Etiket Arşivleri: lipids

Enzymes in Fats and Oil Industry ( Dr. Hasene KESKİN ÇAVDAR )

ENZYMES

• Enzymes are proteins that accelerate chemical reactions.

• Substrates: The molecules present at the beginning of the reaction are called substrates.

• Enzymes convert substrates into different molecules, called products.

• Like all catalysts, enzymes work by lowering the activation energy for a reaction.

• Catalysts, like enzymes, act by lowering the energy difference between the reactants (A, B) and the transition state. This lowers the activation barrier for the reaction, allowing it to proceed more rapidly.

Nomenclature Of Enzymes

• Enzymes are usually named according to the reaction they carry out.

• Typically, the suffix ‘ase’ is added to the name of the substrate or the type of reaction (e.g. a polymerase or isomerase for a polymerization or isomerization reaction).

• Examples:

• Maltose-maltase

• Sucrose-sucrase

• Lactose-lactase

• Protein-protease

• Lipids-lipase

• Polymerization-polymerase

• Isomerization-isomerase

• The exceptions to this rule are some of the enzymes studied originally, such as pepsin, rennin and trypsin.

LIPIDS

• Lipids are a diverse group of compounds sharing the common property of being hydrophobic (soluble in non- polar solvents, insoluble in water).

• They are organic compounds, contains C, H, and O.

• Lipids include

Fatty acids,

Fats and oils,

Steroids (cholesterol, steroid hormones, bile salts)

Waxes,

Phospholipids

Terpenes, and

Tocopherols

Most of lipids are derivatives of fatty acids.

Types of lipids:

• Lipids with fatty acids

Fats and oils (triglycerides)

Phospholipids

Sphingolipids

Waxes

• Lipids without fatty acids

Steroids

Most of lipids are derivatives of fatty acids.

Lipids

Simple Lipids

Fats and Oils (Triglycerides)

Waxes

Compound Lipids

Phospholipids

Glycolipids

Derived Lipids

Steroids

Terpenes

Carotenoids

FATS and OILS

• Glycerol esters of fatty acids, which make up 99% of the lipids of plant and animal origin, have been traditionally called fats and oils.

• The main components of edible fats and oils are triglycerides (>95%). The minor components include mono- and diglycerides, free fatty acids, phosphatides, sterols, fat soluble vitamins, tocopherols, pigments, waxes, and fatty alcohols.

Structured Lipids

The aim of the Project is to give the information about the structured lipids. Structured lipids are triacylglycerol that have been modified to change the fatty acid composition and/or their positional distribution in glycerol backbone by chemically and/or enzmatically catalyzed reactions.

And this Project has given information about type of structured lipids (AAA, ABA, AAB types), enzymatic syntesis of structured lipid in a solvevt free system.