1. Safety is a prime consideration. The student is expected to pay attention and be especially careful when working with any chemicals or equipment at all times in the laboratory. No horseplay or disorderliness will be tolerated in the laboratory.
2. Safety goggles, gloves will be used whenever working with acids, bases or other potentially dangerous chemicals, instruments or equipment. Lab coats will be worn at all times in the laboratory.
3. Before using instruments such as the pH meters, DO meters, spectrophotometers and other more complex instrumentation, check with the instructor or TA.
4. All clothes, books, bags and personal items not directly needed in the laboratory will not be placed on lab benches. There will be no smoking or eating in the lab.
5. NO MOUTH PIPETTING UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES. Safety pipette bulbs or rubber bulbs will be provided.
6. In the event of an accident, injury, breakage or spillage, the instructor or TA will be notified. This includes spillage of acids, bases or potentially hazardous chemicals. (Ex: mercury from a broken thermometer)
7. NEVER POUR WATER INTO ACID.
8. Heavy metal wastes, toxic compounds and strong acids will require special disposal procedures to be defined by the instructor or TA at the outset of an experiment. Never mix incompatible wastes.
9. ASK BEFORE YOU ACT. When in doubt always consult the instructor or TA regarding any matter related to laboratory protocols and safety.
10. Always wash your hands thoroughly before leaving the laboratory.
Students must view the Lab Safety Guide on FE 471 main page before working in the lab and sign a statement acknowledging that they have read and understand the materials; failure to observe this may result in penalties on course grade or suspended from using of laboratory.
1. CLEAN UP AFTER YOURSELF. Student work areas should be cleaned up at the end of the class. All glassware used during an experiment should be rinsed.
2. Data collected during an experiment will be logically organized and placed on the blackboard.
3. Appropriate attire (Ex.: closed shoes, long hair tied back, etc) is highly recommended. Wearing of contact lenses is discouraged
Preparation of Lab Report
The laboratory report should be treated as any other engineering or scientific report. Literate English should be employed. The report should be neatly typed and be well organized to reflect the methodology of the experiment performed towards its conclusions. The report should be stapled or bound.
The cover page should be organized into the following information: a. Number and Title of Experiment. b. Student Name. c. Name of the laboratory where the experiment was carried out. Example: University of Gaziantep
Faculty of Engineering
Department of Food Engineering
d. Date of submission.
Introduction This section should include importance of the exercises.
Objective(s) This section should include objective(s) of the exercises.
Apparatus / Reagents A list of the equipment and chemicals used to carry out the experiment.
Procedure A summary of the materials and methods used to carry out the experiment. If a lab procedure sheet has been provided, this may be attached. Any deviation should be noted. Procedures taken from “Standard Methods” should be referenced. Special equipment used should be sketched or described.
Results This includes the presentation of a summary of the data in the form of tables or figures. This section will not include the raw data, which is included in Appendix at the end of the report.
Calculations Show all the calculations used to get the results. To avoid repetitious calculations, typical sample calculations may be presented illustrating how the data was computed.
Discussion This section includes a brief discussion of practical significance of the experiment, and a critical discussion and examination of class results. This Section is to be treated as separate from section Questions, even though some of the questions posed in Questions may be addressed as part of the discussion. The discussion should treat the laboratory observations and the topic of the experiment at two levels:
The discussion should address the topic of the experiment, summarizing the underlying theory or fundamentals and relating it to practice. In addition, the significance of the topic in the field should be considered. This material should be gathered from reading Standard Methods, the text, other references.
This part of the discussion will evaluate the results and should include a critical discussion of class results as well as personal results. Statistical methods for treatment of class data should be used where applicable. Good as well as satisfactory data should be considered. This section could also include criticism of the experiment and recommendations for future work.
Conclusions Based on your data and that of the class, (if any) use your personal engineering or scientific judgement to draw a conclusion for the experiment. Justify this on the basis of the data. If this is not possible, state why. The conclusions should be stated in clear, positive, concise statements.
Questions Answer all of the questions posed on the laboratory procedure sheet if available. Some of these answers can also be used in the discussion.
Reference Cite reference material employed in performing the experiment, and used in the discussion. Any reference material may be used, but credit must be given to the source. In most cases information is not copied from another source. To do so is both illegal and unethical. The correct format must be used in citing references. In general, books, journals and reports will differ slightly in referencing formats, but the order is usually: reference number, author, title (may be in quotes), publisher, volume (or edition), and year.
Examples: 1. Eaton, A. D., Clesceri, L. S., Greenberg, A. E., “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, APHA, Washington, DC, 20th Edition, 1998. 2. Sawyer, C. N., McCarty, P. L., Parkin, G. F., “Chemistry for Environmental Engineering”, McGraw-Hill, 4th Edition, 1994.
Appendix This portion includes raw data and any other information, data collected (or a xerox copy) in the lab during the course of the experiment. You should not have to recopy the lab data at home (although the group may do this at the conclusion of the lab), despite the errors, scratching and stains. Learn to record lab data in an organized, clear manner so that someone one year later can understand what was done. Indicate the data collected in logical steps, as tables where possible and noting problems encountered. The data sheet should indicate who was in your lab group, the pages of data, and your personal initials or signature on the data sheet indicating that you have looked it over and that it reports in a reasonable and accurate way what was done.
Warning: If your lab report is just “copy-n-paste” from the FE 471 web site or handout, you won’t get any point for lab report.