Process of heating each and every particle of milk to 63 o C for 30 minutes or 72 o C for 15 sec (or to any other time temperature combination which is equally efficient in approved and properly operated equipment and cooling the milk to 4 o C
Heat Preservation Method
Destruction of bacteria harmful to health (pathogenic micro organisms)
Make milk and milk products safe for human consumption
Improve the keeping quality of milk and milk products
Standards for pasteurization
A. Bacterial destruction
Most heat resistant – Mycobacterium tuberculosis
B.Cream line reduction
Cream line (Quality) reduces with increase in time temp combinations
Complete destruction of phosphatase enzyme
METHODS OF PASTEURIZATION
LT LT Method
HTST- Plate Heat Exchangers
-Steam Injection type
-Steam Infusion type
Low Temperature Long Time (LTLT) Method/Batch method
Low Temperature Long Time;
Milk heated to 63 o C for 30 minutes
Heating is indirect
Heat moves through a metal wall
Water jacketed Vat/Process vat
Double walled pressure vessel
Steam or hot water circulates for heating
Water for cooling
Outer wall is insulated to reduce heat loss
Heat exchange through the inner wall to milk
Difference between temp of heating medium and milk ΔT is kept minimum
Milk is agitated by slowly moving paddles/propellers
Pasteurization: Definition and Methods
Pasteurization: A process named after scientist Louis Pasteur which uses the
application of heat to destroy human pathogens in foods. For the dairy industry, the terms “pasteurization”, “pasteurized” and similar terms shall mean the process of heating every particle of milk or milk product, in properly designed and operated equipment, to one (1) of the temperatures given in the following chart and held continuously at or above that temperature for at least the corresponding specified time:
Temperature Time Pasteurization Type
63ºC (145ºF)* 30 minutes Vat Pasteurization
72ºC (161ºF)* 15 seconds High temperature short time Pasteurization(HTST)
89ºC (191ºF) 1.0 second Higher-Heat Shorter Time (HHST)
90ºC (194ºF) 0.5 seconds Higher-Heat Shorter Time (HHST)
94ºC (201ºF) 0.1 seconds Higher-Heat Shorter Time (HHST)
96ºC (204ºF) 0.05 seconds Higher-Heat Shorter Time (HHST)
100ºC (212ºF) 0.01 seconds Higher-Heat Shorter Time (HHST)
138ºC (280ºF) 2.0 seconds Ultra Pasteurization (UP)
*If the fat content of the milk product is ten percent (10%) or more, or if it contains added sweeteners, or if it is concentrated (condensed), the specified temperature shall be increased by 3ºC (5ºF). Provided that, eggnog shall be heated to at least the following temperature and time specifications:
Temperature Time Pasteurization Type
69ºC (155ºF) 30 minutes Vat Pasteurization
80ºC (175ºF) 25 seconds High temperature short time Pasteurization (HTST)
83ºC (180ºF) 15 seconds High temperature short time Pasteurization (HTST)
The original method of pasteurization was vat pasteurization, which heat milk or other liquid ingredients in a large tank for a at least 30 minutes. It is now used primarily in the dairy industry for preparing milk for making starter cultures in the processing of cheese, yogurt, buttermilk and for pasteurizing some ice cream mixes. The most common method of pasteurization in the United States today is High Temperature Short Time (HTST) pasteurization, which uses metal plates and hot water to raise milk temperatures to at least 161° F for not less than 15 seconds, followed by rapid cooling. Higher Heat Shorter Time (HHST) is a process similar to HTST pasteurization, but it uses slightly different equipment and higher temperatures for a shorter time. For a product to be considered Ultra Pasteurized (UP), it must be heated to not less than 280° for two seconds. UP pasteurization results in a product with longer shelf life but still requiring refrigeration. Another method, aseptic processing, which is also known as Ultra High Temperature (UHT), involves heating the milk using commercially sterile equipment and filling it under aseptic conditions into hermetically sealed packaging. The product is termed “shelf stable” and does not need refrigeration until opened. All aseptic operations are required to file their processes with the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) “Process Authority.” There is no set time or temperature for aseptic processing; the Process Authority establishes and validates the proper time and temperature based on the equipment used and the products being processed.
