo a retort process to ensure an adequate shelf life.
•Of the retorts, the continuous rotary retort is that most commonly used for tomato products. This retort provides agitation of the product and can handle large quantities in a continuous process.
•Because tomatoes are a high-acid food, the retort may operate at boiling water temperature, 100°C.
•Continuous rotary retorts set at 104°C for 30 to 40 minutes are also common.
•Exact processing conditions depend on the product being packed, the size of the can, and the type and brand of retort used.
•The key is for the internal temperature of the tomatoes to reach at least 88°C.
•After canning, the product must be cooled to 30 – 40°C to minimize quality loss.
•The product may be cooled by water or air.
•When cooling water is used, it should be chlorinated to 2 – 5 ppm free chlorine to prevent contamination of the product while the seals are soft.
•Even though the cans are sealed, spoilage rates increase when the water is not chlorinated.
•The vacuum that forms as the contents cool must draw some microorganisms into the can.
•A rotary water cooler may be used in a continuous process after a rotary retort.
•Water cooling is more efficient than air cooling;
•therefore, longer retort process times are recommended when water cooling is used than when air cooling is used.
•DICED TOMATO PRODUCTION
•Diced tomatoes have become very popular because of the increase in salsa consumption.
•Dices are processed in a similar manner to canned tomatoes.
•The major difference is that the tomatoes (peeled or unpeeled) are diced into 3/8 -, 1/2-, or 1-inch cubes, inspected to remove green or blemished dices, then calcified.
•Calcification can occur by direct addition of calcium to the container, or by conveying the dices through a calcium bath.
•The dices are then packed into cans for thermal processing or aseptically packed.
•In the past, 80% of dices were thermally processed in no.10 cans.
•Cans are still common, but aseptic processing has increased the amount of dices sold in 55- and 300- gallon containers.
•Dices have an 18- to 24-month shelf life.
•Calcium salts can be added as needed to increase firmness and drained weight, but the final amount of calcium cannot exceed 0.08% by weight (CFR 2000).
•These salts are typically in the form of calcium chloride, calcium sulfate, calcium citrate or mono-calcium phosphate.
•For direct addition, the calcium can be added in the form of a tablet or mixed with the cover juice.
•For immersion, the dices are conveyed through a calcium bath, or mixed with a calcium solution that is drained off after a holding period.
•Immersion causes a significant loss of acid and sugar over that from addition of calcium to the can;
•however immersion results in significantly firmer tomatoes for the same final calcium content.
•A number of studies have attempted to determine the best conditions for immersion of the dices. The best conditions have been determined to be dipping in 0.75% calcium for one minute or 0.43% calcium for 3.5 minutes.
•The resulting firmness is dependent on calcium concentration and time, but not temperature.
•The drained weight is dependent on the calcium concentration, time, and temperature .
•In general, calcium concentration in the dipping solution is the most important factor.
•The firmness and drained weight are linearly related to the calcium content and dipping time, though the changes in firmness are much larger than the changes in drained weight.
•Experimentally, it has been shown that pectin methylesterase (PME) further increases the firmness of the dices.
•The PME activity deesterifies the galacturonic acid subunits, making them available to bind to the calcium ions.
•The firmness of the dices can be doubled with the addition of PME.
•Tomato firmness can be increased more economically by processing the dices in a dip solution at a higher pH (7.5) for a longer time (five minutes) to allow the natural enzymes to act within the tomato.
•Based on sensory evaluation, dices become inedible at approximately 1.5 times the legal limit of calcium in the dices.
•It has been reported that an adverse effect can be observed at calcium contents as low as 0.045- 0.050%.
•The lower the calcium content, the higher the dices score in sweetness and natural taste.
•The higher the calcium, the higher the acidity taste and the lower the pH.
•WASTE AND WASTEWATER
•Wastewater disposal is a critical issue in some locations, and the high cost of disposal can put a tomato processor out of business.
