Etiket Arşivleri: avoid it

E900 – E1520

Number Name Comments
E900Dimethyl
polysiloxane
silicone
based
E901#Beeswaxes
glazing
agent, used to wax fruit; see bee products; occasionally causes allergic
reactions
E903Carnauba
wax
derived
from a South American palm; used in cosmetics and inks, and to wax fruit;
occasionally causes allergic reactions
E904#Shellac
derived
from insects; occasionally causes irritations of the skin
E905#Paraffins,
Microcrystalline wax
may
inhibit absorption of fats and fat soluble vitamins, mild laxative, there may
be a link to
bowel cancer; used on sweets, in processing yeast, vitamin tablets, dried
fruit, confectionary, collagen
E907#Refined
microcrystalline wax
avoid
it, banned in some countries
E913#Lanolin
derived
from sheep wool
E920#L-Cystein
flour
treatment agent derived from animal hair and chicken feathers
E921#L-Cystin
see
E920
E924Potassium
bromate
large
quantities can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, pain. Typical products are
flour products
E925Chlorine
destroys
nutrients, carcinogen, in some areas tab water is contaminated with it, to
make it ‘safer’ to drink. Typical products are flour products
E926Chlorine
dioxide
well…..basically
see 925
E927Azodicarbonamide
avoid
it, banned in some countries
E928Benzoyl
peroxide
approved
by FDA* for bleaching the
carotenoids in
refined flours; asthmatics and people with a history of allergies BEWARE, see
210
E931Nitrogen
used in
freezing and vacuum packing; seems safe
E932Nitrous
oxide
seems
quite safe in small quantities
E950Acesulphane
potassium
?
E951#Aspartame
artificial
sweetener, too many adverse effects possible to list, some people are
allergic to aspartame, migraine headaches a common reaction in these people
E952Cyclamic
acid
calcium
& sodium cyclamate, artificial sweetener; known to cause migraines and
other reactions, can be carcinogenic, caused damage ot rats testicles and
mouse embriyos in tests,
banned in the US and UK due
its links with
cancer
E954Saccharines
calcium
& sodium saccharin; artificial sweetener derived from toluene (a known
carcinogen);
banned in 1977 in the US, but reinstated subject to
strict labelling starting: “Use of this product may be hazardous to your
health, this product contains saccharin which has been determined to cause
cancer in
laboratory animals”
E957Thaumatin
artificial
sweetener, a protein derived from the tropical plant Thaumococcus danielli;
used to sweeten wines, bread and fruit
E9120Maltitol,
Hydrogenated glucose syrup
humectant,
starch decomposed with digestive enzymes; used in confectionery, dried
fruits, low-joule foods; laxative in high concentrations
E967Xylitol
humectant,
found in raspberries, plums, lettuce and endives, though produced for
commercial purposes from wood pulp; caused kidney stones and a diuretic
effect on test rats: a waste of time and the lives of the rats, for the JEFCA
in 1983 ruled the tests invalid in relation to humans, the symptoms caused by
‘physiological disturbances’ in the rats!, we can only imagine what
conditions led to upset rats; used in low-joule foods and
carbohydratemodified sweets, icecream and jams
E999Quillaia
extract
foaming
agent, emulsifier, natural surfactant; derived from
chilean soap bark tree (Quillaia Saponaria); used
in beer and soda; known to promote healing and reduce excessive oiliness in
the skin
E1100#Amylase
derived
from mould mushroom or pig pancreas
E1200Polydextrose
seems
safe in small doses
E1201Polyvinylpyrrolidone
dispersing
agent, coating for tablets; used in artificial sweeteners
E1202Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone
clarifying
agent for wine, colour and colloidal stabiliser
E1400-E1450Starches
no
known adverse effects
E1505Triethyl
acetate
part
becomes alcohol in the body
E1510Ethanol
alcohol
E1517, E1518#Glycerol
acetates
humectants
and solvent derived from glycerol; used to coat fresh fruit in the US
E1520Propylene
glycol
humectants,
wetting agent, dispersing agent, petroleum based; its glycerine like taste
has made it popular for children’s medications and other elixirs; used in
many topical creams and ointments, cosmetics, hair products and deodorants;
has been linked with fatal heart attacks (when given intravenously), central
nervous system depression and cosmetic or pharmaceutical contact dermatitis

