Etiket Arşivleri: Sensory Analysis

Experimental Design and Sensory Analysis


hypothesis = tentative assumption to test logical or empirical consequences of applying a variable in a research project null hypothesis = statement that applying a research variable will not make a significant difference in a research project

Some examples…

Planning an experiment

• Idea

• Justification – Develop hypothesis

• Literature review

• Designing Experiment – work from hypothesis

– Must have controls

– Verified methods

– Weights and measures

Planning an experiment

• Results

– Compare treatments using objective measurements

– Physical and sensory tests

• Discussion

– Compare your results with those of others

– Did your results support your hypothesis or not?

– Rationale

• Conclusion

– Summary of results

– Impact of study

Controlling Experimental Variables

– Variable = quantity that has no fixed value

– Independent variable=defined by researcher (e.g. type of sweetner used)

– Dependent variable=will be a measured result from the experiment (e.g. affect of sweetner on color, volume,etc.)

– Extraneous variable = added variation that is not controlled that affects experimental outcome

Conducting an Experiment

• Objective and subjective observations

• Recording data – all information when observed

• Statistical analysis

– Descriptive statistics – frequency, distribution (mean, variance, standard deviation)

– Inferential statistics – probability of predicting an occurrence by use of a statistical test (t-test, ANOVA). Use significance level P<0.05

• Report

Sensory Tests

• Can be very objective when terms are clearly defined (consumer panel – 100s of people) or a panel that is highly trained (quantitative descriptive analysis)

Sensory Tests

• Involves use of senses – physiological response

– Olfactory receptors in nose

• Odor and taste receptors blend to give flavor

– Taste receptors –tongue, taste buds (gungiforms and circumvallate)

– Sweet, sour, bitter, salt

– Thresholds – concentration of taste compound at barely detectable level

– Subthreshold – concentration of taste compound at a

level that is not detectable, but is capable of influencing other taste perception (e.g. salt on sweetness)

Sensory Tests

• Visual receptors – shape, color, texture

• Appearance can affect perceived flavor or texture (example)

• Lighting is important – must not mask or accentuate irrelevant traits during sensory testing

Sensory Characteristics

• Appearance-color being most important (kids)

• Color is exterior surface

• Interior appearance –lumps, air cells, etc.

• Appearance and color features should be included on sensory testing forms

• Aroma – second most characteristic

• Aroma ‘advertises’ food

• Consider proper temperature when evaluating food aroma

• Flavor – taste and aroma mix to form flavor

• Temperature is critical to extract flavor and aroma

• Flavor potentiator – compound that enhances flavor without adding a flavor of its own (MSG)

• Flavor inhibitors – substance that blocks perception of a taste (milk protein or starch on hot pepper)

• Texture – mouthfeel – how a food feels in your mouth

– Mouthfeel –must clearly define what panelist is to evaluate (sticky, smooth, astringent)

• Tenderness – amount of chewing action to reach a certain consistency

• Appearance, Aroma, Flavor,Texture

– Train panel how attribute is defined so all are using same criteria

– Standardized and consistent experimental protocol

• examples

Selecting a Panel

• Ability to discriminate differences you are looking for

– Depending on test, may or may not want highly sensitive people

– Screen using preliminary tests

– Interest in project and serving on a panel

– Clarity of nasal passages and ability to taste and smell

– Demographic characteristics

Training a Panel

• Trained panelists- varies with complexity of test

• Review scorecards, clarify questions, assure that panelists are using same word definitions for scoring

• Untrained panelists – need larger number for tests. Consumer panels.

• Panelist has no preparation for evaluation of product (outside of own personal experience)

• Descriptive Flavor Analysis Panel and

Quantitative Descriptive Analysis

• -trained panel to analyze flavor, texture, appearance of product in great detail

• Describe product characteristics and quantify intensity of traits

• Verify flavor and determine quality

• Great amount of work (9 week or so to train panel)

• Must use same ‘calibrated’ panel over and over again. Needs long term commitment

Types of Tests

• Descriptive – provide information on selected characteristics

• Affective – subjective attitude to a product. Acceptability or preference. Follows discriminative or descriptive testing

• Difference – determine whether there are detectable differences between products

• Descriptive – provide selective information on characteristics of food

– Selective scoring of critical attributes. These are developed by researcher, through focus group or preliminary panels

– Each characteristic to be evaluated is described over entire range (min amount to excessive amount of trait x)

– Score card with rating scales (hedonic scales – e.g. extremely sweet to not sweet). These must be carefully worded

Descriptive Tests, cont.

