Etiket Arşivleri: Broiler

Broiler Piliçlerde Üretim Yılı, Yaşı ve Kümes Kapasitesinin Verim Özellikleri Üzerine Etkileri

Özet: Bu araştırma, ticari koşullarda üretilen etçi piliçlerde üretim yılı, kümes kapasitesi ve kesim yaşının verim   özellikleri üzerine etkilerini belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırma, büyük bir ticari entegrasyon tarafın-  dan 1997 – 2000 tarihleri arasında üretilen toplam 11695 sürü üzerinde yürütülmüştür. Tüm sürüler için   hesaplanan ortalama canlı ağırlık (CA g), yemden yararlanma oranı (YYO kg/kg) ve broiler verimlilik indeksi   (BVİ) değerleri sırasıyla 1784,39±1,49; 1,886±0,0014 ve 201,66±0,32 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Ortalama BVİ   değerleri üretim yıllarına göre, 1997, 1998, 1999 ve 2000 yılları için sırasıyla 197,96±1,31; 200,98±1,30;   198,27±1,52 ve 213,17±1,92 (p<0,001), kapasite grupları açısından, 5000’den az, 5000-9999, 10000-14999   ve 15000 ve üzerinde kapasiteye sahip sürüler için sırasıyla 201,08±0,78; 201,22±0,90; 202,75±1,69 ve   205,34±2,70 (p>0,05), kesim yaşı bakımından ise 40 ve altı, 41-42, 43-44 ve 45 gün ve üzerinde kesim   yaşına sahip sürüler için sırasıyla 206,58±3,02; 207,02±0,99; 203,75±0,76 ve 193,04±1,43 (p<0,001) ola-  rak hesaplanmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda, tüm verim özellikleri bakımından yaş grupları arasındaki farklılıklar istatistik açıdan önemli bulunmuştur. Buna göre; en uygun kesim yaşı 41-42 gün olarak belirlenmiştir.   Araştırmada ayrıca, kümes kapasitesi arttıkça verim özelliklerinde de bir artışın şekillendiği gözlenmiştir.   Sonuç olarak, üretimde elde edilen verimliliğin yıldan yıla arttığı ve bu artışın bakım-besleme koşullarındaki   gelişmelerden çok, hayvan ıslahında her yıl elde edilen gelişmelere bağlı olarak sürülerin genetik yapılarında   meydana gelen iyileşmelerden kaynaklandığı kanısına varılmıştır.

Anahtar kelimeler: Broiler, broiler verimlilik indeksi, kesim yaşı, kapasite, üretim yılı.       Influence of Production Year, Age and, Flock Size on the Performance of Commercial Broilers

Summary: Influence of production year, slaughter age, and flock size on the performance of commer-  cial broilers were investigated. Data were collected from 11695 commercial broiler flocks belonging to a   big integrated commercial broiler production company. The mean live-weight (LW g), feed conversion ratio   (FCR kg/kg), and European Efficiency Factor (EEF) figures for all flocks were 1784,39±1,49; 1,886±0,0014,   and 201,66±0,32 respectively. The mean EEF values for the years of 1997, 1998, 1999 and 2000 were   calculated as 197,96±1,31; 200,98±1,30; 198,27±1,52 and 213,17±1,92 respectively (p<0,001). The same   figures in different flock size groups as; < 5000, 5000-9999, 10000-14999, and ≥15000 were 201,08±0,78;   201,22±0,90; 202,75±1,69, and 205,34±2,70 respectively (p>0,05). For the different age groups as; ≤40,   41-42, 43-44, ≥45 days of age the mean EEF figures were 206,58±3,02; 207,02±0,99; 203,75±0,76; and   193,04±1,43 respectively (p<0,001). Age group differences in respect of all traits were statistically different   (p<0,001). 41-42 days of age was the most convenient for slaughtering. It was also observed that the per-  formance traits tended to increase as flock size increased. As a conclusion, production efficiency per bird   increased year by year, and this increase was largely attributable to the ongoing genetic development of   broilers than the developments in feeding and management conditions.

Key words: Broiler, European efficiency factor, slaughtering age, flock size, production year.