E620 – E640

Number Name Comments
E620Glutamic
acid
flavour
enhancer, salt substitute; amino acid present in many animal and vegetable
proteins, derived commercially from bacteria; might cause similar problems as
MSG(621), young children
should avoid it
E621Monosodium
glutamate (MSG)
flavour
enhancer derived from the fermentation of molasses, salt substitute; adverse
effects appear in some asthmatic people, not permitted in foods for infants
and young children; typical products are canned vegetables, canned tuna,
dressings, many frozen foods
E622Monopotassium
glutamate
can
cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps; typical products are low
sodium salt substitutes
E623Calcium
diglutamate
salt
substitute, no known adverse effects
E624Monoammonium
glutamate
salt
substitute, no known adverse effects
E625Magnesium
diglutamate
salt
substitute, no known adverse effects
E626Guanylic
acid
may
trigger gout
E627Disodium
guanylate
isolated
from sardines or yeast extract; may trigger gout, not permitted in foods for
infants and young children
E629Calcium
guanylate
may
trigger gout
E631#Disodium
inosinate
may be
prepared from meat or sardines; may trigger gout, not permitted in foods for
infants and young children
E633Calcium
inosinate
may
trigger gout
E635#Disodium
5′-ribonucleotide
may be
associated with itchy skin rashes up to 30 hours after ingestion; rashes may
vary from mild to dramatic; the reaction is dose-related and cumulative, some
individuals are more sensitive than others; typical foods include flavoured
chips, instant noodles and party pies;
avoid it, banned in some
countries
E636Maltol derived
from the bark of larch trees, pine needles, chicory wood, oils and roasted
malt; it may be produced synthetically
E637Ethyl
maltol
derived
from maltol
E640#Glycine
& its sodium salt
?

E500 – E585

Number

Name

Comments
E500Sodium
carbonates
no
known adverse effects in small quantities
E501Potassium
carbonates
no
known adverse effects
E503Ammonium
carbonates
irritant
to mucous membranes
E504Magnesium
carbonate
medically
used as an antacid and laxative
E507Hydrochloric
acid
safe in
small quantities
E508Potassium
chloride
large
quantities can cause gastric ulceration
E509Calcium
chloride
derived
from brine
E510Ammonium
chloride
should be
avoided
by people with impaired liver or kidney function. Typical
products are flour products
E511Magnesium
chloride
magnesium
is an essential mineral
E513Sulphuric
acid
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E514Sodium
sulphates
may
upset the body’s water balance
E515Potassium
sulphates
no
known adverse effects
E516Calcium
sulphate
derived
from limestone
E518Magnesium
sulphate
a
laxative
E519Copper
sulphate
essential
mineral
E524Sodium
hydroxide
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E525Potassium
hydroxide
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E526Calcium
hydroxide
no
adverse effects in small quantities
E527Ammonium
hydroxide
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E528Magnesium
hydroxide
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E529Calcium
oxide
safe in
small quantities
E530Magnesium
oxide
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E535Sodium
ferrocyanide
no
adverse effects known
E536Potassium
ferrocyanide
by-product
of coal gas production; low toxicity
E540Dicalcium
diphosphate
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E541Sodium
aluminium phosphate, Acidic
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E542#Bone
phosphate
derived
from bones; used in dried milk for coffee machines
E544Calcium
polyphosphates
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E545Ammonium
polyphosphates
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E551Silicon
dioxide
no
adverse effects are known in food use
E552Calcium
silicate
derived
from limestone and diatomaceous earth (the silicified skeletons of diatoms, a
single celled plankton), antacid; no known adverse effects
E553(a)Magnesium
silicates
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E553(b)Talc has
been linked to
stomach cancer, typical products are polished rice,
chocolate, confectionary
E554Sodium
aluminium silicate
used in
salt, dried milk substitutes and flours; aluminium is known to cause
placental problems in pregnancy and has been linked to Alzheimer’s
E556Calcium
aluminium silicate
derived
from minerals; used in milk powders; see E554
E558Bentonite
no
known adverse effects
E559Aluminium
silicate (Kaolin)
no
known adverse effects
E570#Stearic
acid
possibly
of animal origin; see stearates
E572#Magnesium
stearate
no
known adverse effects in food use
E575Glucono
delta-lactone
no
known adverse effects
E576Sodium
gluconate
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E577Potassium
gluconate
no
known adverse effects
E578Calcium
gluconate
no
known adverse effects
E579Ferrous
gluconate
colour-retention
agent; derived from iron and glucose; used in olives, iron supplements; safe
in small amounts
E585Ferrous
lactate
?

