Etiket Arşivleri: Fruit Juice

Fruit Juice ( FAO )

FRUIT JUICE

1.- Fruit juices and squash – general information

Classification

– JUICE –

Fruit juices are made from pure filtered fruit juice with nothing added. Sodium benzoate can be added as a preservative to extend the shelf life, but this is not essential. Properly pasteurised juice has a shelf life of several months. Most fruits can be used to make juice. The most popular ones are pineapple, orange, mango, grapefruit and passion fruit.

– SQUASH AND CORDIAL-

Squashes and cordials are concentrated, sweetened drinks made from a 30% mix of fruit pulp and sugar syrup. They are diluted before drinking. The sugar  concentration must be high enough (12-14%) to preserve the squash after the bottle has been opened.

-NECTAR-

Some juices, such as guava juice are not filtered after pulping. They are bottled and sold as fruit nectars.

2.- Processing details for fruit-juice production

Source: http://www.fao.org/3/a-au112e.pdf

Apple Fruit Juice ( Fatma ATALAY )

CONTENT

Introduction

About Raw Materials

Flowchart of Apple Juice

Control Points

End Product Properties

Alternative Technologies

By Product

APPLE

The apple tree (Malus domestica) is a deciduous tree in the rose family best known for its sweet, pomaceous fruit, the apple. It is cultivated worldwide as a fruit tree, and is the most widely grown species in the genus Malus.

A typical apple serving weighs 242 grams and provides 126 calories with a moderate content of dietary fiber . Otherwise, there is generally low content of essential nutrients .

Commercially, apples can be stored for some months in controlled-atmosphere chambers to delay ethylene-induced ripening.

Carbohydrate 15.0 g/kg

Protein 1,3 g/kg

Fat 0,4 g/kg

Ash 0,3 g/kg

Water 84 g/kg

Ph 3,0-3,3 g/kg

Starch 2 g/kg

Brix(20°C /20°C ) 1.0488

RAW MATERIAL PROPERTIES

NUTRITIONAL VALUE


Fruit Juice

FRUIT JUICE
“Juice is the fluid product expressed from plant material by crushing, comminuting and pressing and addition of the additives.”
Near water – No or Low Calories
According to production method
Press Line: Clarified type juice (apple, cherry, grape)
Pulper Line: Nectar type juice (peach, apricot, plum)
Citrus Line: Citrus juices (orange, lemon)
Raw Material Quality
Cleaning, sorting and inspection
sand, stone, leaf
unsuitable fruits (visible defects)
washing and sizing
Crushing/Pulping
Mechanical process of destroying cell tissue
Fruit pulp or macerate
Rapid heating and cooling prior to juicing
– inactivates natural enzymes
– increase yield
– reduce microbial load
– rapid cooling prevent NEB
Enzyme Treatment
Macerating enzymes improve yield, clarity and stability of the juice.
extraction of 95% of the soluble solids from the fruit
addition blends of pectolytic enzymes and holding (powder&liquid)
Polygalacturonase (PG), Pectin lyase (PL), Pectin methylesterase (PE), amylases, etc.
Pressing
Rack and cloth, Hydraulic, Continuous screw press
Pressing aids provide drain channels for juice extraction
(perlit, clean rice hull, cellulose fiber)
Juice Clarification & Filtration
to prevent cloudiness (apple, cherry)
settling with settling agents and cooling
(Bentonite, Kieselguhr, Gelatine)
centrifugation or filtration
Plate and frame filters
Dearation & Concentration
Removing air in juice by applying vacuum and saturation with inert gas (N2 or CO2)
Vacuum concentration at low temperature
Final Juice Quality
Brix: defines juice strength
Acidity & pH: defines acid balance and change according to type of product
Ascorbic Acid content
Formal Index: distinguish natural fruit juices
HMF

Production of Fruit Juice Powder By Spray Drying

T.C.

UNIVERSITY OF GAZIANTEP

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF FOOD ENGINEERING

FE 499

GRADUATION PROJECT

“PRODUCTION OF FRUIT JUICE POWDER BY SPRAY DRYING​”

Submitted To : Prof. Dr. Medeni Maskan

Submitted By : Hasan ESER

Laboratory‎ > ‎Fruit juice

PURPOSE:

The purpose of this experiment was to investigate microbiological properties of orange fruit juice

THEORY:

In non-acid, moist foods, yeasts and moulds grow more slowly than bacteria and therefore seldom cause problems in such foods. However, in acid foods and foods of low water activity, they outgrow bacteria and thus cause spoilage losses especially if the products (e.g., fresh fruit and vegetables, frozen or dried foods) are improperly stored. Additionally, there is also the potential hazard form production of mycotoxins by moulds.

Humans should not consumer foods that are visibly mouldy. This excludes cheeses such as Roquefort or Camembert and certain salamis, which owe their special flavours to mould. Their presence is of little significance in fresh and frozen foods. One can expect to find small numbers of spores and yeast cells present in these foodstuffs. Consumers will recognise spoilage when very high numbers of yeast or visible moulds are present. It must be noted that yeast spoilage is not a hazard to health.

