An HACCP Example

INTRODUCTION

Pistachio trees are native to western Asia and Asia Minor,from Syria to the Caucasus and Afghanistan. Archaeological evidence in Turkey indicate the nuts were being used for food as early as 7,000 B.C. The pistachio was introduced to Italy from Syria early in the first century A.D. Subsequently its cultivation spread to other Mediterranean countries. Pistachio trees grow in poor soil where other trees will not survive, what is important to their survival is the proper climate. Pistachio trees flourish in hot dry summer weather and prefer cool winters, and would not survive in humid or damp areas. The pistachio tree takes five to eight years to begin bearing some fruit and it is not until the 15th and 20th year that they reach maturity and bear fully. Alternate years produce a heavy crop. The trees develop a brownish green flower in spring and ripen in late summer or early autumn. The pistachios then split open along their seams.

In the world pistachio tree is growth in USA,Iran,Syria,Turkey,Italy and Greek .Iran is at the first about the production of the pistachio with 300000 tons/year.Second is USA with 136000 tons/year.According to the production amount a sequence can be made after USA ,Syria,Turkey, Greek and Italy.

In turkey best  pistachio nut is known as the Antep pistachio ,and also pistachio trees are growth in Şanlıurfa,Siirt,Mersin,Adıyaman,Kahramanmaraş,and Manisa. For Gaziantep, pistachio has a special place in food culture especially in turkish desserts. Moreover, in many pasty and chocolate speices, antep pistachio is used for best results. We sell the very
suitable type of pistachio for these products, tasteful and natural. We have options for different amounts, from little
to much larger demands.

 Climate also plays a role in pistachio production. Too mild a winter, or heavy rainfall during the pollination period, can reduce yield. Pistachio trees require approximately 1,000 hours of temperatures at 45 degrees F. or below to bring about the dormancy necessary for good production. The pistachio is a broad, bushy, deciduous tree which grows slowly to a height and spread of 25 to 30 feet, with one or several trunks. The trees are inclined to spread and droop, and may initially need staking. Their open habit and attractive foliage make them valuable or namentals. Under favorable conditions pistachio trees live and produce for centuries. The oblong kernel is about 1 inch in length and 1/2 inch in diameter and protected by a thin, ivory-colored, bony shell.

Pistachio nuts are rich in oil, with an average content of about 55%. Production of nuts is influenced by drought, excessive rain, heat or cold and high winds. As nutritional ingredients pistachio have protein, oil, Mg, K, Ca, Vit. E, Vit. B12, Vit B6 , and   Vit. A.   As a suprising in pistachio the kernels are rich with source of oil(50-60%), and predominant fatty acid in pistachio nuts is oleic 70.72% followed by linoleic 17.78%, palmitic 8.72% and stearic 8.72%.unsaturated fatty acids comparised 89.82 % of the total fatty acid.Present of which 18.18 % are polyunsaturated.

PREREQUISITIVE
REQUIREMENT

Properties of pistachio before harvesting

·The pistachio kernel typically develops during the month of July; the enlarged nut pushes on the surrounding shell to cause a natural split.

·The hull, which serves as a protective covering for the nut, remains intact.

·As the nut ripens, the hull separates from the shell, and is easily removed when pinched; the hull often turns rosy in color when further ripened.

·Timing of harvest is important to allow for the greatest amount of naturally split nuts; growers typically begin in late August to early September.

·Before the harvesting climate conditions of the year must be cared, according to the rainfall, windy, cold or hot growing conditions, pistachio harvesting time can be changed but generally fruit shows to the farmer harvesting time with maturity, color change in the hull and removing of the hull when it is pinched.

·In a cluster pistachios can not be mature at the same time this property must be    cared. 

·Before the harvesting 1-3% of the pistachio falls to soil when it reach the harvesting times.

 WATER

·Microbial contents of the water must be controlled, during the processing clean water must be used. This water must not cause the contamination.

SALT

·The salt used in the salting must be the rock salt, and shouldn’t have the toxic chemicals which can damage the pistachios and cause the undesired physical and chemical property formation on the pistachio.