Source: IDFA, June 2009
PASTEURIZATION AND BLANCHING
PURPOSE OF THE PROCESSES
DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSING SYSTEMS
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PASTEURIZATION PROCESS
DETERMINATION OF BLANCHING PROCESS
PROCESSES FOR PRODUCT QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
mild \severe \batch-type \continuous
brucellosis tuberculosis Salmonella Listeria
plate heat exchanger\ \a flow diversion
valve (FDV) \cooling medium\ \high
temp.-short-time (HTST) \
\ultra-high-temperature (UHT) \\conveyor tunnel
The processes that utilize relatively mild thermal treatments to achieve the desired results are pasteurization and blanching. Both processes apply thermal treatment to food products in an effort to improve the stability of the product during storage.
Although the magnitude of the thermal processes is similar, application of the processes involves two distinctly different types of food products. Pasteurization is most often associated with liquid foods, while blanching is most often associated with solid foods.
The magnitude of thermal treatment used for both processes is not sufficient to establish storage stability at room temperature. The criteria utilized in establishing these modest thermal treatments are rather specific and are different for different food commodities.
Purpose of Pasteurization Processing
Pasteurization is a mild thermal process applied to a liquid food to increase the product shelf life during refrigeration and to destroy vegetative pathogens (brucellosis and tuberculosis), Salmonella and Listeria.
In fruit juice ,to inactivate enzymes
The process of heating EVERY PARTICLE of milk and milk products to the minimum required TEMPERATURE (for that specific milk or milk product), and holding it continuously for the minimum required TIME in equipment that is PROPERLY DESIGNED and OPERATED. Pasteurization has also been described as a heat treatment or thermal process used to kill part but not all of the vegetative microorganisms present in the food.
Pasteurization is a killing method of pathogenic microorganisms e.g mycobacterium tuberculoses , salmonella by application of heat at 62ºC for 30 minutes or 72ºC for 15 seconds.
In this experiment, raw milk was pasteurized by using plate heat exchanger at 72ºC for 15 seconds and overall heat transfer coefficient of regeneration,cooling and heating mediums was calculated.Effectiveness of plate heat exchanger was measured by using datas obtained from experiment.Microbial succession of plate heat exchanger was investigated by using methylene blue indicator for color changes because of binding tendency of methylene blue on hydrogen atoms by changing color from blue to colorless.
CIP (cleaning in place) was carried out step by step after pasteurization by using water and special solvents (sodium hydroxide,water and nitric acid). After controlling the cleanless of the heat exchanger by using phenolphtalein indicator.If color changes to pink ,meaning that there is still NaOH in water.After alkaline threatment,nitric acid was used as disinfectant.
In this laboratory report,general principles of plate heat exchanger were mentioned and heat transfer coefficients of each section were calculated.
A heat exchanger is used to transfer heat by the indirect method. Several different types will be described later. It is possible to simplify heat transfer by representing the heat exchanger symbolically as two channels separated by a tubular partition. Hot water (red) flows through one channel and milk (blue) through the other. Heat is transferred through the partition. The hot water enters the channel at a temperature of ti2 and is cooled to a temperature of to2 at the outlet. Milk enters the heat exchanger at a temperature of ti1 and is heated by the hot water to an exit temperature of to1. The temperature changes during passage through the heat exchanger are shown by the curves in figure 1 .
Dimensioning data for a heat exchanger
The necessary size and configuration of a heat exchanger depend on many factors. The calculation is very intricate and is nowadays normally done with the aid of a computer. The factors that must be considered are :
• Product flow rate
• Physical properties of the liquids
• Temperature program
• Permitted pressure drops
• Heat exchanger design
• Cleanability requirements
• Required running times 
The general formula for calculating the required size (heat transfer area) of a heat exchanger is:
Logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD)
It has already been mentioned that there must be a difference in temperature between the two media for heat transfer to take place. The differential temperature is the driving force. The greater the difference in temperature, the more heat is transferred and the smaller the heat exchanger needed. For sensitive products there are, however, limits to how great a difference can be used.
The differential temperature can vary through the heat exchanger. A mean value, LTMD, is used for calculation. It is called Dtm in the general formula above. It can be calculated by following formula, using the denominations in figure 2 
Most heat treatment of dairy products is carriedout in plate heat exchangers. The plate heat exchanger (often abbreviated PHE) consists of a pack of stainless steel plates clamped in a frame. The frame may contain several separate plate packs – sections – in which different stages of treatment such as preheating, final heating and cooling take place. The heating medium is hot water, and the cooling medium cold water, icewater or propyl glycol, depending on the required product outlet temperature. The plates are corrugated in a pattern designed for optimum heat transfer. The plate pack is compressed in the frame. Supporting points on the corrugations hold the plates apart so that thin channels are formed between them. The liquids enter and leave the channels through holes in the corners of the plates. Varying patterns of open and blind holes route the liquids from one channel to the next. Gaskets round the edges of the plates and round the holes form the boundaries of the channels and prevent external leakage and internal mixing 
The product is introduced through a corner hole into the first channel of the section and flows vertically through the channel. It leaves at the other end through a separately gasketed corner passage. The arrangement of the corner passages is such that the product flows through alternate channels in the plate pack. The service (heating or cooling) medium is introduced at the other end of the section and passes, in the same way, through alternate plate channels. Each product channel consequently has service medium channels on both sides. For efficient heat transfer the channels between the plates should be as narrow as possible; but both flow velocity and pressure drop will be high if a large volume of product must pass through these narrow channels. Neither of these effects is desirable and, to eliminate them, the passage of the product through the heat exchanger may be divided into a number of parallel flows.
