Separation Methods

Separation Methods

Ways to separate mixtures – Chapter 3: Matter & Its Properties

How do we separate …?

Separating Mixtures

Substances in a mixture are physically combined, so processes bases on differences in physical properties are used to separate component

Numerous techniques have been developed to separate mixtures to study components

Filtration

Used to separate heterogeneous mixtures composed of solids and liquids

Uses a porous barrier to separate the solid from the liquid

Liquid passes through leaving the solid in the filter paper

Distillation

Used to separate homogeneous mixtures

Based on differences in boiling points of substances involved

Crystallization

Separation technique that results in the formation of pure solid particles from a solution containing the dissolved substance

As one substance evaporates, the dissolved substance comes out of solution and collects as crystals

Produces highly pure solids

Rocky candy is an example of this

Centrifuging

A magnet

Can be used to separate a magnetic substance from a non-magnetic substance

Chromatography

Separates components of a mixture based on ability of each component to be drawn across the surface of another material

Mixture is usually liquid and is usually drawn across chromatography paper

Separation occurs because various components travel at different rates

Components with strongest attraction for paper travel the slowest

Decantation

Decanting is done to separate particulates from a liquid by allowing the solids to settle to the bottom of the mixture and pouring off the particle-free part of the liquid. Another method is to allow two immiscible liquids to separate and the lighter liquid is poured off.

Sieving

a porous material is used to separate particles of different sizes.

method is most commonly used to effect gross separations, as of liquids from suspended crystals or other solids.

to accelerate filtration, pressure usually is applied.

a series of sieves is stacked, with the screen of largest hole size at the top


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