STORAGE CONDITIONS

·In fresh  pistachio there are 41-42 % water content and in the dried pistachio there is 3-3,5  % water content. In the light of these values storage conditions must be controlled periodically , especially the moisture content of the pistachio mustn’nt be greater than 6,5 %  because it is the hazard level of the pistachio.

·In storage, shelf system must be used and pistachio bags must be away from the floor , walls and top floor. There are place which can allow the walking between the shelfs and it must be allowed to taking the homogeneous sample from the product.

·Store house building must be convenient to making the pistachio storage in hygienic conditions that is advisable to manufacture quality product.

PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

            After the all production processes of the pistachio nuts they must have some critical properties which are necessary to evaluate of the pistachios as quality product.These properties are moisture content, aflatoxin existence,contamination situation of any insects and nutritional value of the pistachio. Presence of shell staining do not appear to have any effect on the flavor of pistachios. Maturity at harvest, mois- ture content (4 to 6% is optimum range) and total sugar content do influence flavor.

But these moisture content in the pistachios are not be greater than the 6.5%  generally farmers or pistachio suppliers sells the waited pistachios when the moiture content  goes up to tis critical value.It’s importance comes from the especially hazard of the aflatoxin.

In  a quality pistachio there are not or very low  amount of Aspercillus flavus mold aflatoxin.According to countries these values change as 1ppm-4ppm. Most careful contry as we saw is the france, their retailers wants the maximum aflatoxin value as

1ppm.

Generally during the rocessing ,washing ,roasting and any other processing stages can eliminate the contamination of the any insect materyals.

COMPONENTS
IN PISTACHIO

per
100 gr

VITAMİNS

per
100 gr

Edible
portion water

5.6

A

230
(IU)

Proteins

19.6

Thiamine

O.67
mg

Fats

53.2

Niacin

1.4
mg

Carbohydrates

19.0

Vit C

0.0

Fiber

2.2

Ca

131
mg

Ash

3.0

Mg

158
mg

Sugar

6.1

P

500
mg

Calories

594
cal

K

972
mg

Unsaturated/Saturated

8.1

Fe

73 mg

PROCESSING OF PISTACHIO FROM FARM TO CONSUMPTION 

Farm side

Harvesting:

        The pistachio kernel typically develops during the month of July; the enlarged nut pushes on the surrounding shell to cause a natural split. The hull, which serves as a protective covering for the nut, remains intact. As the nut ripens, the hull separates from the shell, and is easily removed when pinched; the hull often turns rosy in color when further ripened. Timing of harvest is important to allow for the greatest amount of naturally split nuts; growers typically begin in late August to early September.

In antep pistachio mturation of the pistachio in a cluster occur different time not allof the pistachio mature in same time.In a normal cluster there are 15-20 pistachio ones.Generally firstly mature fruits falls to the soil,before the harvesting 1-3% of the fruits falls and the farmer understand that the coming of the harvesting time.

Harvesting must be made at the time,  if this process is made before the harvesting time, when the fruit dried, kernel of it wrinkled.Maturation of the pistachio begins on the tips of the bunchs.However the later harvesting causes the drying and wrinkling of the red hulls.In our country harvesting is made with hands.Firstly the below of the trees are cleaned and firstly the fallen pistachios are taken.Spreading of the 6-8 m2   shawls are made and bunch are taken by hands.All the bunchs must be taken because left ones are helps to   living the harmful living organisms. In the farm the pistachio grains are separated from the bunchs.

 Pistachios can be shaken, knocked or handpicked from the tree. To shake, grasp the branch firmly and shake vigorously. To knock, first tie a towel around the end of a broom
handle or pole to prevent limb damage. Then, strike each limb with the handle or pole to knock the nuts loose.
Aflatoxin contamination may occur at this step if pistachio nuts are allowed to fall naturally and remain on the floor, ungathered, for an extended period.

