Lectures on Heat and Thermodynamics ( Michael Fowler )

Contents

HEAT

Feeling and seeing temperature changes

Classic Dramatic Uses of Temperature-Dependent Effects

The First Thermometer

Newton’s Anonymous Table of Temperatures

Fahrenheit’s Excellent Thermometer

Amontons’ Air Thermometer: Pressure Increases Linearly with Temperature

Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Measuring Heat Flow: a Unit of Heat

Specific Heats and Calorimetry

A Connection With Atomic Theory

Latent Heat

THERMAL EXPANSION AND THE GAS LAW

Coefficients of Expansion

Gas Pressure Increase with Temperature

Finding a Natural Temperature Scale

The Gas Law

Avogadro’s Hypothesis

EARLY ATTEMPTS TO UNDERSTAND THE NATURE OF HEAT

When Heat Flows, What, Exactly is Flowing?

Lavoisier’s Caloric Fluid Theory

The Industrial Revolution and the Water Whee

Measuring Power by Lifting

Carnot’s Caloric Water Wheel

How Efficient are these Machines?

Count Rumford

Rumford’s Theory of Heat

THE DISCOVERY OF ENERGY CONSERVATION: MAYER AND JOULE

Robert Mayer and the Color of Blood

James Joule

But Who Was First: Mayer or Joule?

The Emergence of Energy Conservation

INETIC THEORY OF GASES: A BRIEF REVIEW

Bernoulli’s Picture

The Link between Molecular Energy and Pressure

Maxwell finds the Velocity Distribution

Velocity Space

Maxwell’s Symmetry Argument

What about Potential Energy?

Degrees of Freedom and Equipartition of Energy

Brownian Motion

IDEAL GAS THERMODYNAMICS: SPECIFIC HEATS, ISOTHERMS, ADIABATS

Introduction: the Ideal Gas Model, Heat, Work and Thermodynamics

The Gas Specific Heats C and C

V P Tracking a Gas in the (P, V) Plane: Isotherms and Adiabats

Equation for an Adiabat


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