E400 – E495

Number Name Comments
E400 Alginic
acid
thickener
and vegetable gum, derived from seaweed; used in custard mix, cordial,
flavoured milk, ice blocks, thickened cream and yoghurt; no known adverse
effects in small quantities, large quantities can inhibit the absorption of
some nutrients
E401 Sodium
alginate
see 400
E402 Potassium
alginate
see 400
E403 Ammonium
alginate
see 400
E404 Calcium
alginate
see 400
E405 Propylene
glycol alginate
thickener
and vegetable gum, derived from petroleum; see separate entry
E406 Agar thickener
and vegetable gum derived from red seaweed; sometimes used as a laxative,
found in manufactured meats and ice cream
E407 Carrageenan
a fibre
extracted from seaweed, it has recently been linked with cancer because it
may become contaminated when ethylene oxide is added to an inferior product,
this results in ethylene chlorohydrins forming, a highly carcinogenic compound;
linked to toxic hazards, including ulcers and cancer; the most serious
concerns relate to degraded carrageen, which is not a permitted additive;
however, native carrageen an, which is used, may become degraded in the gut
E410 Locust
bean gum
derived
from Carob or Locust bean tree Ceratonia siliqua; used in lollies,
cordials, essences, some flour products, dressings, fruit juice drinks;
frequently used as a caffeine-free chocolate substitute; may lower
cholesterol levels
E412 Guar
gum
derived
from the seeds of Cyamoposis tetragonolobus of Indian origin; fed to
cattle in the US; can cause nausea, flatulence and cramps, may reduced
cholesterol levels
E413 Tragacanth
resin
form the tree Astragalus gummifer; used in foods, drugs including nasal
solutions, elixirs and tablets; also used as a binder in cosmetics; possible
contact allergy
E414 Acacia derived
from the sap of Acacia Sengal; easily broken down by the human
digestive system; possible allergen, soothes irritations of mucous membranes
E415 Xanthan
gum
derived
from the fermentation of corn sugar with a bacterium
E416 Karaya
gum
derived
from the tree Sterculia urens; often used in conjunction with Carob (E
410), in ice cream, custard and sweets, as a filler for its capability to
multiply its volume by 100 times with the addition of water; possible
allergen
E417 Tara
gum
derived
from the Tara bush, Caesalpinia Spinosa is indigenous to Ecuador and
Peru and is grown in Kenya
E420 Sorbitol
artificial
sweetener and humectants; derived from glucose, either obtained from berries
or synthesised; used in lollies, dried fruit, pastries, confectionary, low
calorie foods, pharmaceutical syrups and ophthalmic preparations and is the
seventh most widely used preservative in cosmetics; not permitted in foods
for infants and young children, can cause gastric disturbance
E421 Mannitol
artificial
sweetener and humectants; derived from seaweed or the manna ash tree;
possible allergen, not permitted in infant foods due to its ability to cause
diarrhoea and kidney dysfunction, also may cause nausea, vomiting; typical
products are low calorie foods
E422# Glycerol
humectants
and sweetener; oily colourless alcohol; derived by decomposition of natural
fats with alkalis; usually as a by-product of soap making using animal fat or
vegetable oil; can be obtained from petroleum products sometimes synthesised
from propylene or fermented from sugar; used in flexible coatings on sausages
and cheeses, also in crystallised and dried fruit, liqueurs and vodka.
“Glycerine has been shown to protect against DNA damage induced by
tumour promoters, ultraviolet lights and radiation, presumably via free
radical scavenging”; large quantities can cause headaches, thirst,
nausea and high blood sugar levels. Typical products are liquors,
confectionary, dried fruit, low calorie foods
E430# ? ?
E431# Polyoxyethylene
stearate
?
E432# Polysorbate
20
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E433# Polysorbate
80
emulsifiers
derived from animal fatty acids; used as synthetic flavourings, surfactants,
defoaming agents and dough conditioners; may increase the absorption of
fat-soluble substances
E434# Polysorbate
40
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E435# Polysorbate
60
see 433
E436# Polysorbate
120
see 433
E440(a) Pectin naturally
occurring in the skins of apples; used to thicken jams, jellies and sauces;
large quantities may cause temporary flatulence or intestinal discomfort
E440(b) Amidated
pectin
no
known adverse effects
E441# Gelatine
possible
allergen, may contain 220, asthmatics and people allergic to sulphites
beware!
E442 Ammonium
phosphatides
no
known adverse effects
E450 Diphosphates
High
intakes may upset the calcium/phosphate equilibrium
E460 Cellulose
anti-caking
agent; no adverse effects known
E461 Methyl
cellulose
can
cause flatulence, distension, intestinal obstruction
E463 Hydroxypropyl
cellulose
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E464 Hydroxypropyl
methyl cellulose
no
known adverse effects
E4120 Ethyl
methyl cellulose
no
known adverse effects
E466 Carboxy
methyl cellulose, Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose
no
known adverse effects
E469 Sodium
caseinate
no
known adverse effects
E470# Fatty
acids salts
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E471# Mono
& di glycerides of fatty acids
no
known adverse effects
E472# Fatty
acid esters of glycerides
no
known adverse effects
E473# Sucrose
esters of fatty acids
no
known adverse effects
E474# Sucroglycerides
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E475# Polyglycerol
esters of fatty acids
no
known adverse effects
E476# Polyglycerol
polyricinoleate
no
known adverse effects
E477# Propylene
glycol esters of fatty acids
derived
from petroleum; no known adverse effects
E478# ? ?
E479(b)# Thermally
oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
?
E480 Dioctyl
sodium sulphosuccinate
awaiting
results of studies
E481# Sodium
stearoyl-2-lactylate
no
known adverse effects
E482# Calcium
stearoyl-2-lactylate
no
known adverse effects
E483# Stearyl
tartrate
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E491# Sorbitan
monos tearate
no
known adverse effects
E492# Sorbitan
tristearate
may
increase the absorption of fat-soluble substances
E493# Sorbitan
monolaurate
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E494# Sorbitan
mono-oleate
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E495# Sorbitan
monopalmitate
avoid it,
banned in some countries

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