Etiket Arşivleri: Nutrition

Tıbbi ve Yenilebilir Mantarlar & Et Ürünlerinde Kullanımı ( Gülen YILDIZ TURP )

Tıbbi ve Yenilebilir Mantarlar & Et Ürünlerinde Kullanımı

Gülen YILDIZ TURP1*, Meltem BOYLU2

1Ege Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Gıda Mühendisliği Bölümü, İzmir, Türkiye
2Ege Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Gıda Mühendisliği Anabilim Dalı, İzmir, Türkiye
*e-posta: gulen.yildiz.turp@ege.edu.tr; Tel: +902323113038; Fax: +902323114831

Özet:

Son yıllarda sağlıklı beslenmeye yönelik olarak toplumun bilinçlenmesi ve tüketicilerin doğal gıdalara gösterdikleri ilginin artmasıyla bu konuda yapılan araştırmalar da hız  kazanmıştır. Yüksek besin değerine sahip olan mantarlar uzun yıllardır gıda olarak tüketilmekte ve içerdikleri biyoaktif bileşenler nedeniyle ilaç, kozmetik ürün, diyet takviyesi ve fonksiyonel gıda üretimi alanında kullanılabilme potansiyeli taşımaktadırlar. Mantarlara karşı ilginin giderek artması Dünya’da ve ülkemizde mantar üretim ve tüketiminde önemli gelişim ve değişimlere neden olmuştur. Mantarlar, yüksek oranda protein, karbonhidrat, lif, vitamin, mineral ve biyoaktif bileşenler içermektedirler. Bunun yanında sodyum, yağ, kolesterol ve kalori değerleri düşüktür. Bu özellikler mantarları sağlıklı ve dengeli bir diyetin parçası olabilecek gözde gıdalar haline getirmektedir. Bu çalışmada mantarların üretim ve tüketimi, besleyici değerleri, sağlık üzerine etkileri ve et ürünlerinde kullanımlarına yönelik bilgiler derlenerek sunulmuştur.

Anahtar kelimeler: Beslenme, Et ürünleri, Mantar, Sağlık

Medicinal and Edible Mushrooms & Usage in Meat Products

Abstract:

In recent years, awareness of the community towards healthy nutrition and the interest that consumers have shown in natural foods have accelerated the research conducted in this field. Mushrooms with high nutritional value have been consumed for many years as food and they have the potential to be used in medicine, cosmetics, dietary supplement and functional food production due to the bioactive components they contain. The growing interest in mushrooms has led to significant developments and changes in mushroom production and consumption in the World and in our country. Mushrooms include high protein, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, minerals and bioactive components. In addition, sodium, fat, cholesterol and calories are low. These properties make mushrooms the favorite food that can be a part of a healthy and balanced diet. In this study, information on production and consumption of mushrooms, nutritive values, health effects and usage in meat products is compiled and presented.

Keywords: Nutrition, Meat Products, Mushroom, Health

Kaynak: http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/462007

Principles of Nutrition

Principles of Nutrition

What does it mean to you?

How is your food intake influenced?

• Emotion
• Personal Preference
• Habit
• Ethnic Heritage
• Social gatherings
• Convenience
• Body weight and image
• Medical reasons
• Nutrition
• Others…….

Carbohydrate Vitamins
Fat Minerals
Protein Water

The Two Classes of Nutrients

1. Energy Yielding: Carbohydrate, Fat, Protein

2. Non-energy Yielding: Vitamins, Minerals, Water


Geleneksel Türk Tadı: Pekmez ( Aslı UÇAR )

GELENEKSEL TÜRK TADI: PEKMEZ

UÇAR, Aslı
TÜRKİYE/ТУРЦИЯ

ÖZET

Türkiye’de eski yıllardan beri yaygın olarak üretilmekte olan pekmez, ülkemize özgü bir değerlendirme şeklidir. İçerdiği yüksek şekerden dolayı iyi bir karbonhidrat ve enerji kaynağı olup ülkemizde üretilen en önemli geleneksel gıdalardan birisidir. Pekmez özellikle günlük kalsiyum, demir, potasyum ve magnezyum gereksiniminin büyük bir kısmını karşılamaktadır. Mineral miktarının fazla ve emilim oranlarının yüksek olması nedeniyle hamile ve emziklilerin, iyileşme döneminde olan kişilerin diyetinde yer alması önerilmektedir. Tarih boyunca Türk milleti içinde şeker olan her şeyden pekmez üretmiştir. Ancak geçmişte ve günümüzde en yaygın olan uygulama, üzümden pekmez üretilmesidir. Bunun yanında elma, dut, kayısı, erik, karpuz, incir, keçiboynuzu gibi meyvelerden de pekmez üretilmekte-
dir. Türkiye’de pekmez üretimi geleneksel olarak binlerce yıllık bir geçmişe sahiptir. Pekmez pişirme, helva çekme gibi folklorumuzda geniş yer tutan adetler, sohbetler ve efsaneler vardır. Bu çalışmada, geleneksel olarak büyük önem taşıyan, ancak tüketimi giderek azalan pekmezin tarihçesi, üretim yöntemleri, insan sağlığı üzerine etkisi ve kullanım alanları ile ilgili bilgi vermek amaçlanmıştır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Pekmez, sağlık, beslenme, geleneksel Türk gıdası.