Pistachio nuts can be pre-disposed to subsequent mould and aflatoxin contamination when harvesting is achieved by shaking the tree. This can cause tearing of the hull which can let in mould spores. In USA and Iran pistachio harvesting is made with technological procedures as growth. They don’t touch to product and it doesn’t contact with the soil. Trails or trucks are used for harvesting.

Drying of nuts in hull

 Fruits are dried ın the generally farm side it is called in antep as exhibition places.Drying process is important and effective about the product quality.Exhibition thickness must not be greater than the 3.5 cm.Thickness have so importance about the health of the drying and thelengh of the drying time.For preventing the spoilage and get mouldy fruits must be mixed frequently. For making exhibition concrete floors must be choosen it is advisable than canvas exhibition materyal. Especially in soil places some pathogens can be settle down to cracked pistachios.After the drying process, fresh fruit loose the 45-50%  of the water.Red shell pistachio contain the 6-7 % moisture content after the drying.
Storage of nuts in hull

            After the finishing dying process, pistachio is fold to 50-60 kg bags.these bags must be suitable to passing the air from itself. Dried fruits are stored on the hull in the farm side and it is keeped until selling to trader. Storage place of the pistachio must be kept clean and isolated from the soil. A protection must exist during the storing on the hull, again the rain, wind and dust. The bags must be put with 10-20 cm distances.

TRADER SIDE

Receiving of nuts in hull

Traders purchase the pistachio from farmer. During the buying trader care to the properties of the pistachios as moisture, appearance, color generally they can not make any chemical and physical analysis in the farm side but it is advisable to make the valid controlling. The traders which make the large amount of buying and selling make the quality control of the raw material or sometimes they want the official laboratory results taken from well known laboratory.

Storage of nuts in hull

Generally all traders have their own stor houses they collect the purchased products at these places. Purchased fruits are stored on the store houses in the trader side and it is kept until selling to factory. Storage place of the pistachio must be kept clean and isolated from the soil. A protection must exist during the storing on the store houses, again the rain, wind and dust and any other insects. The bags must be put with 10-20 cm distances and the trader must use the shelf system in storage. The responsible controller must take the homogeneous samples from the stored pistachios. Temperature of the storage must be kept nearly at 8-12 0C. Storage conditions of the trader side must not cause to any increase of the moisture content. If it is necessary an air conditioner must be supplied to fixing the air situation of the medium and especially temperature.

FACTORY SIDE

Receiving of nuts in hull

Factories purchase the pistachio nuts with more specific controls and the trained personals. Buying procedures must be applied, generally all of the factory have own purchasing rules. Transportation of the nut is made with trails and trucks. These are used at cleanness and hygienic conditions.

Storage of nuts in hull
Aflatoxin contamination is possible if nuts are put into store at ‘unsafe’ moisture content, particularly if nuts with damaged hulls are
stored. In stored rooms there must be shells systems raw material must be kept from the floor, walls and ceiling. Loads of pistachios are put the 10-20 cm distances. Distances between loads are must be 35 cm to the floor and ceiling. Isolation material should be used between the shelf system and walls. Responsible personal must take the homogeneous sample from the fruits for that personal can walk between load and the shelf. This is the last step before the processing the pistachio in factory temperature and moisture must be cared for prevention of the injurious, contamination and the growth of microorganisms

During the storage of the raw material temperature, humidity and light occurs effective on the quality of fruits. If the storage conditions is not suitable for quality parameters, spoilage of the pistachios speed up. Dry red shell pistachio is kept after the drying in exhibition places.  In fresh pistachio 41-42% water and in the red shell 3% water are found. Because of the climate conditions keeping of the pistachio is easy for a long time for that reason de-hulling process can be made after the harvesting like in the
technical processing in USA and Iran. Moisture content must not be greater than the 6.5% because it can cause the growth of the Aspercillus flavus mold. It is the source of the aflatoxin which is undesired property by the customer and their specifications.
 

