Wine Flavor 101: The Impact of High Ethanol, Saignée and Extended Maceration on Wine Phenolic Composition
Washington State University
TRENDS IN VITICULTURE/WINEMAKING
Phenolics-why we care
Contribute Sensory Characteristics of Wine
Color- Anthocyanins and co-factors
Astringency – Tannins and LPP
Bitterness – Catechins
Anti-oxidant Capacity- All phenolics especially those with ortho configuration.
–Hyper chromic shift (more color)
–Bathochromic shift (blue color)
–Partitioning of flavonols?
–Amount per seed does not vary much
•Decline During Ripening
•Gallic Acid Ester
–Alters protein ppt.
•Winemakers usually avoid seed tannins
•Not so abundant
–0.5 -0.9 mg/berry
•Ripening: No specific pattern
•Winemakers want skin tannins
–Anthocyanins+ (tannins, keto-acids, cinnamates, etc.)
•More resistant to Sulfur dioxide
•Less pH sensitive
Rate of Extraction Graphic
Skin and Seed Tannin Extraction
Skin Tannin Extraction Fast and Plateaus
Seed Tannin Extraction Slow but Linear Increase Demonstrated
Polymeric Pigment Formation
ENHANCING PHENOLICS: TRENDS VITICULTURE
–SMALL BERRIES ARE DESIRED
•CLONAL SELECTION, SITE SELECTION
–REMEMBER BERRY SHRINKS!
•EARLY STRESS, MORE TANNIC FRUIT
THE TREND in WA, CA?
Cab Family Fruit
Want Brown Seeds, Less green aromas
Result: High Brix
Result: High pH—more K+, lower Malic
High pH, Low TA
Lots of color, plenty of tannins
Astringency is muted by ethanol, acidity
How are tannins influenced by ethanol?
Higher ethanol extracts more tannins?
Consensus says more “bad” seed tannins
Catechins are more bitter with more [EtOH] Astringency?
Thought that ethanol lowers astringency by making protein-tannin complexes soluble
So more tannins but less “tannic?”
Hang Time Fruit Trend-2
Small Berries with 25 Brix and above
Increase Skin/Seed: Juice
Problem: Water back necessary to avoid stuck ferment
How to keep skin/seed: juice from hang time fruit?
Answer: Water back and Saignée at the same rate.
Sounds simple enough, right?
•Wait overnight for dried fruit to rehydrate
•Take Brix Measure, Determine total volume of tank
–Convert all values to metric it is way easier!
•Calculate % of water to achieve target Brix
•Bleed that percentage of juice
•To calculate the amount of water to achieve target Brix you must subtract amount bled off from total first.
•So the amount you bleed is greater than what you add back.
Brix = g/100 mL
Convert Tank volumes to L
Or you could convert Brix into pounds of sugar per gallon.
Calculate the Run-off
Now for the water addition
Experiment: High Ethanol
Mechanical harvest-Yield 170 gallon/ton
30 ppm SO2 at destemming
YAN adjusted to 225 ppm with DAP
Yeast Strain “Premier Cuvee”-S. cerevisiae bayanus
Mix after water/SO2 1 minute per ton
Pump-overs 1 minute per ton 3 times a day
Until drain and press (~ 8.5 minutes)
Drained to Tank- Press Fractions Recombined-finish primary in tank
Sent to Barrel to undergo ML
Sensory on wines 1 year after crush
Columbia Basin Vineyard
Basic Wine Chem
Anthocyanins-Low Saignée Ex Mac.
Polymeric Pigments Treatment Effect
Principle Components Analysis
Saignée at the same rate as water back
No effect on phenolics
No effect on sensory
Want more Color or More Tannins?
More anthocyanins, tannins, more SPP
More tannins, more LPP
Sensory: Can be more drying
•Higher Ethanol Wine
–Not less astringent than control with large increase in EtOH
–More Seed Tannin Extraction
–Some Color enhancement
–Less Fruit Flavor!
•Solubility of aromas in alcohol found in other work
–Trending towards less smooth, more dry but more dynamic ~ stats indicate not significant
–Is it worth it?
–Dilution is the solution?
–Greater Volume, lower taxes
Linda Bisson UC Davis
Chateau Ste. Michelle
Winemaking: Josh Maloney, Bob Bertheau
Sensory: Carolyn Ross, Karen Weller
Family: Eileen and Andrew Harbertson
Vineyard Data By Row
Vineyard Data By Row
Tannin/seed vs. seeds per berry