Broilers ( An Overview of Broiler Production in Georgia )

Broilers An Overview of Broiler Production in Georgia

Objectives
Students will be able to:
Describe the life cycle of broilers.
Describe the history of the broiler industry.
Explain the importance of broiler production in Georgia.
Name the top three broiler producing counties.
Rank Georgia with other states in broiler production.
What is a broiler?
Broiler chickens are grown for their meat. These chickens are the ones we purchase at the grocery stores and eat for dinner.
History of Broilers
Early 1900s, chickens were raised for eggs
Women began to sell eggs and chickens
1924, Georgia chickens were sold out of state by rail
1929, stock market crash
1930s, Jesse Jewell of Gainesville
Sold North Georgia farmers baby chicks and feed on credit
Bought back adult chickens and farmers made a profit
Eventually opened a processing plant and hatchery
Post World War II, consumer interest in fully processed birds and frozen birds
1970s and 1980s, Americans began eating more and more poultry
Life Cycle
Fertile eggs take 21 days to hatch
Chicks hatch, are vaccinated, and incubated
Taken to chicken houses where the flocks live together
Flock is a large group of birds
Over 20,000 chicks may live together in the houses
Chickens are kept until they are 6 weeks old
Chickens are picked up and taken to the processor to be prepared for sale in stores
Chicken Houses
Floor is covered with dry pine shavings
Feed and water are available for the chicks to enjoy
Houses are heated because the chicks do not have enough feathers to stay warm, when they get older the temperature is lowered
Houses have fans to circulate the air and to bring in fresh air
Chicken Houses in GA
Poultry Products in GA
Poultry earns more than any other Georgia Agriculture commodity
$13.5 billion annually to Georgia’s economy
Georgia is 1st in the nation in broiler production
¾ of Georgia counties commercially produce chicken
Poultry Processors
Major Processors Based in Georgia:
Gold Kist
Fieldale Farms
Claxton Poultry
Mar-Jac
Cagle’s
Quick Facts
Assessment
1.True or False: Broilers are chickens grown for their meat.
2.Who began commercial broiler production in Georgia?
3.How many days does it take for a fertile egg to hatch?
a. 11 b. 16 c. 21 d. 26
4.What is a flock?
5.How many weeks are broilers kept by growers?
a. 3 b. 6 c. 12 d. 24
6.List the top three broiler producing counties in Georgia.
7.True or False: Georgia ranks fifth in the nation in broiler production.
8.Name two major poultry processors based in Georgia.
9.What do the poultry companies provide for their growers?
10.How many Georgians are directly employed by the poultry industry?
a. 3,000 b. 12,000 c. 36,000 d. 47,000
Answers
1.True
2.Jesse Jewell
3.C. 21
4.A large group of chickens.
5.B. 6
6.Franklin, Hall, and Habersham
7.False. Georgia ranks first.
8.Mar-Jac, Goldkist, Cagle’s, Claxton, and Fieldale Farms
9.Raw materials, distribution, and processing
10.D. 47,000
References
http://www.georgiastats.uga.edu/
http://www.gfb.org/agfacts/facts.htm
http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-1811
http://www.uga.edu/lam/kids/poultry/plifecycle.html
http://www.uga.edu/lam/kids/poultry/pindustry.html
http://department.caes.uga.edu/poultry/faculty/compton/ps2020/housingequip/housingequip.htm

Eggcited About Poultry

EGGCITED ABOUT POULTRY
Middle School Curriculum

By: Jennie Simpson and Dr. Frank Flanders
Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office
Georgia Department of Education
May 2003
Start

CONTENTS
What is poultry used for, what types of poultry are there?
Breeds of Chicken.
Differences Between White and Brown Eggs.
Poultry Terms to Know.
Broiler Production.
Layer Production.

Instructions:
Click on a topic of interest below or go through the entire presentation by clicking on the arrows.

What do we use poultry for?
Thanksgiving Turkey
Feathers-Down pillows
Eggs-Medicine
Feathers-Fish lures
Eggs- Angel Food Cake
Chicken Nuggets

What types of poultry are there?
Ratites-Ostriches, Emus
Chickens
Ducks
Geese
Turkeys
Game Birds

Pigeons Are Also Poultry
There is a hobby called Pigeon Racing and hobbyists take it very seriously!
The pigeons are released and use their “homing” instinct, to return home to their “lofts”.
Pigeons are also known as “Thoroughbreds of the Sky”

Chickens
Chickens make up the largest sector of the poultry industry.
Consumption of chicken in the U.S. is rising every year.