CLEANING OF PISTACHIONUT

Wetting

Wetting process is made by sinking the pistachios to bath or pools. This process is applied for the softening of the red shell of the pistachio. Pistachios are waited 5-6 hour in
the 2.5-3 ton capacity .After the wetting exterior shell of the pistachio must absorb the water. This is the critical points because during the wetting , water content of the pistachio increases. This increasing can supply the living conditions to mold and aflatoxin can release at this moisture levels. For that reason length of time between the wetting and dewatering must be kept as short as possible.

Wet dehulling

 Removing or peeling green or red shells from the hard shell is called as the dehulling. Softened pistachios are sent to between two cylindirical stones one of them is motional and the other one is the constant. This system is called as devlip in antep. Pistachios are compressed between these stones. In modern plants for prevention of the time consuming more technological mixers are used for dehulling process. During this process 1% defect can occur for eliminating these modern system must be used. This system can de-hull the 400 kg pistachios for 30-40 minutes. 

Wet cleaning

The de-hulled pistachios are taken to vibrational filters. After this application  fruit is washed and hard shells of the pistachio is bleached. Exterior side of hard shell of pistachio takes the presentable appearance after the cleaning process. In this process elimination of the foreign chemical compounds, insects and dusts must be realized. This filter has 2-4 m length and 1-2 m width. Surround of the filters are covered with sheet iron material.

Floatation

         De-hulled and cleaned pistachios are taken to water fold small pools to separation of the empty and filled pistachios. This small pool is made from the sheet iron in 70-80 cm width, 40 cm height and 150-200 cm length. Empty pistachios are goes up to the surface of the water and the filled ones goes down. Separation of the pistachio can be made by this way. In this process mechanical separation must be made but in turkey floatation process is made with hands it is not healthy and hygienic. Contacts of the fruits and water must be kept at short length of time.

        Dewatering

         Pistachios are transported to drying places faster. As a drying place roofs of the factories and garden of the factory can be used. Spreading and the mixing of the pistachios are made with wood shovels. A suitable method to make the drying can be applied at the at the concrete exhibition places. Waters of the pistachio must be evaporated to achieve the long shelf life of the pistachios.

DRYING OF PISTACHIO NUT IN BREAKING CELL

Drying process is made under the sun. Pistachio is spread to drying on the canvas. This method is applied at the traditional processing. In drying the moisture content of the pistachio is expected to decreasing to 3-3.5% levels. As a disadvantage contamination hazard is most probable than the mechanic drying. In sun drying process there is no cooling process after the completing the drying process pistachio is sent to breaking or splitting. Thickness of the exhibition places is important to prevent any contamination of the unwanted material or living organisms.

 2. Mechanical drying

This drying process is made with a machine which is originated by two main parts. In first place hot air is blown to pistachios to drying the fruits. Hot air is obtained by the usage of diesel oil. The mixed fruit with turning mixer dries after sometimes. This method is advisable in hygiene of the pistachios. In this step filtered air usage can help to obtain the quality product. Completion of the drying is important to prevention of the aflatoxin.

Cooling

Dried pistachios are taken to cooling rooms, in this stage, instead of the hot air normal room air is blown to pistachios. Then  fruits are brought to normal temperatures and moisture levels.

Roasted pistachio processing

Pistachio kernel processing

Hard shell breaking

In this process the hard shells of the pistachio is taken with breaking them. At the and of this process pistachio kernel must be taken. Breaking process is made with slightly compressing the pistachios between two parts of a machine. One of them is motional the other one is the constant. This method is also made in homes in traditional method, trader distributes pistachios to contracted homes, in this homes generally women break the pistachio hard shells. It is the not hygienic process it is not advisable to obtain the quality product. 

Hard shell separation

The broken hard shell of the pistachio is taken with two ways. In traditional way separation is made with the handling in not hygienic conditions. No one knows the any existence of the contamination to the pistachio kernel. In modern technique separation is made with the blowing of air this technique should be used and more successfully than home breaking. Especially in home breaking temperature and the moisture control can not be made.

