The Impact of High Ethanol, Saignée and Extended Maceration on Wine Phenolic Composition ( Jim Harbertson )

Wine Flavor 101: The Impact of High Ethanol, Saignée and Extended Maceration on Wine Phenolic Composition
Jim Harbertson
Associate Professor
Washington State University
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
Color
Tannins
Polymeric pigments
TRENDS IN VITICULTURE/WINEMAKING
Saignée
Alcohol
EXPERIMENTAL DATA
ASSESMENT
FUTURE DIRECTIONS
Phenolics-why we care
Several Classes
Contribute Sensory Characteristics of Wine
Color- Anthocyanins and co-factors
Astringency – Tannins and LPP
Bitterness – Catechins
Anti-oxidant Capacity- All phenolics especially those with ortho configuration.
Anthocyanins
•pH Dependent
•Copigmentation
–Self-association
–Co-Factors
•Color Change
–Hyper chromic shift (more color)
–Bathochromic shift (blue color)
•Ethanol?
–Disrupt association
–Bathochromic shift
–Partitioning of flavonols?
•Water?
–Disruption, dilution
Seed Tannins
•Very Abundant
–3-5 mg/berry
–Amount per seed does not vary much
•Decline During Ripening
•Average Length
–10 sub-units
•Astringent
•Gallic Acid Ester
–Alters protein ppt.
•Winemakers usually avoid seed tannins
Skin Tannins
•Not so abundant
–0.5 -0.9 mg/berry
•Ripening: No specific pattern
•Average Length
–32 sub-units
•Astringent
•Unique sub-unit
•Winemakers want skin tannins
Polymeric
Pigments
•Wine Artifact
•Mixture
–Anthocyanins+ (tannins, keto-acids, cinnamates, etc.)
•More resistant to Sulfur dioxide
•Less pH sensitive
•Color: brick-red
Rate of Extraction Graphic
Skin and Seed Tannin Extraction
Pinot noir
Miniature (3L)
Skin Tannin Extraction Fast and Plateaus
Seed Tannin Extraction Slow but Linear Increase Demonstrated
Polymeric Pigment Formation
ENHANCING PHENOLICS: TRENDS VITICULTURE
•VITICULTURE
–SMALL BERRIES ARE DESIRED
•CLONAL SELECTION, SITE SELECTION
•EXTENDED MATURATION
–SEED MATURATION
–REMEMBER BERRY SHRINKS!
–IRRIGATION
•EARLY STRESS, MORE TANNIC FRUIT
–LOCATION
•EXAMPLES AVAILBLE
THE TREND in WA, CA?
Cab Family Fruit
Want Brown Seeds, Less green aromas
Result: High Brix
Result: High pH—more K+, lower Malic
Resulting Wine
High Ethanol
High pH, Low TA
Big Extraction
Lots of color, plenty of tannins
Astringency is muted by ethanol, acidity
How are tannins influenced by ethanol?
Higher ethanol extracts more tannins?
Consensus says more “bad” seed tannins
Bitterness?
Catechins are more bitter with more [EtOH] Astringency?
Thought that ethanol lowers astringency by making protein-tannin complexes soluble
So more tannins but less “tannic?”
Hang Time Fruit Trend-2
Small Berries with 25 Brix and above
Increase Skin/Seed: Juice
Problem: Water back necessary to avoid stuck ferment
How to keep skin/seed: juice from hang time fruit?
Answer: Water back and Saignée at the same rate.
Sounds simple enough, right?
Complicated
•Wait overnight for dried fruit to rehydrate
•Take Brix Measure, Determine total volume of tank
–Convert all values to metric it is way easier!
•Calculate % of water to achieve target Brix
•Bleed that percentage of juice
•To calculate the amount of water to achieve target Brix you must subtract amount bled off from total first.
•So the amount you bleed is greater than what you add back.
Math involved
M1V1=M2V2
[Brix]V1=[Brix]V2
Brix = g/100 mL
Convert Tank volumes to L
Or you could convert Brix into pounds of sugar per gallon.
Ewww.
Calculate the Run-off
Now for the water addition
Experiment: High Ethanol
Winemaking Details
Mechanical harvest-Yield 170 gallon/ton
30 ppm SO2 at destemming
YAN adjusted to 225 ppm with DAP
Yeast Strain “Premier Cuvee”-S. cerevisiae bayanus
Mix after water/SO2 1 minute per ton
Pump-overs 1 minute per ton 3 times a day
Until drain and press (~ 8.5 minutes)
Drained to Tank- Press Fractions Recombined-finish primary in tank
Sent to Barrel to undergo ML
Sensory on wines 1 year after crush
Columbia Basin Vineyard
Data
Basic Wine Chem
Anthocyanins-
Anthocyanins-Low Saignée
Anthocyanins-High Saignée
Anthocyanins-High Ethanol
Anthocyanins-Low Saignée Ex Mac.
Anthocyanins-All Muddled
Tannin Extraction
Polymeric Pigments
Polymeric Pigments Treatment Effect
Sensory
Principle Components Analysis
Assessment
Saignée at the same rate as water back
No effect on phenolics
No effect on sensory
Complicated
Time Consuming
Potentially Wasteful
Assessment
Want more Color or More Tannins?
High Saignée
More anthocyanins, tannins, more SPP
Extended Maceration
More tannins, more LPP
Sensory: Can be more drying
Assessment
•Higher Ethanol Wine
–More Tannins
–Not less astringent than control with large increase in EtOH
–More Seed Tannin Extraction
–Some Color enhancement
–Hot Description
–Less Fruit Flavor!
•Solubility of aromas in alcohol found in other work
–Trending towards less smooth, more dry but more dynamic ~ stats indicate not significant
–Is it worth it?
–Dilution is the solution?
–Greater Volume, lower taxes
Acknowledgments
Linda Bisson UC Davis
Chateau Ste. Michelle
Winemaking: Josh Maloney, Bob Bertheau
Sensory: Carolyn Ross, Karen Weller
Family: Eileen and Andrew Harbertson
Vineyard Data By Row
Vineyard Data By Row
Tannin/seed vs. seeds per berry

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