Why?
Chicken is LOW in fat, HIGH in protein and LOW in cholesterol when compared to meats such as pork and beef.
There are several breeds of chicken used to produce different products and types of eggs.

Breeds of Chicken
White Leghorns
Used for egg production and produce white eggs

Breeds of Chicken
Barred Plymouth Rocks
Used for meat and eggs, produce brown eggs
New Hampshire Reds
Used for meat and eggs, produce brown eggs
White Plymouth Rocks
Used for meat and eggs, produce brown eggs

What is the Difference Between Brown Eggs and White Eggs?
White and brown eggs taste the same and have the same nutritive value. Brown eggs are not healthier!
The color difference is due to the breed of the hen.
You can tell what color egg a hen will lay by looking at her feathers and ear lobes.
A hen with WHITE earlobes and feathers will lay WHITE eggs.
A hen with RED feathers and matching earlobes will lay BROWN eggs.
The difference is purely cosmetic….usually, people in the North prefer brown eggs while people in the South like white eggs.

Broiler- used mainly for meat. A broiler is a chicken is 6 to 7 weeks of age and weighs 4 pounds when it is sent to market.
Poultry Terms to Know

Layer-a mature female chicken that produces eggs. Most can lay 300 eggs/year.

Pullet- a young female chicken

Capon- a male chicken that has been neutered/castrated, usually 5 to 7 months of age and weigh about 6 pounds. By castrating these males when they are 3 weeks old, their meat is more tender and more flavorful when the bird matures.
Poultry Terms to Know

Rooster/Cock- a mature male chicken

Cockerel- a male chicken that is less than 1 year old

Spent hen- a hen that is no longer laying

Poultry Terms to Know

Vertical Integration-raising, processing, and distributing poultry is now one continuous chain. A large company is composed of smaller companies that carry out all the processes from manufacturing to distributing. For example, Con Agra is one large company, but they hire growers, hatcheries, distributors, and processors.
1. Hatchery
2. Growout
3. Processing
4. Distribution
Photos courtesy of USDA

Broiler Production
Broilers are raised for their meat and they make up most of the chicken products that we eat.
A Broiler’s Story:
I was born in a hatchery…then I was placed in an open chicken house where I ate and drank at free will. The chicken house is big, warm, and well ventilated. I ran around on a big open shavings floor. I was fed a diet that made me grow as efficiently as possible so that the grower wouldn’t waste money on me. My diet has yellow corn, soy, other grains, minerals, vitamins, and medicine to keep us from getting sick. My brothers,sisters, and I were all kept very healthy. When I turned six weeks old and weighed 4 pounds I was sent to market so you can enjoy chicken nuggets and other chicken products.

Which three states in the U.S. lead in broiler production?
Georgia, Alabama, and Arkansas
Mississippi, Georgia, and Florida
Arkansas, California, and Michigan
Most farmers grow chickens on a contract.
What does growing on contract mean?
Grower
The Grower Supplies:
House
Utilities
Labor
Shavings
Cleaning Supplies

Company (Con Agra, Perdue,etc.)
The Company Supplies:
Chicks
Feed
Medicine
Expertise

Layer Production
Eggcellent!!!!

Layer Production
Did you know?
A layer hen in production can lay almost 300 eggs/year and this number is rising! In 1900, hens only laid 100 eggs/year!

Are the eggs you buy in the store fertilized or unfertilized?
They are unfertilized! Hens do not need a rooster to lay eggs.

Can you name some foods that have eggs in them?
Angel food cake, mayonnaise, egg nog, bread, and noodles are just a few products with eggs!
What are the parts of an egg?

EGG GRADING
Eggs can be Grade AA, A, or B
And
Small, Medium, or Large

Eggs that are misshapen, cracked, or dirty are not sold to the consumer. These eggs are classified as LOSS.

Broiler

Layer

Pullet

Capon

Cockerel

Cock/Rooster

Spent Hen
Photo courtesy of CAA

CORRECT!!!!

INCORRECT!!!!
A silkie chick-10 weeks old