Roasted pistachio processing

Splitting

 Splitting is made with two ways. In turkey this process is made in homes with handling as will estimate in hygienic conditions and without any prevention of formation hazards. The other   technique is made with a machine and defects ratio of this method is not greater than the 0.5 % of the total pistachio. Generally in harvesting step 50-90 % of the pistachio is in split form. In home method one person can split 15-20 kg of the pistachio. Resistance of the pistachio not is important it is broken with long force application hardly than the application of the force in short direction. It has the 1030 N/mm2 in long form but in short form it has the 511 N/mm2

Roasting

Most known consuming of the pistachio is made in roasted salty form. Roasted pistachio is obtained mixing and the roasting of the split fruits on described temperature and the known salt ratios. Sizing of the pistachios must be made before the roasting it gives the presentable appearance to pistachio. Before the roasting pistachio is wetted and wetted pistachios are taken to roasting cauldrons. Salt amount changes from factory to factory. Generally salt is used as 1/5 amount of the pistachio. In this type manufac- turing processes salt amount occur at the high
levels. Roasted pistachio nuts have 1% amount salt. Roasting process is made at
130 0C for 25 minutes. In pistachio processing plants generally 25
numbers of the cauldrons exist. These cauldrons have the 200 kg processing capacity.

Sieving

         Roasted pistachios
are sized according to the sizes, shapes and the length of the pistachios. This
is advised to make the uniform packaging and increase the wellness of
appearance. This process is realized by using the sieves. The sieves have
different sizes in different levels. They work with the vibration motion and in
each level different size of the pistachio is separated.

Cooling

         Cooling time
and the type is effective on the quality of pistachio nuts. Cooling is applied
in processing plants on different forms. In some plants it is made by spreading
and in some where cooling is made with loading the pistachios as one on the top
of the other. After the end of cooling pistachio is fold to jute bags or cotton
sacks these bags are allow to air and aeration of the pistachios.

Scaling and aflatoxin test  

The most effective
preventative control is to dry pistachio nuts to a water activity of 0.82 for
short-term or 0.70 for long-term storage to prevent mould growth and aflatoxin
contamination. At 25°C,
these critical water activities translate to moisture contents of approximately
10% and 5 to 7 % respectively.

Removal of aflatoxin
contaminated nuts by means of physical segregation is the most effective control
measure for reducing levels of aflatoxin in a batch to an acceptable level.
Examples of segregation techniques are: hand-pick sorting, floatation, sorting
by size, and the rejection of excessively contaminated batches.

Aflatoxin belongs to a
group of fungal toxins known as mycotoxins, and it is widespread in
agricultural products of foods. It is associated with both acute chronic
toxicity in animals and humans including acude liver damage, liver cirrhosis,
and liver cancers. For Turkish origin pistachio nuts when shell splits, the
hull don’t dehised so, hull protect kernel against the infestation with
Aspergillus flavus during harvest and drying. In contrast to dry land
agriculture in Turkey,
pistachio orchards are irrigated in USA and Iran. So, as it clearly seen from
the Table 1 that the air conditions is not stimulate to Aspergillus flavus
during harvest.

Month

Relative humidity (%)

Temperature 0C

August

48.68

27.20

September

49.84

21.80

October

61.19

16.04

 Many oxidizing agents, such as sodium hypochlorite,
potassium permanganate, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, ozone and sodium perborate
react with aflatoxin and change the aflatoxin molecule in some way as indicated
by the loss of fluorescence. The mechanisms of these reactions are uncertain
and the reaction products remain unidentified in most cases
.

Aflatoxins
in dry state are very stable to heat up to the melting point. However, in the
presence of moisture and at elevated temperatures there is destruction of
aflatoxin over a period of time. Such destruction can occur either with
aflatoxin in oilseed meals, aflatoxin in roasted peanuts or aflatoxin in
aqueous solution at pH 7. Although the reaction products have not been examined
in detail it seems likely that such treatment leads to opening of the lactone
ring with the possibility of decarboxylation at elevated temperatures
.

In
alkali solution hydrolysis of the lactone moiety occurs. This hydrolysis
appears to be reversible, since it has been shown that recyclization occurs
following acidification of a basic solution containing aflatoxin. At higher
temperatures (ca. 100oC) ring opening followed by decarboxylation occurs and
reaction may proceed further, leading to the loss of the methoxy group from the
aromatic ring. Similar series of reactions also seems to occur with ammonia and
various amines.

