Etiket Arşivleri: Pickling
In this experiment we studied the cucumber pickling process. Ingredients of cucumber pickles are cucumbers, vinegar, salt, citric acid and water. Each group studied with different ratio of ingredients. Our group, A5, was studied with 10% salt, 10% vinegar, 1% citric acid. Salt is used for to prevent growth of unwanted microorganisms and also provides hardness to the cucumbers. Vinegar provides taste and flavor also helps fermentation process. Citric acid arranges the acidity of the medium. At the end of the fermentation process lactic acid is formed.
Pickling, one of the most ancient ways to preserve food, relies on salty, acidic brine and spices and herbs to give foods distinctive flavors. Liquid spice and herb extracts help pickle processors achieve their flavor goals conveniently and consistently. Spice extracts provide precise flavor control, a cleaner, clearer brine and sterility, says Haley. The flavor and strength of the spice extracts are consistent from season to season. They are microbiologically very clean, so they will not lead to the growth of yeasts and molds in pickled products. The clear extracts can be measured precisely and dispersed easily in pickling brines. Extracts function well in both the fresh-pack and process methods of pickle manufacturing. For fresh-pack, whole or sliced cucumbers are placed in jars; brine is made up and filled into the jars. The jarred products are heated to 145°F to deactivate the pectinase enzyme in the cucumbers and then quickly cooled. They are stored for several days to equalize the flavors.
The cucumbers for process pickles ferment in a vat of salty brine until packaging. Then they are soaked to rinse out some of the salt, sliced or ground and packaged. Brine and flavors are added at 140°F. Cucumbers are among many vegetables and fruits that can be pickled. Onions, beets, bell peppers, cauliflower, carrots, olives, tomatillos, jalapeños, green tomatoes and watermelon also get flavor from the pickling process. In some more unusual applications, exotic fruit like tamarinds and some non-plant foods like herring, shrimp, eggs and bologna are pickled. Spice extracts for pickled products provide precise flavor control, a cleaner, clearer brine and sterility. The clear extracts can be measured accurately and dispersed easily in pickling brines. Discarded oversized cucumbers represent about 15 percent of the cucumbers produced for pickle manufacturing. Studies are underway focusing on the development of usable products for these currently unusable cucumbers. Two volatiles that can be extracted from these cucumbers have been found to be effective inhibitors of mold, yeast, and some pathogenic microorganisms. These volatiles have potential for use in a variety of food and cosmetic products, supplying a market for these waste cucumbers.
The aim of this experiment was to obtain the lactcic acid and the pH of the cucumber pickling when We did the pickling of cucumber.And to obtain the normal condition for cucumber pickling. And We studied the percentage of 5 salt +50 of vinegar+ 1 of citric acid. And our calculations and graph would be represented the original value for cucumber pickling. Large quantites of oversized cucumbers are annually produced that are not used for pickle manufacturing or fresh markets. These cucumbers could possibly serve as a source of natural cucumber flavor. The major cucumber flavor volatile is trans-2, cis-6-nonadienal (NDE) that is enzymatically produced when tissues are disrupted. Currently information is lacking on factors affecting the production and stability of NDE from cucumbers. Factors affecting the production and stability of NDE were investigated. Freshly harvested pickling cucumbers were donated.
Pickling, one of the most ancient ways to preserve food, relies on salty, acidic brine and spices and herbs to give foods distinctive flavors. Liquid spice and herb extracts help pickle processors achieve their flavor goals conveniently and consistently. Spice extracts provide precise flavor control, a cleaner, clearer brine and sterility, says Haley. The flavor and strength of the spice extracts are consistent from season to season. They are microbiologically very clean, so they will not lead to the growth of yeasts and molds in pickled products. The clear extracts can be measured precisely and dispersed easily in pickling brines.
Extracts function well in both the fresh-pack and process methods of pickle manufacturing. The pH of cucumber is the parameter for the quality of cucumber pickling and the present amount of lactic acid also is the quality parameter for the cucumber pickling. And under normal condition the pH of cucumber must be around the 3,0 According the pH versus time graph the pH value lies the 2,96 value line and for this value we can actually say that The pH of cucumber is the normal according the normal value.
According the lactic acid versus time graph the lactic acid value lies the average of 2,45 and our B3 group result nearly result the 2,46 value and our pH average value is nearly 3,45 so we can actually say that our cucumber is not the best condition.According to graph for pH and the lactic acid value the goup of B1 had approached the optimum condition for the cucumber pickling.
In this experıment,the making cucumber pickle was learned.During process of the pickle,different amount of vinegar and saltand same amount of citric acid were used by different groups.The pH and acidity were calculated until 6 weeks.After 6 weeks,The fermentation process was stopped. A1 group used %10 salt + %50 vinegar.A2 and B2 group used %15 salt + %50 vinegar. A3 and B3 used %5 salt+%50 vinegar.A4 used %10 salt + %30 vinegar A5 and B5 used %10 salt + %10 vinegar.
According to relatıonship between pH and salt,if the salt concantratıon is increased,pH decreases.So,optimum conditions are supplied for pickling.Because increasing salt and decreasing pH values represent low undesirable m/o s in the pickle.In our result,A3 and B3 groups used low salt content rather than other groups. so,their pH values more increased according to others.The pH values A2 was found lower due to high salt concantration.Values of A4 and A5 were different each other because their amount of vinegear were different from each other.ıf low amount of vinegar is used,the pH found high.pH values of A1 was found higher than A4 and A5.This stuation is not true.Because,with adding more vinegar,pH value is decreased.
If vinegar concantration is increased,the acidity of the pickle increase.For this reason,the acidity of the A5 was lower than other.Because A5 used low amount of vinegar.If we compare acidities of A3 and A2.The decreasing acidity of A3 was greater than A2.Because A2 used high salt concantratıon than A3.The values of A1 and B2 might be not true.Their acidities are very higher other than.
The value of acid in the mature pickle must be4,6 or below.PH value of A5 is not suitable this standart.Because its value was found 5,5 at the and of the fermentation process.If ph value increase,the undesirable m/o s increase..Also the acidity of the pickle is very important for pickle to.m/o s in the pickle is not enough for protection of the pickle.So,some vinegar must added before fermentation process.This level must be higher than %1,2 at the end of the process.The acidity of the A3 and B3 were found lower than standart value.This stuatıon may be cause the microbial growing.
In this experiment, we were learned the making cucumber pickling and analyzed different types of cucumber pickling according to their acidity and pH. All groups used different amounts both of vinegar and salt but were used equal amounts from citric acid. Group A1 was used %10 salts + %50 vinegar. Groups A2 and B2 were used %15 salts + %50 vinegar. Groups A3 and B3 were used %5 salts + %50 vinegar. Group A4 was used %10 salts + %30 vinegar. Groups A5 and B5 were used %10 salts + %10 vinegar. The pH and acidity were measured until 6 weeks. At finish for 6 weeks, the fermentation process was stopped.
These tests showed us that some different characteristics of cucumber pickling are used to determine quality level. Acidity is important quality parameter for cucumber pickling. At low acidity, microbial growth decreases and shelf life of cucumber pickling increases. All cucumber pickling have low acidity according to their types.