Etiket Arşivleri: TYPES OF SAUSAGES
Summer sausage, kielbasa, bologna, bratwurst: The list goes on and on. There are so many varieties of sausage. How long can you store them — and where? Are they fully cooked or not? The following background information will answer these questions and others. Use the chart as a guideline for safe storage.
Types of Sausages
Sausages are either uncooked or ready to eat. They can be made from red meat (for example, beef, pork, lamb, or veal), poultry (turkey or chicken, for example) or a combination. Uncooked sausages include fresh (bulk, patties, or links) and smoked sausages.
To prevent foodborne illness, uncooked sausages that contain ground beef, pork, lamb or veal should be cooked to 160 °F. Uncooked sausages that contain ground turkey and chicken should be cooked to 165 °F.
Ready-to-eat sausages are dry, semi-dry, and/or cooked. Dry sausages may be smoked, unsmoked, or cooked. Semi-dry sausages are usually heated in a smokehouse to fully cook the product and partially dry it. Cooked sausages (for example, bologna, and frankfurters) are cooked and may also be smoked.
Who inspects sausages?
USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) inspects all sausages in interstate commerce and all sausages that are exported to other countries. If sausages are made in a retail establishment (such as a grocery store, meat market, or restaurant) and are sold within the State where the establishment is located, the sausage may be under the jurisdiction of that State’s health or agriculture department.
What is on the label?
The label provides consumers with information about a product at the time of sale. Labels are required to bear certain mandatory features including:
(1) the product name;
(2) an ingredients statement;
(3) the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor;
(4) an accurate statement of the net quantity of contents;
(5) the inspection legend and USDA establishment number;
(6) a safe handling statement if the product is perishable (for example, “Keep Frozen” or “Keep Refrigerated”);
(7) safe handling instructions, if the meat or poultry component of the product is not ready to eat; and
(8) nutrition facts information. The Nutrition Facts information on the label can help consumers compare products and make more informed, healthy food choices. If sausages are made and packaged in a local store, the nutrient information on the package is voluntary or it may be at the point of purchase. The application of a “use” or “sell by” date is optional.
FOOD ADDITIVES-ARE THEY SAFE?
A food additive is a substance or mixture of substances,which is present in a food as a result of any aspect of production,processing,storage or packaging.
As much as we may not like the idea,food additives play a role in today’s food supply
WHAT ARE FOOD ADDITIVES USED FOR?
Improve the keeping quality or stability
Improve the taste or appearance
TYPES OF SAUSAGES
COOKED SMOKED SAUSAGE
FRESH SMOKED SAUSAGE
FRESH SAUSAGE PRODUCTION
Not heat treated,sold in a raw state
Not cured,mixture of;meats,fat,spices and seasonings
Most common seasonings;salt,dextrose,red pepper,sage,chili,garlic,ginger,lemon bark,onion,cinnamon,monosodium glutamate,celery salt etc.