In the presence of mineral acids, aflatoxin B1 and G1 are converted in to
aflatoxin B2A and G2A due to acid-catalyzed addition of water across the double
bond in the furan ring. In the presence of acetic anhydride and hydrochloric
acid the reation proceeds further to give the acetoxy derivative. Similar
adducts of aflatoxin B1 and G1 are formed with formic acid-thionyl chloride,
acetic acid-thionyl chloride and trifluoroacetic

Effect
of contamination of aflatoxin

  Deteriorate in grain
quality due to A. flavus growth and become unfit for marketing and consumption.
In groundnut, seed and non-emerged seedling decay and aflaroot disease was
observed due to fungus attack. Aflatoxins contamination in grain poses a great
threat to human and livestock health as well as international trade. According
to FAO estimates, 25% of the world food crops are affected by mycotoxins each
year. And also crop loss due to aflatoxins contamination costs US producers
more than $100 million per year on average including $ 26 millions to peanuts
.

Metal detection

This the important
points to detect the metals. These detectors take the foreign metal materials
from the processed pistachio. Detector is designed to taking the metals. For
taking the metals principally magnets are used.

Packaging

In inside country
roasted salty pistachios are fold to 100 kg and 60 kg jute sacks. In
exportation selling roasted and salted pistachios are fold to net 10 kg boxes.
Two boxes are put to 20 kg cardboard packaging bags. Packaging must be made in
hygienic conditions. Some times vacuum packaging is made in the pistachio nut
packaging.

Product storage  

         Hard shell fruits is stored at 1-10 C’ and 65-75% relative humidity for 9-24 month, without
shell it is kept on 1-10 C and 65-75% relative humidity for 1 year, in vacuum
packaging fruit is stored at 1-10 C for 1-2 year and it is stored at -18 C for
3 years. Pistachio kernel is covered with suitable papers and in cardboards it
is stored at 12-14 C and 50-60 % relative humidity for 14 month, in same
temperature and the 75-80 relative humidity it is kept for 4 month.

Generally pistachio is stored
in Antep at 4-5 % moisture, but before further. Processing can be held at 20 C
and 65-70 relative humidity for up to one year. Storage room must be cleaned
with the suitable solutions for preventions of the any contamination,
hazards. 

Other factors that enhance nut qualityin
storage are exclusion of oxygen and insectcontrol through fumigation,
controlled atmospheres or lowered temperatures in the storage bins, and
insect-proof packaging
. Pistachios
are less susceptible to oxidative

rancidity compared with other nuts. This
may be a result of the lower unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio.

Table 1. Five-class hazard scoring matrix

 

 

 

 

Risk Classes

Severity

Catastrophic

Death or lasting
damage

E

3

4

4

4

4

Critical

Many concerned people and lasting or
continuous damages

D

3

3

4

4

4

Serious

Many concerned people, no lasting damages

C

2

3

3

4

4

Low

Single case, no lasting damages or
minimal concentration

B

2

2

3

3

4

Ignorable

Hazard to be discovered prior to
consumption or minimal indisposition

A

1

2

2

3

3

 

 

 

 

I

II

III

IV

V

 

 

 

 

Unlikely

(< per
1 years)

Rare

(per
year)

Occasional
(per semester)

Frequent
(per month)

Very
frequent (per week)

 

 

 

 

Probability

 

Risk
class

Control measures

1

No measure necessary.

2

Periodic measures are measures which
often cover a one-time activity.

3

General control measures, such as proper
hygiene facilities, procedures for cleaning and disinfection personal hygiene
instructions and maintenance, vermin control, maintenance and calibration,
purchasing procedures and raw material specifications, complaint handling and
recall procedures, etc. (of course, many of them are prerequisite programs)

4

Specific control measures are
specifically developed and used to control the risk.