•By volume, approximately half of the wastewater in a tomato processing plant comes from tomato washing, a third from peeling, and a fifth from canning.
•Most of the waste and wastewater produced during tomato processing is biodegradable and can be disposed of on fields.
•Lye-peeling wastewater is the major exception, if lye peeling is used. This wastewater can be disposed of in the sewer system;
•however, it has a high organic load and thus is expensive. Some treatment plants also object to the high pH.
•Some processors report that they have disposed of their potash peeling solution on their fields without any adverse effects.
•It is also been proposed that the lye-peeling waste be treated with HC1 and reclaimed as salt for use in canning, although this is not done in practice.
•In most cases, lye-peeling wastewater must be disposed of in the sewer system.
•Several treatment methods for reducing the organic load before disposal in the sewer system have been tried.
•These methods are used either to decrease the amount the plant is charged for wastewater treatment, or because local laws restrict the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and volume of wastewater that can be discharged into the public sewer system.
•Treatment methods include microbial digestion, coagulant chemicals, and membrane filtration.
Part II: Applications: MEASUREMENT OF QUALITY AND HOW IT IS AFFECTED BY GROWING CONDITIONS
•COLOR AND LYCOPENE
•There are several methods for measuring color. The voluntary USDA grading standards for tomatoes to be processed use the Munsell disk colorimeter .
•The Munsell disk colorimeter consists of two spinning disks containing various percentages of red, yellow, black, and gray.
•As the disks spin, they visually combine to produce the same color as the tomato.
•USDA color comparators are plastic color standards that can be used to visually grade tomatoes.
•With fresh tomatoes, the Agtron colorimeter is common, especially for tomato juice and halves.
•The Agtron is an abridged spectrophotometer that measures the reflection at one to three wavelengths and reports the result as a color score.
•For processed tomato products, the Hunter colorimeter is common. The Hunter measures the L, a, and b values. The a and b values are put into a formula, dependent on the machine, to correlate to color standards provided by the University of California – Davis.
•The Agtron and Gardner can also be converted to these color scores. In the scientific literature, the L, a, and b values are converted to hue angle (arc tangent b/a).
Consumers associate a red, dark-colored tomato product with good quality.
•The red color of tomatoes is created by the linear carotenoid lycopene.
•Lycopene constitutes 80 – 90% of the carotenoids present. With the onset of ripening, the lycopene content increases.
•The final lycopene concentration in the tomato depends on both the variety and the growing conditions.
•Some tomato varieties have been bred to be very high in lycopene, resulting in a bright red color.
•During growth, both light level and temperature affect the lycopene content.
•The effect of light on lycopene content is debated. Some authors report that shading increases lycopene content, while others report mixed results.
•The effect of temperature is much more straightforward. At high temperatures, over 30°C, lycopene does not develop.
•VISCOSITY AND CONSISTENCY
•For liquid tomato products, viscosity is a very important quality parameter. It is second only to color as a measure of quality.
•Viscosity also has economic implications because the higher the viscosity of the tomato paste, the less needs to be added to reach the desired final product consistency.
•To the scientist, viscosity is determined by analytical rheometers, while consistency is an empirical measurement.
•To the consumer they are synonyms.
•Depending on the method, either the viscosity or the consistency of the product may be measured.
•Tomato products are non- Newtonian; therefore, many methods measure consistency rather than viscosity.
•The standard method for determining the consistency of most tomato products is the Bostwick consistometer.
•The Bostwick value indicates how far the material at 20°C flows under its own weight along a flat trough in 30 seconds.
•Tomato concentrates are typically measured at 12% NTSS to remove the effect of solids. Theoretically, this can be modeled as a slump flow.
•The Bostwick consistometer measures the shear stress under a fixed shear rate.
•Efflux viscometers such as the Libby tube (for tomato juice) and the Canon-Fenske (for serum viscosity) measure shear rate under fixed shear stress.
