Friction Loss in Piping System

In this experiment we have tried to understand how the pipe length, fluid flow rate, bending, elbows, and valves are affecting the head of the fluid that is flowing in side a particular type of pipe such as steel.

In that experiment we have seen that the flow rate causes head change, also the head losses are changing on a particular fitting or in a straight pipe. This is the case that was expected by looking the head loss equations, that is caused by the interaction of the fluid molecules with the inner side of the pipe surface molecules. In the experiment we have found that the friction factor or the fanning factor and the K values are changing by the change of the fluid flow rate by inversely. That is caused by the interaction of the fluid molecules and the pipe surface molecules as mentioned previously, when the fluid moves faster and faster the interaction between them is getting lower and by the consequence of this the factors values getting lower, but in the other hand the head losses are getting larger than the slower flow rates, that is caused by the velocity which is effect by the power of 2, and that is why the flow rates cause larger changes in head losses. For the flowing fluids velocity change cause change of Reynolds’s number, that determines the type of flow, weather it is laminar or turbulent, which is directly effects the characteristics of the flow, and changes all values, constants and other variables that are effecting the flow, and the flow regime. If we look for the overall changes in head losses while friction factor is getting smaller, since velocity getting larger by the square power the head losses getting larger when the flow rates increase. Other factors for the head losses in a piping system are the minor factors that are caused affecting the head loss while a fluid flows in a pipe, but not so much effectively changes the head of the fluid. They caused small head losses in the system, that is why they are called minor factors. Also by looking our experiment we can also figure out the effects of these fitting on the system. For the elbows, expansion or contraction parts, bends there is not so much head loss, but this is not the mean of that we can neglect the effect of these. When the number of these fittings are much enough, they can cause very effective head losses. The valves are much effective for the head loss than the bending or expansion, but in our data there is an inconsistency for the gate valve versus different flow rates, this can be occur by the U tube which was connected to the each end of the gate valve, there can be excess air, which can change the pressure of the water, and can make us to read incorrectly the value of the piezometer.

In conclusion we have make some observations during the experiment, and have taken some notes about the experiment, also after the experiment, by calculating the required values we have get an idea about how the friction effects the flow, and also the effects of pipe types and the fittings on the flow. Moreover we have learned how the flow type and the flowing material’s viscosity affecting in a flow.

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