 

 

Table 2.
Hazard analysis for [process name] production

Process name/step

Process descriptions

Potential Hazards

Sources and reasons

Hazard Analysis (Y/N)

(Figure 1)

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Significant

Hazard

Farm side

Harvesting

B:microorganisms

Soil & air
for destroyed pistachio

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

C:pesticides

 

Y

 

 

Y

N

Y

P:foreign matter

 

 

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

 

 

Farm side

 

 

Drying of nuts
in hull

B:
microorganisms

Soil & air
for destroyed pistachio water activity

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

C:    —

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:    —

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Farm side

 

 

Storage of nuts
in hull

B:
microorganisms& afla toxin

High water
activitiy, relative humidity and non filtering air

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trader side

 

 

Recieving of nut
in hull

B:
microorganisms& afla toxin

Raw material
&Unsuitable storage condition

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

C:pesticide

harvesting

Y

 

 

Y

N

Y

P:foreign matter

harvesting

N

 

 

 

 

N

 

Trader side

 

Storageof nuts
in hull

 

B:
microorganisms&afla toxin

 

High watwr
activity,relative humidity unfiltering air

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

C:    _

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:_

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Factory side

 

 

Receiving of
nuts in hull

B:microorganisms&afla
toxin

Raw material
&Undesirable storage

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

C: pesticide

harvesting

Y

 

 

Y

N

Y

P: foreign
matter

harvesting

N

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

Factory side

 

 

Storage of nuts
in hull

 

B:
microorganisms&afla toxin

High water
activity,relative humidity unfiltering air

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Factory side

Cleaning

 

 

 

wetting

B:microorganisms&afla
toxin

High water
activity and long time

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Factory side

cleaning

 

 

wetdehulling

B:microorganisms&afla
toxin

High water
activity and long time

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Factory side

Cleaning

 

Wey cleaning

 

B:microorganisms&afla
toxin

High water
activity and long time

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Factory side
cleaning

floatation

 

B:microorganisms&afla
toxin

High water
activity and long time

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Factory side

Cleaning

dewatering

 

B:microorganisms&afla
toxin

 

N

N

 

 

 

N

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Factory side
drying of nut in hard shell

Sun drying

 

B:microorganisms&afla
toxin

Air,
humudity,soil

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Factory side
drying of nut in hard shell

 

 

Mechanical
drying

B:
microoraganisms and aflatoxin

 

N

N

 

 

 

N

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Factory side
drying of nut in hard shell

 

cooling

 

B:
microoraganisms and aflatoxin

 

N

N

 

 

 

N

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pistachio kernel
processing

 

Hard shell
breaking

 

B:
microoraganisms and aflatoxin

 

N

N

 

 

 

N

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pistachio kernel
processing

 

 

Hard shell
separation

 

B:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P: hard shell
paticle

 

Y

 

 

Y

N

Y

 

 

Roasted
pistachio prosesing

 

 

spiliting

 

(mechanical)

B:
microoraganisms and aflatoxin

 

N

N

 

 

 

N

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P: hard shell
paticle

 

N

N

 

 

 

N

 

 

Roasted
pistachio prosesing

 

 

Roasting

B: microorganisms and aflatoxin 

 

N

N

 

 

 

N

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roasted
pistachio prosesing

 

Sieving

 

B:
microorganisms and aflatoxin

 

N

N

 

 

 

N

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roasted
pistachio prosesing

 

 

Cooling

 

B:
microorganisms and aflatoxin

 

N

N

 

 

 

N

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roasted
pistachio prosesing

And pistachio
kernel processing

 

Afla toxin test

 

B:
microorganisms and aflatoxin

 

Y

 

 

Y

N

Y

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roasted
pistachio prosesing

And pistachio
kernel processing

 

Metal detection

 

B:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:metal particle

Raw material or
machine

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

Roasted
pistachio prosesing

And pistachio
kernel processing

 

 

 

 

packaging

B:
microorganisms and aflatoxin

Contamination
from packaging material

 

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roasted
pistachio prosesing

And pistachio
kernel processing

 

 

 

Product storage

B:
microorganisms and aflatoxin

 

N

N

 

 

 

N

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3. Risk
analysis and CCPs in the processing of [process name]

 

Process name/step

Significant
hazards

Risk analysis

(Table 1.)