E400 – E495

Number Name Comments
E400Alginic
acid
thickener
and vegetable gum, derived from seaweed; used in custard mix, cordial,
flavoured milk, ice blocks, thickened cream and yoghurt; no known adverse
effects in small quantities, large quantities can inhibit the absorption of
some nutrients
E401Sodium
alginate
see 400
E402Potassium
alginate
see 400
E403Ammonium
alginate
see 400
E404Calcium
alginate
see 400
E405Propylene
glycol alginate
thickener
and vegetable gum, derived from petroleum; see separate entry
E406Agar thickener
and vegetable gum derived from red seaweed; sometimes used as a laxative,
found in manufactured meats and ice cream
E407Carrageenan
a fibre
extracted from seaweed, it has recently been linked with cancer because it
may become contaminated when ethylene oxide is added to an inferior product,
this results in ethylene chlorohydrins forming, a highly carcinogenic compound;
linked to toxic hazards, including ulcers and cancer; the most serious
concerns relate to degraded carrageen, which is not a permitted additive;
however, native carrageen an, which is used, may become degraded in the gut
E410Locust
bean gum
derived
from Carob or Locust bean tree Ceratonia siliqua; used in lollies,
cordials, essences, some flour products, dressings, fruit juice drinks;
frequently used as a caffeine-free chocolate substitute; may lower
cholesterol levels
E412Guar
gum
derived
from the seeds of Cyamoposis tetragonolobus of Indian origin; fed to
cattle in the US; can cause nausea, flatulence and cramps, may reduced
cholesterol levels
E413Tragacanth
resin
form the tree Astragalus gummifer; used in foods, drugs including nasal
solutions, elixirs and tablets; also used as a binder in cosmetics; possible
contact allergy
E414Acacia derived
from the sap of Acacia Sengal; easily broken down by the human
digestive system; possible allergen, soothes irritations of mucous membranes
E415Xanthan
gum
derived
from the fermentation of corn sugar with a bacterium
E416Karaya
gum
derived
from the tree Sterculia urens; often used in conjunction with Carob (E
410), in ice cream, custard and sweets, as a filler for its capability to
multiply its volume by 100 times with the addition of water; possible
allergen
E417Tara
gum
derived
from the Tara bush, Caesalpinia Spinosa is indigenous to Ecuador and
Peru and is grown in Kenya
E420Sorbitol
artificial
sweetener and humectants; derived from glucose, either obtained from berries
or synthesised; used in lollies, dried fruit, pastries, confectionary, low
calorie foods, pharmaceutical syrups and ophthalmic preparations and is the
seventh most widely used preservative in cosmetics; not permitted in foods
for infants and young children, can cause gastric disturbance
E421Mannitol
artificial
sweetener and humectants; derived from seaweed or the manna ash tree;
possible allergen, not permitted in infant foods due to its ability to cause
diarrhoea and kidney dysfunction, also may cause nausea, vomiting; typical
products are low calorie foods
E422#Glycerol
humectants
and sweetener; oily colourless alcohol; derived by decomposition of natural
fats with alkalis; usually as a by-product of soap making using animal fat or
vegetable oil; can be obtained from petroleum products sometimes synthesised
from propylene or fermented from sugar; used in flexible coatings on sausages
and cheeses, also in crystallised and dried fruit, liqueurs and vodka.
“Glycerine has been shown to protect against DNA damage induced by
tumour promoters, ultraviolet lights and radiation, presumably via free
radical scavenging”; large quantities can cause headaches, thirst,
nausea and high blood sugar levels. Typical products are liquors,
confectionary, dried fruit, low calorie foods
E430#? ?
E431#Polyoxyethylene
stearate
?
E432#Polysorbate
20
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E433#Polysorbate
80
emulsifiers
derived from animal fatty acids; used as synthetic flavourings, surfactants,
defoaming agents and dough conditioners; may increase the absorption of
fat-soluble substances
E434#Polysorbate
40
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E435#Polysorbate
60
see 433
E436#Polysorbate
120
see 433
E440(a)Pectin naturally
occurring in the skins of apples; used to thicken jams, jellies and sauces;
large quantities may cause temporary flatulence or intestinal discomfort
E440(b)Amidated
pectin
no
known adverse effects
E441#Gelatine
possible
allergen, may contain 220, asthmatics and people allergic to sulphites
beware!
E442Ammonium
phosphatides
no
known adverse effects
E450Diphosphates
High
intakes may upset the calcium/phosphate equilibrium
E460Cellulose
anti-caking
agent; no adverse effects known
E461Methyl
cellulose
can
cause flatulence, distension, intestinal obstruction
E463Hydroxypropyl
cellulose
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E464Hydroxypropyl
methyl cellulose
no
known adverse effects
E4120Ethyl
methyl cellulose
no
known adverse effects
E466Carboxy
methyl cellulose, Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose
no
known adverse effects
E469Sodium
caseinate
no
known adverse effects
E470#Fatty
acids salts
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E471#Mono
& di glycerides of fatty acids
no
known adverse effects
E472#Fatty
acid esters of glycerides
no
known adverse effects
E473#Sucrose
esters of fatty acids
no
known adverse effects
E474#Sucroglycerides
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E475#Polyglycerol
esters of fatty acids
no
known adverse effects
E476#Polyglycerol
polyricinoleate
no
known adverse effects
E477#Propylene
glycol esters of fatty acids
derived
from petroleum; no known adverse effects
E478#? ?
E479(b)#Thermally
oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
?
E480Dioctyl
sodium sulphosuccinate
awaiting
results of studies
E481#Sodium
stearoyl-2-lactylate
no
known adverse effects
E482#Calcium
stearoyl-2-lactylate
no
known adverse effects
E483#Stearyl
tartrate
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E491#Sorbitan
monos tearate
no
known adverse effects
E492#Sorbitan
tristearate
may
increase the absorption of fat-soluble substances
E493#Sorbitan
monolaurate
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E494#Sorbitan
mono-oleate
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E495#Sorbitan
monopalmitate
avoid it,
banned in some countries