– Score cards with comparisons -‘the more X sample is #’

– Trained or semi-trained panel

– Profile methods (flavor and texture profiling) –

Individual judgments, or ratings by a group. Develop accurate word for each characteristic to be measured

– Can be a single sample

Attribute analysis

• Not a preference test

• Problems with central tendency error

• Scales – 6-10 marks. Use objective terms as anchors (very hard) not subjective ones (much too hard).

• Anchors must be opposites

• Use anchors that are agreed upon during panel training. Each panelist can be calibrated based upon their tendency to use the whole scale. Can be repeated with a control as part of replication.

• Unstructured scales are best. Eliminates problems with unequal psychological intervals between traits.

• Psychological difference between terms are important. E.g ‘extremely sweet’ and ‘very sweet’ do not represent the same difference as ‘trace sweet’ and ‘not sweet’

• Hard to apply to complex traits like texture which must be characterized as individual components

• Train panel on what property IS so all will be looking for the same thing

• Include standards as scale tends to drift with time and panel’s familiarity with the product.




Sour Overall Aroma

Bread/ Yeasty


Intensity Af tertaste


Duration Af tertaste

Algae Flavor Strength

Salted Squid


Cooked Salmon




Fresh Fish

Fresh Salmon



Type of Tests

• Affective – subjective attitude to a product. Acceptability or preference. Follows discriminative or descriptive testing

• Ranking – rate by intensity of trait. Can be used to screen one or two samples from a larger group.

Must couple with another test to sort out degree of different if this is important.

– hedonic scales (like extremely/dislike extremely)

– consumer panels

Difference – detect differences between products

– also called discrimination tests

– Test sensitivity of judges to a certain trait

– Try to match experimental product with control

– New product formulations

Difference Tests

• Paired comparison

• Specific characteristic tested: ‘which sample is more sweet”

Other discrimination tests

• Triangle

• 2 out of 5

• Ranking- works well when several samples need to be evaluated for a single characteristic. Rank sample in order of intensity of characteristic being measured.

Factors affecting sensory measurements

• Choosing a panel – Best scenario –

– Panel is an analytical instrument

– Health, interest, availability, punctual, good verbal and communication skills.

• Threshold tests for primary tastes not useful to screen individuals for sensitivity to different foods

• Generally screen 2-3x as many people as you will use

• Prepare test samples as you would for ‘real experiment’

• Make sure panel understands forms used and the terms used on the forms

• Expectation error – any information a panelist receives influences the outcome

• Panels finds what they are expected to find

• Trick – provide only enough information for panelist to be able to do the test

• Try not to include people already involved in the experiment (single blind)

• Avoid codes that create inherent bias (1,A etc)

• Motivated panelists

• Leniency error – rate products based upon feelings about researcher

• Suggestion effect – response of other panelists to product (need to isolate panelists and keep them quiet)

Testing times

• Must not be too tired or hungry

• Late morning or mid afternoon are good

• Early AM bad for testing spicy foods

• Late day – lack of panelist motivation

Stimulus Error

• Influence of irrelevant questions (e.g piece size, color, uniformity)

• Try to mask unwanted difference (e.g. colored


• Logical error – associated with stimulus error – tendency to rate characteristics that appear to be logically associated (yellow and rancidity).

Control by masking differences

Halo and Proximity Effect

• Halo effect – caused by evaluating too many factors at one time. Panelists already have an impression about the product when asked about second trait – will form a logical association (e.g. dry-> tough)

• Best to structure testing so that only one factor is tested at a time (difficult to do)

• Proximity error – rate more characteristics similar when they follow in close proximity.

Convergence Effect

• Convergence effect – large difference between two samples will mask small

differences between others.

• This causes results to converge. So use random order to reduce this.

• Next slide shows how flavor interactions impact this.

Positional Effect and Contrast Effect

• Positional effect – tendency to rate second product higher or lower

• 2 products very different – panelists will exaggerate differences and rate ‘weaker’ sample lower than would otherwise

• Use random order. Use all possible presentation orders

Central Tendency Error

• Panelists done want to use whole scale.

• Mix up scale (don’t load one end with all the ‘good traits.

• Can also normalize form for each panelist

Physical Location

• Testing in special rooms. 22C, positive pressure, 45% RH,

• Special lighting

• No fumes

• No smoking

Sample preparation

• Preliminary preparation – grind, puree to reduce color differences (unless testing for color differences)

• Masking color – lights, glasses, blindfolds, black lined cups, added dye

Dilutions and carriers

• Spices or hot sauce – dilute in white sauce or syrup

• Hydrocolloids mask flavor

• Test actual food – icing ON cake

• 20-40C easiest range

Utensils and containers

• Glass is best (inert)

• Container should not have flavor or aroma

Quantity of sample

• Size limited by amount of product available

• Representative of what is needed to test variation in product as manufactured

• Test dependent (consumer sample or portion would require more sample)

• Discriminative – 16 ml liquid, 28 g solid. Double for preference test

• Market testing – use consumer size serving – what tastes ‘good’ at 20 ml may not at 200!