•The viscosity of tomato products is determined by solids content, serum viscosity, and the physical characteristics of the cell wall material.
•The solids content is affected by the cultivar, but is primarily determined by the degree of concentration.
•The serum viscosity is largely determined by the pectin.
•Pectin is a structural cell wall polysaccharide. The primary component of pectin is polygalacturonic acid, a homopolymer of (1- 4) alpha-D-galacturonic acid and rhamnogalacturonans.
•Some of the carboxyl groups are esterified with methyl alcohol.
•Pectin methylesterase (PME) removes these ester groups. This leaves the pectin vulnerable to attack by polygalacturonase (PG), which cleaves between the galacturonic acid rings in the middle of the pectin chain, greatly reducing the viscosity.
•During the break process, heat is used to inactivate pectolytic enzymes, but these enzymes are released during crushing and act very quickly.
•Genetic modification has been used to produce plants with either an antisense PME or an antisense PG gene to inactivate the enzyme, producing juice with a significantly higher viscosity.
•The physical state of the cell wall fragments affects viscosity by determining how easily the particles slide past each other.
•Most tomato products are homogenized to create more linear particles, which when the fruit is fully ripe.
•Light probably has a more profound effect on sugar concentration in tomatoes than any other environmental factor.
•The seasonal trends in the sugar content of greenhouse grown tomatoes have been found to roughly follow the pattern of solar radiation.
•Even the minor shading that is provided by the foliage reduces the total sugar content by up to 13%.
FINISHED PRODUCT SPOILAGE
•Based on experience, spoilage of tomato products other than juice and whole tomatoes is caused by non—spore-forming aciduric bacteria.
•These bacteria are readily destroyed by processes in which the inside of the can reaches at least 85°C.
•Spoilage of whole tomatoes can be caused by these same microorganisms, but whole tomatoes are also susceptible to spoilage by spore formers such as Clostridium pasteurianum.
•Juice is commonly spoiled by Bacillus coagulans (formerly B. thermoacidurans
•In the past, flat sour spoilage due to B. coagulans was a major problem in tomato products.
•Flat sour spoilage causes off flavors and odors, and the pH of the juice drops to 3.5.
•The spores of these microbes are too resistant to heat to be destroyed by practical heat treatments at 100°C if they are present in high numbers, so they must be controlled by limiting initial levels or by processing at temperatures above the boiling point.
•These organisms occur in the soil and grow on some equipment.
•The National Canners Association (NCA) recommendation for eliminating Clostridium spores is F93oc = 10 minutes for pH above 4.3, and F93oc = 5 minutes for pH below 4.3.
•Against spores of B. coagulans, the recommendation is F107oc = 0.7 minutes at pH 4.5.
•Historically, the occurrence of swelled cans is most commonly due to either hydrogen swells or growth of C. pasteurianum.
•C. pasteurianum produces carbon dioxide, so determination of the type of gas in the headspace is one way to determine the cause.
•QUALITY CHANGES DURING PROCESSING
•The type of process is important in determining how much quality loss occurs.
•For the same F value, significantly more vitamin C is lost during thermal processing of whole peeled tomatoes in a rotary pressure cooker than in a high-temperature, short-time (HTST) process.
•Similarly, the texture is significantly firmer after the HTST processing.
•During canning, the nutrient content remains fairly stable (Table 29.1).
•The already small lipid content decreases because of the removal of the skin.
•The calcium and sodium contents increase because the processors add them to improve the firmness and flavor of the tomatoes.
•The vitamin A content is fairly constant, while the vitamin C content is reduced by 45%.
•Bioavailable lycopene content increases, because processing makes the carotenoid more available to the body.
•Color loss is accelerated by high temperature and exposure to oxygen during processing.
•The red color of tomatoes is mainly determined by the carotenoid lycopene, and the main cause of lycopene degradation is oxidation.
•Oxidation is complex and depends on many factors, including processing conditions, moisture, temperature, and the presence of pro- or antioxidants.