In figure the blue product flow is divided into two parallel flows which change direction four times in the section. The channels for the red heating medium are divided into four parallel flows which change direction twice.
This combination is written as 4 x 2 / 2 x 4, i.e. the number of passes times the number of parallel flows for the blue product over the number of passes times the number of parallel flows for the red service medium. This is called the grouping of the plates .
HTST is the abbreviation of High Temperature Short Time. The actual time/temperature combination varies according to the quality of the raw milk, the type of product treated, and the required keeping properties .
The HTST process for milk involves heating it to 72 – 75°C with a hold of 15 –20 seconds before it is cooled. The phosphatase enzyme is destroyed by this time/temperature combination. The phosphatase test is therefore used to check that milk has been properly pasteurised. The test result must be negative: there must be no detectable phosphatase activity .
1. Raw milk was poured to receiving tank (balance tank in dairy industry).
2. Then flow rates of milk and water were adjusted to 1000ml/min and 405 ml/min respectively.
3. Then,plate heat exchanger was set up until temperature of heating section reached to 69.9ºC by controlling temperature with thermocouple.
4. Until temperature of plate heat exchanger raised to 69.9ºC , raw milk was circulated around tank and heating medium so that temperature of raw milk was raised to around 35-40ºC.
5. When temperature of milk reached to 72ºC,pasteurization started
6. Pasteurized milk was sent to holding tube to be held for 15 seconds
7. Then pasteurized milk cooled to ambient temperature with cooling water
8. After pasteurization of milk,cleaning of plate heat exchanger was carried out with application of CIP (cleaning in place system)
Steps of CIP
1. Rinsing with warm water for about 10 minutes.
2. Circulation of an alkaline detergent solution (0.5 – 1.5%) for about
3. 30 minutes at 75°C.
4. Rinsing out alkaline detergent with warm water for about 5 minutes.
5. Circulation of (nitric) acid solution (0.5 – 1.0 %) for about 20 minutes at
7. Post-rinsing with cold water.
8. Gradual cooling with cold water for about 8 minutes
RESULTS AND CALCULATION
T1= Exit temp. of milk from holding section= 72,2°C
T2= exit temp. of milk from regeneration section= 60,9°C
T3= cold water in temp = 18,7°C
T4= hot water in temp= 78°C
T5= exit temp of milk from cooling section= 36,5°C
T6= exit temp of cold water out=24,3°C
Tx=temp of milk out from regeneration=?
Ty= temp of cold water out from heating section=?
Tr= temp of raw milk at the beginning=?
Diameter of tube= 7,086*10-3 m
Plates number= cooling:5 ; regeneration:19 ; heating:15
Flow rate of milk=405ml/min=6.75*10-6 m3/sec
Flow rate of water=1000ml/min=16.6*10-6m3/sec
Area of a plate= 5,676*10-3m^2
1-) U for each section;
a) U for cooling section
b) U for regeneration section
c) U for heating
2-) total overall heat tr. coefficient;Ut
3-) amount of heat recovered
a) heating section
b) cooling section
4-) % heat exchanged in regeneration section
QR = m*cp*ΔTr / m*cp*ΔTt *100 = (60,9-39,6)/(72,2-39,6) = 65.34%.
5-) Length of holding tube=L
1. Dictionary of Dairy Technology (English, French, German, Spanish, compiled by International Dairy Federation (IDF), Brussels, Belgium Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam/Oxford/New York, 1983
2. A Dictionary of Dairying (by J.G. Davis Leonard Hill, London, UK)
3. Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry (Editied by B.H. Webb and A.Johnson
The AVI Publishing Company Inc., Westport, Connecticut, USA)
4. Developments in Dairy Chemistry, Volume 1 – 4 by P.F. Fox (by P.F. Fox Applied Science Publishers, London and New York )