MATERIALS:

  • Tubes

  • Fruit juice in can

  • PCA (plate count agar)

  • PDA (potato dextrose agar)

  • Bunsen burner

  • Spreader

  • Sterile water

  • Alcohol

  • Etuv

  • Pipette

  • Test tube rack

PROCEDURES:

Firstly; the surface of can was sterilized with alcohol then fruit juice was shaken for homogenization then can was opened and 1 ml sample was taken with a sterile pipette. 1 ml sample was put on the 9 ml of sterile water and 10-1 dilution was prepared from 10-1 dilution. Then; 10-2, 10-3, 10-4, 10-5 dilutions were prepared from 10-1 dilution. Then; 0,2 ml dilution was taken and inoculated to PCA with spread plate method and incubated at 37 oC for 24 hours. Finally; number of microorganisms was calculated.

Secondly; after opening the can, lid was put into 20 ml of sterile waster and shaken then 0,2 ml sample was taken and inoculated separately both PCA and PDA and incubated PCA at 37 oC for 24 hours, PDA at 25 oC for 2 – 5 days then number of microorganisms was calculated.

Thirdly; after opening the can, empty can was filled with 10 ml of sterile waster and shaken then 0,2 ml sample was taken and inoculated separately both PCA and PDA and incubated PCA at 37 oC for 24 hours, PDA at 25 oC for 2 – 5 days then number of microorganisms was calculated.

Fourthly; mold and yeast were examined. For this from dilution, 0,2 ml sample was taken and inoculated with sterile pipette to PDA at 25 oC for 2 – 5 days then number of microorganisms was calculated.

RESULTS and CALCULATIONS: 

PCA

non

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-4

10-5

Peach juice

2

5

12

1

3

1

Orange juice

40

28

50

34

28

19

Apricot juice

5

6

10

6

6

PDA

non

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-4

10-5

Peach juice

1

0

1

2

6

3

Orange juice

3

2

7

4

3

2

Apricot juice

1

2

3

2

3

2

For orange;      #
of m/o’ s = (50*102) / 0,2ml = 25000

# of m/o’ s = (34*103)
/ 0,2ml = 170000

DISCUSSION:

In this experiment; we examined microbiological properties of fruit juices. In fruit juices number of microorganisms was calculated with total count method and mold and yeast were investigated on potato dextrose agar.

Secondly; number of microorganisms was determined with total count method. In each fruit juices dilution, number of microorganisms was calculated with accordance to between 30 – 300 microorganisms and as a result; we observed that orange juice was to contain more number of microorganisms than other fruit juices.

Next; mold and yeast test was applied the fruit juices and in here number of microorganisms was calculated but microorganisms number was low. And we decided to not include mold and yeast.

Analysis of Fruit Juice

Purpose:

The purpose of this experiment was to analyze different fruit juice labels and to compare properties of these fruit juices with each other, and to inquire about fruit juice standards.

Preparation:

The principal preparation steps are washing and sorting. Mechanically harvested tomatoes are usually thoroughly washed by high-pressure sprays or by strong-flowing streams of water while being passed along a moving belt or on agitating or revolving screens. The raw produce may need to be sorted for size and maturity. Sorting for size is accomplished by passing the raw tomatoes through a series of moving screens with different mesh sizes or over differently spaced rollers. Separation into groups according to degree of ripeness or perfection of shape is done by hand; trimming is also done by hand.

Peeling and Coring:

Formerly, tomatoes were initially scalded followed by hand peeling, but steam peeling and lye peeling have also become widely used. With steam peeling, the tomatoes are treated with steam to loosen the skin, which is then removed by mechanical means. In lye peeling, the fruit is immersed in a hot lye bath or sprayed with a boiling solution of 10 to 20 percent lye. The excess lye is then drained and any lye that adheres to the tomatoes is removed with the peel by thorough washing. Coring is done by a water-powered device with a small turbine wheel. A special blade mounted on the turbine wheel spins and removes the tomato cores.

Filling:

After peeling and coring, the tomatoes are conveyed by automatic runways, through washers, to the point of filling. Before being filled, the can or glass containers are cleaned by hot water, steam, or air blast. Most filling is done by machine. The containers are filled with the solid product and then usually topped with a light puree of tomato juice. Acidification of canned whole tomatoes with 0.1 to 0.2 percent citric acid has been suggested as a means of increasing acidity to a safer and more desirable level. Because of the increased sourness of the acidified product, the addition of 2 to 3 percent sucrose is used to balance the taste. The addition of salt is important for palatability.

Exhausting:

The objective of exhausting containers is to remove air so that the pressure inside the container following heat treatment and cooling will be less than atmospheric. The reduced internal pressure (Vacuum) helps to keep the can ends drawn in, reduces strain on the containers during processing, and minimizes the level of oxygen remaining in the headspace. It also helps to extend the shelf life of food products and prevents bulging of the container at high altitudes. Vacuum in the can may be obtained by the use of heat or by mechanical means. The tomatoes may be preheated before filling and sealed hot. For products that cannot be preheated before filling, it may be necessary to pass the filled containers through a steam chamber or tunnel prior to the sealing machine to expel gases from the food and raise the temperature. Vacuum also may be produced mechanically by sealing containers in a chamber under a high vacuum.