•Several processing steps are known to promote oxidation of lycopene
•During hot break, the hotter the break temperature, the greater the loss of color, even when operating under a vacuum.
•However in some varieties the break temperature affects color while in others it does not.
•The use of fine screens in juice extraction enhances oxidation because of the large surface area exposed to air and metal.
•Similarly, concentrating tomato juice to paste in the presence of oxygen degrades lycopene.
•It has been reported that heat concentration of tomato pulp can result in up to 57% loss of lycopene.
•However, other authors have reported that lycopene is very heat resistant and that no changes occur during heat treatment.
•With current evaporators it is likely very little destruction of lycopene occurs.
•Processing also affects color due to the formation of brown pigments.
•This is not necessarily detrimental, because a small amount of thermal damage resulting in a darker serum color increases the overall red appearance of tomato paste.
•Browning is caused by a number of reactions.
•Excessive heat treatments can cause browning due to caramelization of the sugars.
•Amadori products, representing the onset of the Maillard reaction, occur during all stages of processing, including breaking, concentrating, and canning.
•However, during production of tomato paste the Maillard reaction is still of minor importance.
•Degradation of ascorbic acid has been suggested to be the major cause of browning.
•Processing and storage at lower temperatures, decreasing the pH to 2.5, and the addition of sulfites can decrease browning.
•Canning significantly softens the fruit, so calcium is frequently added to increase the firmness.
•Varieties have been bred to be firm to withstand machine harvesting, which has also increased the firmness of canned tomatoes.
•Conditions during processing such as temperature, screen size, and blade speed will affect the final viscosity of the juice.
•Hot break juice typically has a higher viscosity than cold break juice due to inactivation of the enzymes that degrade pectin.
•At very high break temperatures, such as 100°C, the structure collapses and the viscosity decreases again, although this effect is not always observed.
•The screen size and blade speed during extraction are also important factors. The effect of screen size is not a simple relationship.
•A higher viscosity is produced using a screen size of 1.0 mm than either 0.5 mm or 1.5 mm.
•Other studies have found no effect of finisher size on final viscosity.
•The faster the blade is, the higher the viscosity.
•The higher the evaporation temperature is, the greater the loss of viscosity.
•Factors that affect the quantity and quality of the solids determine the degree of serum separation that occurs.
•The higher the temperature during the break process, the less serum separation occurs.
•Hot break juice has less serum separation than cold break juice.
•This may be due to greater retention of intact pectin in the hot break juice, although it was found that the total amount of pectin did not affect the degree of settling in tomato juice.
•The cellulose fiber may be more important in preventing serum separation than the pectin.
•Addition of pectinases degrades the pectin, increasing the dispersal of cellulose from the cell walls.
•The expansion of this cellulose minimizes serum separation.
•Homogenization is commonly used to shred the cells, increasing the number of particles in solution and creating cells with ragged edges that reduce serum separation.
•The result is particles that will not efficiently pack and settle
•Of these two effects, changing the shape of the particles is more important than change in size.
•Evaporator temperature during concentration has little effect on serum separation.
•Processed tomato products have a distinctively different aroma from fresh tomato products. This is due to both the loss and the creation of volatiles.
•Heating drives away many of the volatiles.
•Oxidative decomposition of carotenoids causes the formation of terpenes and terpene-like compounds, and the Maillard reaction produces volatile carbonyl and sulfur compounds.
•Many of the volatiles responsible for the fresh tomato flavor are lost during processing, especially cis-3-hexenal and hexenal.
•Cis-3-hexenal, an important component of fresh tomato flavor, is rapidly transformed into the more stable trans-2-hexenal;
•therefore, it is not present in heat-processed products.
•The amount of 2-isobutylthiazole, responsible for a tomato leaf green aroma, diminishes during the manufacture of tomato puree and paste.
•Other volatiles are created. Breakdown of sugars and carotenoids produce compounds responsible for the cooked odor.
