Shalgam is a traditional Turkish fermented beverage in which mainly lactic acid bacteria play an important role. It is a red colored, turbid and sour soft beverage produced by mixing of turnip, purple carrot, sourdough, salt, water and fermenting for 10-12 days. Red beet can also be used as a raw-material.


The microorganisms influenced in the fermentation obtained from sourdough. These are L. sanfranciscensis, L. pontis, L. brevis, L. plantarum, L. alimentarius,L. fructivorans, L. reuteri, L. fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to less extent Saccharomyces exiguous, Candida krusei and Candida milleri.

Definition and production

According to the Turkish Standards Institution, shalgam is defined as a beverage produced by lactic acid fermentation of black carrot (Daucus carota L.), turnip (Brassica rapa L.), salt and extract of sourdough and bulgur flour. For shalgam production, no standard manufacturing technique is available and many different methods can be used in production.

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