E300 – E385

Number

Name

Comments

E300Ascorbic
acid
flour
treating agent, ‘vitamin C’; may be made synthetically from glucose,
naturally occurs in fruit and vegetables; added to products as diverse as
cured meat, breakfast cereals, frozen fish and wine
E301Sodium
ascorbate
sodium
salt of vitamin C
E302Calcium
ascorbate
vitamin
C, may increase the formation of calcium oxalate stones
E303Potassium
ascorbate
potassium
salt of vitamin C
E304Ascorbyl
palmitate, Ascorbyl stearate
fatty
acid esters of ascorbic acid, same function as E300
E306, E307,

E308, E309

Tocopherols,
alpha-,gamma-,delta-
‘vitamin
E’; found in many vegetable oils, including soy, wheat germ, rice germ,
cottonseed, maize; works as an antioxidant for fatty acids and tissue fats,
preventing vitamin A from oxidation; used in margarine and salad dressings
E310Propyl
gallate
used to
prevent rancidity in oily substances; derived from nutgalls; may cause
gastric or skin irritation, gallates are not permitted in foods for infants
and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood
disorder, methaemoglobinemia; used in oils, margarine, lard and salad
dressings, sometimes used in packaging
E311Octyl
gallate
see 310
E312Dodecyl
gallate
see 310
E317Erythorbic
acid
produced
from sucrose
E318Sodium
erythorbate
produced
from E317
E319Tert-ButylHydroQuinone
(TBHQ)
petroleum
based; the HACSG* recommends to
avoid it. May
cause nausea, vomiting, delirium. A dose of 5g is considered fatal. Typical
products are fats, oils, margarine
E320Butylated
hydroxy-anisole (BHA)
petroleum
derivative, retards spoilage due to oxidation; used in edible oils, chewing
gum, fats, margarine, nuts, instant potato products, polyethylene food wraps;
not permitted in infant foods, can provoke an allergic reaction in some
people, may trigger hyperactivity and other intolerances; serious concerns
over carcinogenicity and estrogenic effects, in large doses caused tumours in
lab animals,
banned in Japan in 1958, official committees of experts
recommended that it be banned in the UK, however due to industry pressure it
was not banned, McDonald’s eliminated BHT from their US products by 1986, see
also Butyl compounds
E321Butylated
hydroxy-toluene (BHT)
petroleum
derivative; see E320
E322#Lecithins
emulsifier
derived from soy beans, egg yolks, peanuts, corn or animal resources; non
toxic but overdose can upset the stomach, kill the appetite and cause profuse
sweating; used to allow combination of oils in margarine, chocolate,
mayonnaise, milk powder; must be chosen vegetable type
E325#Sodium
lactate
derived
from milk (lactic acid); may contain pork rennin or whey in process,
young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions
E326#Potassium
lactate
see 325
E327#Calcium
lactate
see 325
E328#Ammonium
lactate
see 325
E329#Magnesium
lactate
see 325
E330Citric
acid
food
acid, naturally derived from citrus fruit, used in biscuits, canned fish,
cheese and processed cheese products, infant formulas, cake and soup mixes,
rye bread, soft drinks, fermented meat products
E331Sodium
citrates
food
acid; no known adverse effects
E332Potassium
citrates
food
acid; no known adverse effects
E333Calcium
citrates
food
acid; no known adverse effects in small quantities
E334Tartaric
acid
food
acid, obtained from unripe fruit, grape juice;
no known adverse effects in small quantities
E335Sodium
tartrates
food
acid; no known adverse effects
E336Potassium
tartrates
food
acid; no known adverse effects
E337Sodium
potassium tartrate
food
acid; no known adverse effects
E338Phosphoric
acid
food
acid, derived from phosphate ore; used in cheese products;
no known adverse effects
E339Sodium
phosphates
mineral
salt, used as a laxative and a fixing agent in textile dyeing; high intakes
may upset the calcium/phosphorus equilibrium
E340Potassium
phosphates
see 339
E341#Calcium
phosphates
mineral
salt found in rocks and bones; used in medicines as an antacid and polishing
agent in enamels
E343Magnesium
phosphates
essential
mineral, anticaking agent found in salt substitutes
E350Sodium
malates
no
known adverse effects
E351Potassium
malate
no
known adverse effects
E352Calcium
malates
no
known adverse effects
E353Metatartaric
acid
no
known adverse effects
E354Calcium
tartrate
seems
safe
E355Adipic
acid
food
acid from the root adipose (pertaining to fat?)
E357Potassium
adipate
no
known adverse effects
E363Succinic
acid
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E3120Sodium
fumarate
food
acid, salt of fumaric acid (derived from plants of the genus Fumaria
esp. F.officianalis)
E366Potassium
fumarate
no
known adverse effects
E367Calcium
fumarate
no
known adverse effects
E3701,4-Heptonolactone
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E375Niacin vitamin
B3; naturally occurs in bean, pea and other legumes, milk, egg, meat,
poultry, and fish; at doses in excess of 1,000 mg per day can cause liver
damage, diabetes, gastritis, eye damage, and elevated blood levels of uric
acid (which can cause gout); at amounts as low as 50-100 mg may cause
flushing (harmless but painful), headache, and stomach-ache especially if
taken on an empty stomach
E380Tri-ammonium
citrate
may
interfere with liver and pancreas function
E381Ammonium
ferric citrates
essential
mineral, food acid derived from citric acid; used as a dietary iron
supplement in breakfast cereals and dietary formulas
E385Calcium
disodium EDTA
avoid it,
banned in some countries
   

 

