Production of Grape Leather

•COOLING and RESTING ( deacidificaiton )
heat treated juice is waited for 15 minute
CaCO3 addition
CaCO3 is precipitated as
calcium tartarate
Precipitate is seperated
•DECANTING (1/4 of grape juice )
•¼ of the juice is decanted
•5% of the juice wheat starch is added.
•2% of the juice whole milk powder.
•MIXING DECANTINGS
•addition of gruel slowly into 3/4 juice in a mixing tank
•mixture should be heated slowly and mixed at the same time with ¼ grape continuously
•Cooked for 15 min at 65°C
•SPREADING
•DRYING
•CUTTING/PACKAGING
•MATERIAL BALANCE OF PROCESSES:
• Material balance for grape leather process
•MATERIAL BALANCE OF PROCESSES:
Feeding=3500 kg /hour *24 hour/day=84 ton/day
3500 kg Grape +14kg milk powder+35 kg starch=
2071.2 water evaporated+700 kg pomace+777 grape leather
3549 kg/ hour input =3549 kg/hour output
BOILER ( STEAM GENERATION )
•The fuel system includes all equipment used to provide fuel to generate the necessary heat.The equipment required in the fuel system depends on the type of fuel used in system. The approximate heat value of certain fuel oils:
•# 2 fuel oil 142.000 btu/gallon
•# 4 fuel oil 148.100 btu/gallon
•# 5 fuel oil 149.000 btu/gallon
•# 6 fuel oil 152.000 btu/gallon
BOILER ( STEAM GENERATION )
# 6 fuel oil 152.000 btu/gallon
Q(fuel oil no:6) = Q(steam) (energy balance)
Density of fuel oil : 808 kg /m3
Steam outlet pressure = 8 bar àfrom steam table (170°C )
hfg (steam at 170 °C and 8 bar ) = (2768.7-719.21)= 2480 kj/kg
Required steam for our process = 943.8 kg steam /h
Water inlet temperature = 18°C
Heat supplied from (fuel oil no:6)
152000 btu/gal × 1.05506 kj/btu × 264.1 gal/m3 × 1 m3/808 kg = 52397,83 kj / kg fuel oil (52397 kj energy is supplied from 1 kg fuel oil )
Q =msteam × hfg = 943.8 kg steam /h × 2048 kj/kg = 1932902.4 kj/h
(52397 kj/ kg fuel oil) × mfuel oil = 1932902 kj/h
•mfuel oil = 36,88 kg /h fuel oil = 36,88kg/h × 24 h/day = 885 kg /day fuel oil is used
•REFERENCES :
•Sevim Kaya’s and Medeni Maskan’s articles
•http:/www.calwineries.com/learn/wine-production/white-wine-production
•Power plant engineering books Lawrence F. Drbal, Patricia G. Boston,
•http://www.wilsoncreekwinery.com/App_Images/SWF/Winemade.swf
•PLANT LAYOUT
•PROCESS LAYOUT
•WASHING MACHINE
•DESTEMMER CRUSHER
•PRESSER
•PRE-HEATING AND RESTING TANKS
GÜLRUHAN TÜRKER

•PLANT LAYOUT
•PROCESS LAYOUT
•Washing Machine
•Capacity : 3.5 ton/h
•Width of conveyor belt : 0,7 m
•Primary power source : 0,75 kW speed variator and 1 kW air pump
•Electric power usage : 3 – 7 Hp
•DESTEMMER CRUSHER
•HYDRAULIC PRESSER

P = 75 bar = 75 *10^5 N/m2 W = F*d = 195*10^5 J
D = 0,5 m Power = W/t
d = 1,3 m t = 16 min
A = ( 0,5 )2*Π / 4 = 0,2 m2 Power = 2030 J/s
F = P*A = 15*105 N ıf η = 70 %
Power = 2,9 kW
•DESIGN OF PRE-HEATING AND RESTING TANKS
m = 2800kg/h
r = 1120/m3
Q = 2800kg/h/1120 kg/m3= 2.5m3/h
Actual volume = 2.5 m3 +% 25 empty space
V = 2.5*1.25= 3.75 m3
VT = (ΠD2/4)*H

