Vegetables and fruits are not only rich in nutrition, but also rich in color. A carrot, a vegetable well-known for its contribution to maintaining good eye health, for example, has a vibrant orange color. Have you ever wondered why carrots are orange? And why is it that carrots do such a good job at maintaining good eye health? Surprisingly, the answer to both of these questions is the molecule beta-carotene.
Beta-carotene is a strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in vegetables and fruits, especially in carrots and colorful vegetables. Beta-carotene is only manufactured in plants, not in humans and animals. In plants, beta-carotene absorbs light and energy, and is transferred to the chlorophyll for photosynthesis. The color fruits and vegetables have is due to the light that is not absorbed by the pigments and is reflected back to the environment. This is why carrots and other vegetables and fruits look the way they do – because beta- carotene reflects red orange and yellow light back into the eyes. There are many vegetables and fruits that contain beta-carotene; some of them are onions, broccoli, spinach, apricots, sweet potatoes, cantaloupes, pumpkins, and various herbs. As the name suggests, the name carotene is derived from the vegetable carrot, which in Latin is “carota”. Beta-carotene was named after carrots because the chemical was first discovered via crystallization of carrot roots in 1831. Wachenroder, the scientist who crystallized beta-carotene from carrot roots, came up with the name “carotene.” The chemical formula of beta-carotene is C40H56 and its structure was deduced by Paul Karrer in 1930. Beta-carotene is an organic compound and is classified as a hydrocarbon, specifically as a terpenoid. In addition, beta-carotene is a non-polar compound and is lipophilic, which means that is has the ability to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and other non-polar solvents. Its molar mass is 536.87g/mol, has a density of 0.94g/cm3 , melting point of 180 degrees Celsius, and a boiling point of 633 to 677 degrees Celsius.
Q.1) (a) Answer any THREE questions
a) Define the quality control .state its four importance’s in food processing.
b) What is microbial quality of food? Describe total plate count method of determination of microbial quality.
c) Enlist eight departments in food Industry. Describe the role of quality control department
d) Give the name of instruments used for measurement of color, texture, viscosity and consistency
Q.1) (b) Answer any ONE questions
a) Describe the Threshold test and scoring sensory evaluation test.
b) Give the FPO specification for mixed fruit jam and orange squash.
Q.2) Answer any FOUR questions
a) What is sensory evaluation? State its four applications in food processing.
b) Describe the plasticity and elasticity of food.
c) Define the stress, strain, viscosity, and specific gravity.
d) Give minimum four requirements in sensory evaluation testing area and panelist.
e) How to measure the consistency of tomato ketchup.
f) Define the Texture. Describe texture requirement in bread and biscuit.
Q.3) Answer any Four questions
a) List out four guidelines for sample preparation and serving to the sensory evolution panelist.
b) Draw the panelist ranking chart of ranking sensory evolution test.
c) List out eight food laws with example of food products under the laws.
d) Write any four basic principles of HACCP system.
e) How to determination the adulteration in butter and oils.
Q.4) (a) Answer any THREE questions
a) Describe the sensory evaluation with respect to test, smell, texture and colour.
b) Write PFA specifications for tanned milk and Ice cream.
c) Give any four chemical and microbiological standards’ for drinking mineral water.
d) What is GMP? State its any four implementation procedures.
Q.4) (b) Answer any ONE questions
a) Describe weight and measurement act.
b) Give any four wastes produced and its utilization during manufacturing of grape wine and can-sugar.
Q.5) Answer any FOUR questions
a) How to maintain the uniform quality of final product during manufacturing of skim milk powder.
b) Give quality control department laboratory requirements in manufacturing of biscuit.
c) How to determine the adequacy of blanching of vegetables before and after freezing.
d) Give four parameters which control during manufacturing of butter and ghee.
e) State four advantages of irradiation process.
f) Enlist four wastes in rice milling industry. Describe its utilization.
Q.6) Answer any FOUR questions
a) Give PFA specification of instant tea and coffee.
b) Describe any one biological method of Industrial waste water treatment.
c) Give any four poultry processing wastes and describe its utilization.
d) Give industrial waste and its utilizations in corn wet milling and vegetable oil processing
e) Describe the byproducts in Beer manufacturing industry.