•Dimethyl sulfide is a major contributor to the aroma of heated tomato products.
•Its contribution to the characteristic flavor of canned tomato juice is more than 50%.
•Linalool, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-octen-3-one, acetaldehyde, and geranylacetone may also contribute to the cooked aroma.
•Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid, which is formed during heat treatment, has been blamed for an off flavor that occasionally appears.
•This compound, formed by cyclization of glutamine, arises as early as the break process.
•Heating causes degradation of some flavor volatiles and inactivates lipoxygenase and associated enzymes that are responsible for producing some of the characteristic fresh tomato flavor.
•However, some authors have found that hot break produces a better flavor, while others have found that it produces a less fresh flavor.
•Within one study, the flavor of one variety may be rated better as cold break juice than as hot break juice, and another variety the reverse.
•This may in part be because some panelists prefer the flavor of heat-treated tomato juice to fresh juice.
•Processing conditions further affect the pH and acidity of processed tomato products.
•During processing, the pH decreases and total acid content increases, although the citric acid content may increase or decrease.
•Hot break juice has a lower titratable acidity and higher pH than cold break juice.
•The difference is caused by breakdown of pectin by pectolytic enzymes that are still present in the cold break juice.
•During heat treatment, the reducing sugar content decreases due to caramelization, Maillard reaction, and the formation of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural.
•The amount of sugar lost depends on the process.
•Studies have reported as much as a 19% loss in processed tomato juice and a 5% loss during spray drying.
•QUALITY CHANGES DURING STORAGE
•Changes in flavor are the most sensitive index to quality deterioration during storage, followed by color.
•The Maillard reaction is the major mode of deterioration during storage of canned fruit and vegetable products, in general, and leads to a bitter off flavor.
•A number of studies have used hedonic measurements to determine the end of shelf life for tomato products.
•However, many of these studies did not go on long enough to find the end of shelf life.
•No significant differences were found between the flavor of tomato concentrates stored for six months at 4°C and those stored at 21°C for the same period.
•The samples at 38°C were significantly different; however, neither the fresh nor the stored sample was preferred.
•Canned tomatoes stored for three years at 21°C were rated fair, due to a slightly stale, bitter or tinny off flavor.
•Storage at 21°C should be limited to 24 – 30 months, and that at 38°C to less than a year.
•There is little problem with color changes during storage. When no oxygen is present, the red pigment lycopene slowly degrades by an autocatalytic mechanism
•No loss of lycopene was seen in hot break tomato puree that was stored up to a year.
•Cold break puree did show a loss of lycopene, likely due to enzymatic activity.
•In addition to degradation of lycopene, darkening occurs during storage due to nonenzymatic browning.
•Typically, the color does not change during storage if the product is kept at room temperature or below.
•No difference in serum color was seen after 300 days at 20°C, for either hot or cold break tomato paste.
•When stored at 31°C, cold break paste did darken faster than hot break paste.
•Extreme conditions of 12 months at 88°C were required to reduce the color of tomato juice to grade C.
•Products stored at lower temperatures or shorter times were still grade A.
•Vitamin C is the most labile of the nutrients, so its degradation is used as an indicator of quality.
•No loss in natural vitamin C was found in tomato juice after nine months of storage at up to 20°C.
•In another study, some losses were seen at 31°C. After 1.2 years, some degradation of vitamin C was seen at storage temperatures of 6 – 11°C, but at least 80% was still present when stored at 6 – 20°C. At 25°C, 55% remained.
•When samples were fortified with vitamin C, this added vitamin C degraded at storage temperatures as low as 2°C.
•This occurs because the added vitamin C is not bound or protected in the juice the way the natural vitamin C is.
•APPLICATION OF PROCESSING PRINCIPLES
•Table 29.2. lists some examples illustrating
specific processing stages and
the principle(s) involved in the manufacturing of tomato products, as well as
references where additional information may be found.