E200 – E290

Number

Name

Comments
E200Sorbic
acid
either
obtained from berries or synthesised from ketene; possible skin irritant
E201Sodium
sorbate
no
known adverse effects
E202Potassium
sorbate
no
known adverse effects
E203Calcium
sorbate
no
known adverse effects
E210#Benzoic
acid
also
known as flowers of benzoin, phenlycarboxylic acid, carboxybenzene; added to
alcoholic beverages, baked goods, cheeses, gum, condiments, frozen dairy,
relishes, soft sweets, cordials and sugar substitutes; used in cosmetics, as
an antiseptic in many cough medications and an antifungal in ointments; can
cause asthma, especially in those dependant on steroid asthma medications, is
also reputed to cause neurological disorders and to react with sulphur
bisulphite (222), shown to provoke hyperactivity in children; obtained from Benzoin,
a resin exuded by trees native to Asia
E211Sodium
benzoate
used as
antiseptic, as a food preservative and to disguise taste, as of poor-quality
food; orange soft drinks contain a high amount of it, upto 25mg per 250ml;
also in milk and meat products, relishes and condiments, baked goods and
lollies; used in many oral medications including Actifed, Phenergan and
Tylenol; known to causes nettle rash and aggravate asthma
E212Potassium
benzoate
people
with a history of allergies may show allergic reactions. for using see 210
E213Calcium
benzoate
see 212
E214Ethyl
p-hydroxybenzoate
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E215Sodium
ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E216Propyl
p-hydroxybenzoate
possible
contact allergen
E217Sodium
propyl p-hydroxybenzoate
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E218Methyl
p-hydroxybenzoate
allergic
reactions possible, mainly affecting the skin
E219Sodium
methyl p-hydroxybenzoate
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E220Sulphur
dioxide
derived
from coal tar; all sulphur drugs are toxic and restricted in use (in USA,
FDA** prohibits their use on raw fruits and vegetables), produced by
combustion of sulphur or gypsum; known to provoke asthma attacks and
difficult to metabolise for those with impaired kidney function, also
destroys vitamin B1; typical products are beer, soft drinks, dried fruit,
juices, cordials, wine, vinegar, potato products
E221Sodium
sulphite
decontaminating
agent used in fresh orange juice; see 220
E222Sodium
hydrogen sulphite
see 220
E223Sodium
metabisulphite
treating
agent, see 220
E224Potassium
metabisulphite
see 220
E225Potassium
sulphite
see 220
E226Calcium
sulphite
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E227Calcium
hydrogen sulphite
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E228Potassium
hydrogen sulphite
see 220
E230Biphenyl,
Diphenyl
banned in
some countries
; can be used for agricultural purposes; typical products are
citrus fruit
E231Orthophenyl
phenol
banned in
some countries;
can be used for agricultural purposes; typical products are
pears, carrots, peaches, plums, prunes, sweet potatoe, citrus fruit,
pineapples, tomatoes, peppers, cherries, nectarines
E232Sodium
orthophenyl phenol
see 231
E233Thiabendazole
banned in
some countries
, can be used for agricultural purposes, typical products are
citrus fruits, apples, pears, potatoes, bananas, mushrooms, meat, milk
E234Nisin antibiotic