Sealing:

In sealing lids on metal cans, a double seam is created by interlocking the curl of the lid and flange of the can. Many closing machines are equipped to create vacuum in the headspace either mechanically or by steam-flow before lids are sealed.

Heat Sterilization:

During processing, microorganisms that can cause spoilage are destroyed by heat. The temperature and processing time vary with the nature of the product and the size of the container. Acidic products, such as tomatoes, are readily preserved at 100°C (212°F). The containers holding these products are processed in atmospheric steam or hot-water cookers. The rotary continuous cookers, which operate at 100°C (212°F), have largely replaced retorts and open-still cookers for processing canned tomatoes. Some plants use hydrostatic cookers and others use continuous-pressure cookers.

Cooling:

After heat sterilization, containers are quickly cooled to prevent overcooking. Containers may be quick cooled by adding water to the cooker under air pressure or by conveying the containers from the cooker to a rotary cooler equipped with a cold-water spray.

Labeling And Casing:

After the heat sterilization, cooling, and drying operations, the containers are ready for labeling. Labeling machines apply glue and labels in one high-speed operation. The labeled cans or jars are the packed into shipping cartons.

Results And Calculation:

Sample

Ascorbic acid(mg/ml)

Brix

pH

Formal index for 100 ml

1. pınar
peach

4,33

13

4,06

59,6

2. dimes
peach

3,54

13

3,09

74,8

3. cappy
orange

4,43

12

3,61

92

4. meysu
orange

7,97

12

3,96

194

5. cappy
apple

4,43

11,75

3,67

114

6. dimes
apple

1,77

11

3,91

59,2

7. cappy
cherry

4,43

12,5

3,28

110

8. tamek
cherry

3,54

13,5

3,50

126,4

9. cappy
mix

5,16

12

3,83

91,6

10.
pıınar mix

2,22

11,5

3,80

104,8

11. dimes
cherry

3,44

13,5

2,23

134,4

Determination of Ascorbic Acid:

10 ml fruit juice was used for ascorbic acid determination Amount of ascorbic acid (g.) = 0, 0886 * V (ml) * N (Normality of iodine sol’n)

Amount of ascorbic acid = 0, 886 * 0, 4 ml * 0, 1 N =3, 544 * 10-3 g

Formal index:

1st step            pH = 8, 5 à   spent 0, 1 N NaOH 15, 0 ml

2nd step            pH = 8, 5 à   spent 0, 1 N NaOH   3, 7 ml

For 25 ml,                   18, 7 ml NaOH

For 100 ml                   x = 74, 8 ml NaOH formal index.

Brix:

Brix was measured with refractometer.

Brix = 13

pH:

pH was measured with pHmeter.

pH = 3, 09

Discussion:

The general process of fruit juice making is simple. The fruit are picked, washed and then sized by milling, crushing or cutting. The juice is then extracted using either juice extractor or separation equipment. If necessary, the must is then clarified. 

In this experiment, we analyzed some different types of fruit juice according to their pH, brix, formal index, ascorbic acid.

These tests showed us that some different characteristics of fruit juice are used to determine quality level. pH is important quality parameter for fruit juice. At low pH, microbial growth decreases and shelf life of fruit juice increases. All fruit juices have low pH according to their types. Brix gives information us about soluble solid content, and defines the juice strength. In addition, it is most important quality parameter in juice because high brix value shows that high fruit content in juice. Formal index again crucial parameter for fruit juice because it gives information about natural fruit juice, which are prepared fromsynthetic volatile oils. Lastly; ascorbic acid is important parameter and it is an antioxidant and prevent spoilage of fruit juice at the same time it is a vitamin for our health. 

Furthermore; water is crucial for fruit juice making. Water quality is critical, if in doubt use boiled water or add one tablespoon of bleach to each gallon of water to sterilize it. If water is cloudy, a water filter should be used. In addition, if hard water is used in fruit juice the sensory properties of fruit juice changes. And also; the temperature and time of heating are critical for achieving both the correct shelf life of the drink and retaining a good colour and flavour. A thermometer and clock are therefore needed.

After analyses of fruit juice; pH except dimes apple juice other juice are appropriate for TSE values. And also each type of mark different pH values at same juice. Brix dimes and tamek cherry had highest soluble solid content according to data. And also pınar mixture and cappy apple had least soluble solid content. TSE allow minimum 10% solid content in juices and obtaining values were appropriate for TSE value. Formal index is greater than 15% and all juices were appropriate for TSE value. Finally; ascorbic acid value is minimum 20 mg / 100ml according to TSE. However; our values were lower than TSE value. Maybe; during the experiment any thing was made as mistaken.

These factors are important because a customer will stop buying the products if the quality varies with each purchase.