• Include reference sample in test as part of mix

• Use random numbers

• Balanced order of presentation to reduce physiological and psychological effects

• Use same ‘process’ between samples to reduce carry over.

• Neutral tasting room temperature water.

• Matzo crackers between samples

• High fat samples – warm tea, lemon water, apple slices

Sensory Analysis ( Betül ÖZDEMİR )






Experiment Name:  “Sensory Analysis”

Submitted to: Asst.Prof.Dr. ÇİĞDEM ( AYKAÇ ) SOYSAL

Submitted by: Betül ÖZDEMİR

                          Başak Koç

                          Hüsamettin KİRAZ

                          Mustafa MUTLU


The purpose of this experiment was application of triangle test for different kind of yogurt to find out a detectable difference between two similar yogurt.


Sensory analysis (or sensory evaluation) is a scientific discipline that applies principles of experimental design and statistical analysis to the use of human senses (sightsmell, taste, touch and hearing )for the purposes of evaluating consumer products. The discipline requires panels of human assessors, on whom the products are tested, and recording the responses made by them. By applying statistical techniques to the results it is possible to make inferences and insights about the products under test. Most large consumer goods companies have departments dedicated to sensory analysis.

All sensory testing methods are divided into three categories: hedonistic, comparative and descriptive testing. Hedonistic tests are always used within the scope of consumer tests and serve to characterize consumer behavior. On the other hand, comparative and descriptive sensory tests are referred to as “expert tests” because they may only be carried out by trained persons and can give very detailed information about individual product parameters. Selection of a sensory testing method must always take into account the test objective.

The most common sensory testing method is triangle test. The triangle test is a discriminative method with many uses in sensory science including:

·         gauging if an overall difference is present between two products

·         selecting qualified panelists for a particular test

·         determining whether shifts in processing or ingredients have significantly changed a product.

During a triangle test, a panelist is presented with one different and two a like samples. If possible, all three samples should be presented to the panelist at once, and the panelist should be instructed to taste the samples from left to right. The six possible order combinations should be randomized across panelists. For samples A and B, the six possible order combinations are: AAB, ABA, BAA, BBA, BAB, and ABB. The panelist is instructed to identify the odd sample and record his answer.


      Sensory is an analytical method where the human senses are a sample of testers. Sensory analysis testing is used considerably in the food industry for product development. It also plays a key role in quality control and in the marketing of products.  Many types of sensory analysis tests have been devised to fulfil a number of specific objectives.  These tests are grouped into three categories. Preference test, Difference test, Descriptive test.

         Preference tests are used in the food industry to determine: if consumers like a product, if one product preferred over another and if consumers intend to use a product. Difference test are used to detect small differences in foods. Difference tests are used in food industry to answer some of the following questions: Does a difference exist? Would people notice the difference? How would you describe the difference? . Descriptive tests are used to describe the perceived sensory characteristics of products. Descriptive tests can be used in the food industry to answer some of the following questions: what does the product taste like? What are its perceived sensory characteristics / attributes? How does a change in processing / packaging / storage conditions affect the sensory quality of this product? And Triangle test; Tester is presented with three coded sample, two samples are the same, one is different, tester is required to identify the sample that is different.

We did triangle test in this experiment. A triangle test is a discriminative form of a sensory analysis. its results first’ Indicate whether or not a detectable difference exists between two samples.’ For this reason it is often used to ”in quality control to determine if a particular production run meets the quality control standard.”. To carry out the experiment the panelists must be provided with three coded samples of the products being tested. Two of the samples must be from the same product and panelists must pick the odd one out. The panelists must also be provided with another food or beverage to cleanse their palate and to minimize the cross contamination of different sample flavors in the mouth. In addition, there are nine possible errors which could influence a triangle test: · Expectation error: This error occurs when the panelists are given more than enough information about the test before actually doing it. Too many facts or hints cause panelists to make a judgment on expectation rather than intuition. For this reason it is important provide only the facts necessary to complete the test. 

            As a result this test (triangle test) is depends on the people. For this reason, we can taste different from the same sample. For example someone feels salty but someone feels spicy on the same sample. According to some people find strong acidic, some people find low acidic. For these result we should choose panelist very carefully.