Preventive actions/control measures

CCP analysis (Figure 2)

Severity

Probability

Risk class

Q1.

Q2.

Q3.

Q4.

CCP no:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Process name/step

Significant
hazards

Risk analysis

(Table 1.)

Preventive actions/control measures

CCP analysis (Figure 2)

Severity

Probability

Risk class

Q1.

Q2.

Q3.

Q4.

CCP no:

 

harvesting

microorganisms

D

5

4

Reject intake

 

Y

N

Y

N

Ccp1

harvesting

 

Pasticide

E

5

4

Reject intake

 

Y

N

Y

N

CCP2

harvesting

 

 

Insects

C

5

4

Reject intake

 

Y

Y

 

 

CCP3

Drying of nuts
inhull(farmside)

 

microorganisms

D

5

4

Adjusting water
activity and spread far soil

Y

N

Y

N

CCP4

Storage of nut
farmside

 

Microorganisms
and toxins

D

5

4

Filtering air adjusting water activity,
relative humidity

 

Y

 

 

N

Y

N

Ccp 5

Receiving of
nuts in hull

( trader side)

 

Microorganisms
and toxins

D

5

4

 

Reject in take

N

Y

 

 

Ccp 6

Receiving of
nuts in hull

( trader side)

pesticide

E

5

4

Reject in take

N

Y

N

 

Ccp 7

 

Receiving of
nuts in hull

( trader side)

insects

C

5

4

Reject in take

Y

Y

 

 

Ccp 8

 

Receiving of
nuts in hull

( trader side)

Foreign matter

A

2

2

 

Y

N

N

 

_

Storage of nuts
in hull

(trader side)

Microorganisms
and toxins

D

5

4

Filtering air adjusting water activity,
relative humidity

 

Y

N

Y

N

Ccp 9

Receiving of
nuts in hull (factory side)

 

Microorganisms
and toxins

D

5

4

Reject in take

N

Y

 

 

Ccp 10

 

Receiving of
nuts in hull (factory side)

 

pesticide

E

5

4

Reject in take

N

Y

N

 

Ccp 11

Receiving of
nuts in hull (factory side)

 

 

insects

C

5

3

Reject in take

Y

Y

 

 

Ccp 12

Receiving of
nuts in hull (factory side)

 

 

Foreign matter

A

2

2

 

Y

N

N

 

_

Storage of nuts
in hull

 

Microorganisms
and toxins

E

5

4

Filtering air adjusting water activity,
relative humidity

 

Y

N

Y

N

Ccp 13

 

wetting

Microorganisms
and toxins

E

5

4

Short time

Y

N

Y

N

ccp 14

 

Wet dehulling

Microorganisms
and toxins

E

5

4

Short time

Y

N

Y

N

Ccp 15

Wet cleaning

 

Microorganisms
and toxins

E

5

4

Short time

Y

N

Y

N

Ccp 16

floatation

 

Microorganisms
and toxins

E

5

4

Short time

Y

N

Y

N

Ccp 17

dewatering

_  _______

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sun drying

Microorganisms
and toxins

E

5

4

Adjusting water
activity and spread far soil

Y

N

Y

N

Ccp 18

Spliting
(mechanical)

 

 

 

___________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roasting

__________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sieving

____________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hard shell
breaking

___________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hard shell
seperation

 

Hard shell
particle

C

5

4

controlling

Y

Y

 

 

Ccp 19

cooling

 

__________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aflatoxin test

 

Microorganisms
and toxins

E

5

4

controlling

N

 

Y

N

 

Ccp 20

Mechanical
drying

 

___________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mechanical
cooling

 

___________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Metal detection

 

Metal particle

C

2

3

controlling

Y

Y

 

 

Ccp 21

Packaging

 

Microorganisms
from packaging material

E

5

4

 

Suitable storage
of packaging material

Y

N

Y

N

Ccp 22

 

Product storage

_____________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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