•Serum separation can be a significant problem in liquid tomato products.
•Serum separation occurs when the solids begin to settle out of solution, leaving the clear, straw-colored serum as a layer on top of the product.
•Preventing serum separation requires that the insoluble particles remain in a stable suspension throughout the serum.
•Generally, the higher the viscosity, the less serum separation occurs.
•Homogenization significantly reduces serum separation.
•The flavor of tomatoes is determined by the variety used, the stage of ripeness, and the conditions of processing.
•Typically, varieties have not been bred for optimal flavor, although some work has focused on breeding tomatoes with improved flavor.
•Processing tomatoes are picked fully ripe; therefore, the concern that tomatoes that are picked mature but unripe have less flavor is not important.
•Processing generally causes a loss of flavor. Processes are not optimized for the best flavor retention, but practices that maximize color usually also maximize flavor retention.
•When flavor is evaluated, it is done by sensory evaluation. Gas chromatography is used to determine the exact volatiles present.
•Favor is made up of taste and odor. The sweet- sour taste of tomatoes is due to their sugar and organic acid content.
•The most important of these are citric acid and fructose.
•The sugar/acid ratio is frequently used to rate the taste of tomatoes, though Stevens et al. (1977) recommend against it because tomatoes with a higher concentration of both sugars and acids taste better than those with low concentrations, for the same ratio.
•The free amino acids, salts, and their buffers also affect the character and intensity of the taste.
•The odor of tomatoes is created by the over 400 volatiles that have been identified in tomato fruit.
•No single volatile is responsible for producing the characteristic tomato flavor.
•The volatiles that appear to be most important to fresh tomato flavor include cis-3-hexenal, 2-isobutylthia- zole, beta ionone, hexenal, trans-2-hexenal, cis3-hexenol, trans-2-trans-4-decadienal, 6-methyl-
5-hepten-2-one, and 1 -penten-3-one.
•PH AND TITRATABLE ACIDITY
•The pH of tomatoes has been reported to range from 3.9 to 4.9, or in standard cultivars, 4.0 to 4.7.
•The critical issue with tomatoes is to ensure that they have a pH below 4.7, so that they can be processed as high-acid foods.
•The lower the pH, the greater the inhibition of Bacillus coagulans, and the less likely flat sour spoilage will occur.
•Within the range of mature, red ripe to overly mature tomatoes, the more mature the tomato, the higher the pH.
•Thus pH is more likely to be a concern at the end of the season.
•The USDA standards of identity allow organic acids to be added to lower the pH as needed during processing.
•The acid content of tomatoes varies according to maturity, climactic conditions, and cultural method.
•The acid concentration is important because it affects the flavor and pH.
•Citric and malic are the most abundant acids. The malic acid contribution falls quickly as the fruit turns red, while the citric acid content is fairly stable.
•The average acidity of processing tomatoes is about 0.35%, expressed as citric acid.
•The total acid content increases during ripening to the breaker stage, then decreases.
•The relationship between total acidity and pH is not a simple inverse relationship.
•The phosphorous in the fruit acts as a buffer, regulating the pH.
•Of the environmental factors, the potassium content of the soil most strongly affects the total acid content of the fruit. The higher the potassium content the greater the acidity.
•TOTAL SOLIDS, DEGREES Biux, NTSS, AND SUGAR CONTENT
•Tomato solids are important because they affect the yield and consistency of the finished product.
•Due to the time required to make total solids measurements, soluble solids are more frequently measured.
•Soluble solids are measured with a refractometer that measures the refractive index of the solution.
•The refractive index is dependent on the concentration and temperature of solutes in the solution; therefore, many refractometers are temperature controlled.
•The majority of the soluble solids are sugars, so refractometers are calibrated directly in percentage sugar, or degrees Brix.
•Natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS) are the same as degrees Brix, minus any added salt.
The sugar content reaches a peak in tomatoes