PURPOSE: In this experıment we examıned the productıon and fermentations of beer . We observed the type of fermentatıon which ıs top or bottom.
THEORY: Yeast are single-celled microorganisms that reproduce by budding. They are biologically classified as fungi and are responsible for converting fermentable sugars into alcohol and other byproducts. There are literally hundreds of varieties and strains of yeast. In the past, there were two types of beer yeast: ale yeast (the "top-fermenting" type, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and lager yeast (the "bottom-fermenting" type, Saccharomyces uvarum, formerly known as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis). Today, as a result of recent reclassification of Saccharomyces species, both ale and lager yeast strains are considered to be members of S. cerevisiae. However, throughout this chapter and the book, both ale and lager yeasts will be referred to those strains previously classified as members of S. cerevisiae and S. carlsbergensis, respectively. Top-fermenting yeasts are used for brewing ales, porters, stouts, Altbier, Kölsch, and wheat beers. Some of the lager styles made from bottom- fermenting yeasts are Pilsners, Dortmunders, Märzen, Bocks, and American malt liquors. The mineral content of brewing water has long been recognized as making an important contribution to the flavor of beer. This is especially important since water composes more than 90% of the beer.