derived from bacteria; found in beer, processed cheese products, tomato paste
E235Natamycin
mould
inhibitor derived from bacteria; sometimes used medically to treat
candidiasis; can cause nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhoea and skin
irritation;.typical products are meat, cheese
E236Formic
acid
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E237Sodium
formate
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E238Calcium
formate
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E239Hexamethylene
tetramine
avoid it,
banned in some countries
E249Potassium
nitrite
colour
fixative and curing agent for meat; nitrites can effect the body’s ability to
carry oxygen, resulting in shortness of breath, dizziness and headaches;
potential carcinogen; not permitted in foods for infant and young children
E250Sodium
nitrite
may
provoke hyperactivity and other adverse reactions, potentially carcinogenic,
restricted in many countries, can combine with chemicals in stomach to form
nitrosamine, the HACSG* recommends to
avoid it
E251Sodium
nitrate
also
used in the manufacture of nitric acid, as a fertiliser and in fermented meat
products (see 250)
E252#Potassium
nitrate
may be
derived from waste animal or vegetable matter; used in gunpowder, explosives
and fertilisers, and in the preservation of meat; may provoke hyperactivity
and other adverse reactions; potentially carcinogenic; restricted in many
countries (see 249)
E260Acetic
acid
main
component of vinegar, synthetically produced from wood fibres; used in
pickles, chutneys, and sauces
E261Potassium
acetate
food
acid;
should be avoided by people with impaired kidney function;
typical products are sauces, pickles
E262Sodium
acetate, Sodium diacetate
food
acid, acidity regulator; no known adverse effects
E263Calcium
acetate
food
acid, acidity regulator; by product in the manufacture of wood alcohol; used
to make acetic acid (vinegar) and in the production of dyers mordants
E264Ammonium
acetate
can
cause nausea and vomiting
E270#Lactic
acid
food
acid, acidity regulator; produced by heating and fermenting carbohydrates in
milk whey, potatoes, cornstarch or molasses; difficult for babies to
metabolise; used in sweets, dressings, soft drinks (sometimes beer) infant
formulas and confectionary
E280Propionic
acid
all
propionates are thought to be linked with migraine headaches; propionates
occur naturally in fermented foods, human perspiration and ruminants
digestive tract, also can be derived commercially from ethylene and carbon
monoxide or propionaldehyde or natural gas or fermented wood pulp; produced when
bacteria decompose fibre; commonly used in bread and flour products;
E281Sodium
propionate
may be
linked to migraines, typical products are flour products
E282Calcium
propionate
see 281
E283Potassium
propionate
see 281
E290Carbon
dioxide
propellant,
coolant, derived from lime manufacture; may increase the effect of alcohol;
typical products are wine, soft drinks, confectionary
E296Malic
acid
derived
from fruit or synthetic; infants and young children should
avoid it
E297Fumaric
acid
derived
from plants of the genus Fumaria esp. F.officianalis or from
the fermentation of glucose with fungi; can be used to flavour, acidify, as
an antioxidant or raising agent used in soft drinks and cake mixes