Thin Layer Chromatography – TLC ( Mr. Shaise Jacob )



Mr. Shaise Jacob

Faculty, Nirmala College of Pharmacy

Kerala, India


• There are two basic types of chromatography
– Gas
– Liquid
• Liquid includes TLC and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)


• TLC is a form of liquid chromatography consisting of:
– A mobile phase (developing solvent) and
– A stationary phase (a plate or strip coated with a form of silica gel)
– Analysis is performed on a flat surface under atmospheric pressure and room temperature

• Michael Tswett is credited as being the father of liquid chromatography. Tswett developed his ideas in the early 1900’s.


• The two most common classes of TLC are:
– Normal phase
– Reversed phase

Normal Phase

• Normal phase is the terminology used when the stationary phase is polar; for example silica gel, and the mobile phase is an organic solvent or a mixture of organic solvents which is less polar than the stationary phase.

Reversed Phase

• Reversed phase is the terminology used when the stationary phase is a silica bonded with an organic substrate such as a long chain aliphatic acid like C-18 and the mobile phase is a mixture of water and organic solvent which is more polar than the stationary phase.


Chromatography is used to separate mixtures of substances into their components. Similar to P.C, except that a thin layer of some inert material, i.e. Aluminium oxide, mag.oxid. , sili.oxide is used instead of paper.
• A layer of any one of these oxide is made from a slurry of power in a suitable inert solvent.
• Slurry is spread over a flat surface ( glass, metal or rigid plastic ) & dried

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