Beer is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages for centuries. It is prepared from barley malt, row hops, brewing water and top or bottom fermenting yeasts. Also there are some extracts and carbondioxide. Beer can be obtained from alcoholic fermentation of the malt which is mixed with water and hops under the convenient conditions.
Grains are germinated under controlled conditions to obtain barley malt. The conditions are about moisture content, temperature, the ratio of oxygen to carbon dioxide and the germination time. After grinding the malt, it is boiled, fermented, filtrated and filled. During boiling some extra enzymes are added to the crushed malt and warm water to starch and protein into their components. The dissolved product coming from the mashing is wort and the remaining part is called as spent grain. Then, the wort is cooled to 10oC and yeast is added for converting sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide by fermentation. Yeast is removed and beer is pumped into the maturation tanks for going on slow fermentation at 0oC. At the end of the lagering it exists sediment in the tank. Finally, beer is filtered step by step and transferred to the bottling machines. After the last step, pasteurization, it is ready to drink. In the report all of these process sequences, different departments and the plant auxilaries are written. Also material and energy balances are done and in the appendix part some flow charts, lists of enzymes and experiments, and the project that is done for the plant are given.
Efes Pilsen is the biggest beer producer in Türkiye. It commands 73% of the beer demand of Türkiye. Also they are exporting a huge amount of beer to the other countries. It was choosen eighth biggest beer company in Europe. Efes Pilsen is an important, developing and well-known trade mark both in Türkiye and in the world. So I choose Efes as the company for my summer practise.
Ambartarla Mevkii 46. km
P.K. 30 Kazan-Ankara
Efes Pilsen: This is a Pils type of beer. It’s light in color and has 5.5 % alcohol. Its extract amount is 11.4-11.7 %.
Efes Light: Its alcohol content is 2% and is easy to drink.
Efes Extra: This beer contains 50% more alcohol than Pils type beer and darker in color and bitterer in taste.
Efes Dark: Its alcohol content and extract amount are same with the Efes Pilsen but its color is darker.
Marmara 34: This is a Lager type of beer. Its alcohol content is maximum 4.9 % and is easy to drink.
Becks and Miller: Their raw materials acquired through imports.
Five raw materials are required for beer production: barley, malt adjunts, hops, water, and yeast. The quality of these raw materials has a decisive influence on the quality of the final product. Knowledge of the properties of the raw materials and of their effects on the process and on the product provides the basis for their handling and processing. With such knowledge it is possible to control the technological process rationally.
Barley is the main raw material for beer production. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) supplies the starch required for beer production. This starch is converted to fermentable extract in the brew house. It is necessary to produce, by cultivation suitable varieties, barleys, which provide extract-rich malts.
Barley grain is usually consist of three main parts:
- Husk and grain membrane
Husk is a cellulose sheath that covers and protects the barley grain. This sheath and membrane consist polyphenol, some proteins and silicat components. The materials in the husk generally destroy the stability of beer. On the other hand, husks help for filtering of wort by forming a filter layer.
Embryo is the living part of the barley and it contains genetic material.
The most important part of the barley is endosperm, which is about 80% of the barley.
During the germination nutriment materials dissolve and used for the new cell production by the help of embryo.
The chemical composition of the barley:
|Non-nitrogenic substances||12 %|
|Inorganic substances||2.5 %|
The aim in the production of malt is to loosen the grift construction and to optimize the enzyme activity. Therefore, starch in the endosperm can be extracted easily. During the production of malt, the necessary conditions for developing of the barley are formed by artificially. These conditions are; humidity, temperature, oxygen, and time.
Since Efes Pilsen has malt factories in Afyon and Konya, malt is taken from these factories. Barley and malt storage is done in deep silos that are found in the grinder part of the plant.
Unmalted cereals, such as rice, maize, sorghum, barley, and wheat are often used as adjuncts. Efes Pilsen uses only rice as adjunct. Rice is acquired from domestic sources and stored in the grinder part of the plant.
Sugar (glucose) can be added during various steps of the brewing. It is used instead of forming fermentable sugar through the splitting of starch. It is also acquired from domestic sources (İzmit-Pendik Nişasta) and stored in a room in the grinder part.
The hop (Humulus lupulus) is a perennial, dioecious climbing plant of the hemp family belongs to the order, which also includes the nettle family. In the brewery it is the inflorescences of the female plant, which are used. These contain bitter resins etheral oils that supply bittering and aroma components to the beer.
So far as brewing is concerned hops are dried hop cones of the female plant and products made from them, which contain only components from hops.
Hops are grown in special growing regions where the necessary growth conditions exist. After the harvesting of the hops, they are dried and converted to a storable form. This has been done in Bilecik Plant that also conducts to the Anadolu Group.