Assume H/D = 2
D = 1.25 m
H = 2.5 m
•Assumption Sf = 2
•Assumption Sf = 2
•S = Thickness of the tank
•S0 = Theoretical thickness
•P = Pressure
•D = Diameter of the tank
•Sf = Safety factor
•q = Mechanical strength = 18
•V = velding constant = 0.7
•C = Constant =2
•DRYING TIME :
tc = c0*dc1 * Vc2 * Tc3 *Yc4
= 0.50 * 0.81,4*1.12-1,65* 75 -0,25 *0.0140,12
= 0,062 h
t = – tc ln [(X-Xe)/(Xo-Xe] = – 0,063 ln [(0,13-0,00074)/(2,84-0,00074)] = 0,191 h = 11,5 min
•COST ANALYSIS
REFERENCES :
•Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles,4th Edition,C.Geankoplis
•Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers ,5th Edition ,Peters,Timmerhaus,West
•Food Process Design , Zacharia Maraisis
•SCREW CONVEYOR
•Total power=Power to run an empty conveyor+Power to move the material
•PE=(L*N*Fd*fb)/1000000
•PE=empty power(hp)
•L=total length of conveyor(ft)
•N=operating speed(rpm)
•Fd=conveyor diameter factor
•fb=hanger bearing factor
•PM=(C*L*W*FF*Fm*Fp)/1,000,000
•C=capacity(ft3/s)
•L=total length of conveyor(feet)
•W=weight of material(Ib/ ft3)
•Ff=flight factor
•Fm=material factor
•Fp=paddle factor
•PT=[(PE+ PM)*FO]/e
•PT=total power(hp)
•FO=overload factor
•e=driving efficiency
•Grape pomace characteristics
•Intermediate material code=D3-45U
•D3=size
•4=flowability
•5= Abrasiveness
•U= Miscellaneous properties
•Bearing selection=H is used to properly select the intermediate hanger bearing.
•Component series code=2 is used to determine the correct components.
•Material factor(Fm)=1.4 is used in determining horsepower.
•Trough loading capacity=30 A the proper percent of cross section loading to use in determining diameter and speed of the conveyor.
•L=5m=16.4 ft
•W=20 Ib/ft3
•C=15 kg/s*3600s/hr* 2.205 Ib/kg * ft3/20Ib=5953.5ft3/hr
•N=55 rpm (deal with capacity)
•Fd=55 (deal with screw diameter)
•fb=4.4 (deal with using bearing type)
•Ff=1.0 deal with using Trough loading (30 A)
•Fm=1.4 it is material factor
•Fp=1.0 (paddle factor)
•PE=(L*N*Fd*fb)/1000000
•PE=(16.4*55*55*4.4)/1000000=0.22 hp
•PM=(C*L*W*FF*Fm*Fp)/1000000
•PM=(5953.5*16.4*20*1*1.4*1)/1000000=2.73 hp
•PE + PM =2.95 hp
•PT=[(PE+ PM)*FO]/e
•FO =1.38 (which found with using PE+ PM)
•e=0.88
•PT=(2.95*1.38)/0.88=4.62 hp=3.44 kW
•CONVEYOR BELT (FOR DRYER)
•Our belt type is
•F8/2EU02N/UO FDA
•So m’’b=1.4 kg/m2
•m’’b= mass of the conveyor belt per m2
•Coating driving side=PURfabric,impegn
•Coating transport side=PVC,smooth
•Color=white
Fu : tangential force (N)
l t : conveying distance (mm)
cWf : centrifugal force factor
m’ : mass of material to be conveyed per meter of conveying distance (kg/m)
m’B: mass of conveyor belt per meter of conveying distance (kg/m
•PA=(FU*V)/ƞ*103
• PA=driving power(kW)
• V=belt speed(m/s)
•Ƞ=driving efficiency
•m’b=(m’’b*bo)/1000
• bo= belt width (mm)
•m’=(m*1000)/ lt
•m= mass of material to be conveyed on total conveying distance (kg)
•Our flowrate in dryer=2629kg/hr
•lt=66500 mm
•bo=1040 mm
•Ƞ=0.7
•Cwf=0.33 (deal with length of conveying distance
•V=0.1 m/s
m’b= 1.4 kg/m2* 1.04m =1.456 kg/m
•m’= 2629 kg/hr *1hr/3600s *1/0.1 m/s=7.30 kg/m
•FU=10-2 *66500 *0.33*(1.456+7.30)=1921.5
•PA=0.1 *1921.5/0.7 *103 =0.2745 W = 274.5 KW
•CONVEYOR BELT BETWEEN DRYER AND PACKAGING
•Our belt type is F12/EV10A/V05 NP FDA
•So m’’b=3.4 kg/m2
•m’’b=mass of the conveyor belt per m2
•Color=white
•Coating driving side=PVC,NP
•Coating transport side=PVC,smooth
•Our flowrate leaving dryer=777kg/hr
•lt=5000 mm
•bo=1040 mm
•Ƞ=0.7
•Cwf=0.35 (deal with length of conveying distance)
•V =0.1 m/s
m’b= 3.4 kg/m2 * 1.04m =3.5636 kg/m
•m’= 777 kg/hr *1hr/3600s *1/0.1 m/s=2.158 kg/m
•FU=10-2 *5000 *0.35*(3.5636+2.158)=100.12N
•PA=0.1 *100.12 / 0.7 *103 =0.0143 W = 14.3 KW
• CIP – COP
• CIP
•Single pass system :
•New cleaning solution is introduced to the plant to be cleaned and then disposed to drain. In most cases, a single pass system would start with a pre-rinse to remove as much soiling as possible. The detergent clean and a final rinse would follow this.
•CIP PROGRAMME
•CLEANING PROGRAMME
• COP
•Place
• All places are brushed and cleaned with whisk machine for every day
•And washed with chemical detergent for every week
•Windows
•Windows are cleaned with chemical windows cleaner for every month
•Walls
•All walls are cleaned for every 6 mounts or 1 year

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