ABSTRACT

Traditional Turkish Taste: “Pekmez”

Pekmez, whose production in Turkey has been widespread since old times, is one use of grapes that is peculiar to Turkey. It is one of the most important traditional foods produced in Turkey. It includes a high amount of glucose in it, which makes it a good carbohydrate and a good source of energy. Pekmez meets most of the daily requirement of especially calcium, iron, potassium and magnesium. As the mineral amounts and the absorption rates are high, it is recommended that pekmez is included in the diets of children, the pregnant, nursing mothers, and patients who are in the healing stage. Turks have produced pekmez from everything that contains glucose throughout history. Nevertheless, the most widespread application has been the production of pekmez from grapes, both in the past and today. In addition to grapes, fruits such as apples, mulberries, apricots, plums, watermelons, figs and carobs are also used to obtain pekmez from. The conventional production of pekmez in Turkey dates back to thousands of years ago. There are traditions, conversations and legends, involving the cooking of pekmez and helva making, which are common in the Turkish folk culture. The aim of this study is to provide information about the history, the production methods, and the area of use of pekmez, which is traditionally prominent but whose production is getting less and less, as well as its effects on human health.

Key Words: Pekmez, health, nutrition, traditional Turkish taste.


Kaynak: http://ayk.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/U%C3%87AR-Asl%C4%B1-GELENEKSEL-T%C3%9CRK-TADI-PEKMEZ.pdf

Food Chemistry, Nutrition, and Traditional Foods

Module 8: Food Chemistry, Nutrition, and Traditional Foods
Molecules of Food: Carbohydrates
6-C rings, 5-C rings
Mono-saccharides (sugar, fructose) Dissacharides (lactose, sucrose) Polysaccharides (starch, fibre, glycogen)
Carbohydrates are assimilated in the body as “mono-saccharides” following digestion
Glucose: Body’s Primary Fuels
Molecules of Food: Lipids and Fats
Fats: Large biological molecules, diverse compositions, insoluble in water (i.e. non-polar in nature)
Types:
Fatty acids (assimilable form)
Triglycerides (in blood)
Phospholipids (cell membranes)
Sterols (e.g. cholesterol)
Roles:
Source of energy (during sustained activity)
Structure of cell membrane
Free Fatty Acids (one chain)
Saturated
Unsaturated (e.g. Omega-3, Omega-6)
Fatty Acids
Long-chain fatty acids (12+ carbons) are abundant in meats and fish
Short-chain fatty acids (12 carbons or less) are abundant in dairy products
Cold-water fish are rich in essential omega fatty acids
Unsaturated fatty acids, when cooked, change conformation to a “trans” shape (which tend to accumulate in blood vessels)
Unsaturated fats are more prone to react with oxygen, causing rancidity (common in stored fish)
Triglycerides
Phospholipids
Phospholipids are “modified” triglycerides where one fatty acid chain is replaced by a phosphate group
Soluble in water
Important in cell membrane
Phospholipids
Sterols
Multiple rings of carbon
Best-known sterols: cholesterol (the building block for all other sterols)
Bile acids, some hormones, Vitamin C
Sterols
Absorption of Lipids
Fat breakdown occurs in intestines
Smaller units: fatty acids, glycerol, and sterols
Cholesterol and triglycerides are non-polar, hence need “lipoproteins” to carry them in the bloodstream
Molecules of Food: Proteins
Chains of Amino Acids
Diverse roles: enzymes, hormones, regulators, molecular transports, antibodies, building tissue like muscles, and energy
Made up of C, H, O, N, other ions
Amino Acids
Four components around a central carbon (C)
One hydrogen
An amino group (-NH2)
An acid (-COOH)
A functional group
Amino Acids
Molecules of Food: Vitamins
Essential organic compounds to ensure proper metabolism
Little caloric value
Water-soluble vitamins (enter directly into bloodstream)
Fat-soluble vitamins (must be transported by carrier proteins)
Several diseases are associated with vitamin deficiencies
Caloric Contents of Food Molecules
Subsistence Food Provisioning
Nutrition for indigenous people in the Arctic is changing rapidly; from 100% to <50% “country food”.
Presence of larger communities, presence of “Co-op” or “Bay” stores, and an increasing cash economy contribute to changes in feeding habits.
Lastly, hunting activities are costly when modern technologies are used à the “pay off” of traditional food provisioning is decreasing.
Concepts
Subsistence activities: The hunting, fishing, and gathering of local foods for consumption, sharing, and trade or barter.
e.g. caribou, whales, seals, marine birds, waterfowls, eggs, fruits (largely a carnivore diet)
Note: Commercial trapping or fishing is generally not viewed as traditional food gathering; although they could be traditional activities.
Example of Subsistence Food Economy
Inupiat households in Barrow, Alaska
Production vs. Sharing
Food provisioning is crucial, but sharing is an intricate part of subsistence
Sharing touches upon all members of a community, and represents a way of establishing and maintaining ties to family and within the community at large (e.g. support of elders, non-hunting members)
Sharing is viewed as part of the “culture” of indigenous society
Quality Food: Arctic Char
Quality Food: Beluga
Quality Food: Caribou
Quality Food: Muskox
Quality Food: Polar Bear
Quality Food: Ring Seal
What is special about a subsistence diet in the North?