Shelf Life Of Fresh Sausages
They should be handled with special care
Should be kept at a temperature 0-4 C
Storage life at refrigerator temp. Above freezing is 2-4 days
Freezing protects the product against bacterial spoilage,but not against oxidative rancidity assisted by the catalytic activity of salt
Types Of Fresh Sausages
Fresh Pork Sausages
Fresh Beef Sausages For Grilling
Curry Beef-Mutton Sausages
Merguez(all beef sausage find in many North African countries)
Formulation of Fresh Beef Sausage For Grilling
Basic ingredients for 100 kg
85 to 90 kg lean beef or lean beef trimmings (one-third beef may be substituted by mutton, if desired)
10 to 15 kg selected beef or mutton fat
0.5 to 3.0 kg rusk is sometimes added to improve binding
2 to 3 kg salted water may also be added to facilitate stuffing
Characteristic seasoning formula per 1 kg
20.0 g salt
0.5 to 1.0 g red pepper
0.01 to 0.02 g chili
0.2 to 0.6 g cardamom
0.2 g ginger
0.1 to 0.5 g fenugreek
0.2 to 0.6 g sugar
FERMENTED SAUSAGE PRODUCTION
The characteristic properties of fermented sausages are completely dependent on fermentative action of certain types of bacteria
Two types:Semidry or quickly fermented and Dry or slowly fermented sausages
There are both hard and soft types in both groups
Operations in Fermented Sausage Production
Choice of raw material
Grinding,Chopping and Mixing
Treatment prior to smoking
SMOKED PRECOOKED SAUSAGE PRODUCTION
They are smoked and/or air heated
Often cured but not fermented
They are heterogenous class of sausages
TYPES OF SMOKED PRECOOKED SAUSAGES
SMOKED PORK SAUSAGES
PRECOOKED PORK SAUSAGES
SMOKED BEEF SAUSAGES
PRECOOKED BEEF SAUSAGES
Formulation of Smoked Beef Sausages
Basic ingredients for 100 kg
40 kg lean beef
20 kg mutton
20 kg beef trimmings
20 kg zebu boss or beef brisket fat or mutton tail fat
Characteristic seasoning formula per 1 kg
22.0 g nitrite salt for curing
l0.5 g chili
5.0 g red pepper
0.3 g garlic
0.2 g cinnamon
1.0 g ground pepper
0.5 g sugar
COOKED SAUSAGE PRODUCTION
The manufacture of cooked sausages is a natural adjunct to any meat selling and processing business. Cooked sausages offer an outlet in attractive and palatable form for a variety of raw materials such as edible portions of heads, mutton, pork or beef trimmings, blood, hearts, tripe, livers, lungs, pork stomachs, tongues, various fat materials including those of zebu cattle boss or mutton fat tail as well as other cured or uncured meats that are difficult to dispose of in any other way.
Cooked sausages are distinguished from other sausage categories not only on the basis of variety of materials used in their formulations but also by parboiling or partial cooking of most of these raw materials prior to grinding or chopping. Special care should be paid to eliminate factors enhancing oxidative changes.
KEEPING QUALITY AND DELIVERY OF SAUSAGES TO RETAILERS
The complexity of the sausage nutritional and flavouring picture causes special relationships between customers and their sausage suppliers. The customer needs to know what effects the sausages have for his health and what price he is obliged to pay.
The major concern of meat processing is the development of safe sausage products through the rational use of raw materials, adequate processing methods and maximum performance of hygienic requirements.
The meat raw materials should be free from toxigenic and pathogenic organisms
They must be boned, trimmed, ground, chopped and processed at a temperature at which significant growth of these organisms is unlikely to occur
The time of processing at an undesirable temperature should be shortened
The selection for sausage manufacture of sound good quality meats and other raw materials
The observance of reasonable standards of hygiene during all stage of the process
The growth of microorganisms in meats and in finished sausages is affected by
Available water and its activity in meat
salt and nitrite contents
To increase sausage shelf life is to lower the temperature of all rooms need in the processing, and storage of meats and sausages
Where there is a lack of such conditions, it may be necessary to work at temperatures at which bacterial growth
Good shelf life and other quality characteristics of finished sausages result from the hygienic conditions present during processing, including hygiene of personnel, methods of processing applied which inhibit microbiological activity
The state of water in sausages has a direct effect on microbial, chemical and enzymatic reactions.
So,the amount of water required for microbial growth may considerably be reduced and the sausage product shelf life increased
The main forms of sausage spoilage and deterioration
The excessive proliferation of bacteria in the sausage content
The excessive growth of moulds on the sausage surface
The oxidative deterioration of sausage fat causing product rancidity
The excessive dehydration of sausage superficial layers including casings.
To ensure maximum spoilage control, the sausages should be held at temperatures as follows:
A)Fresh and smoked precooked sausages: at 0–4°C for 2–4 days; if frozen, they have to be kept no longer than a week; if no refrigeration is applied, sausages should be consumed within several hours;
B)Emulsion-type sausages: at 0–4°C for 3–5 days or at below 10°C for 1–2 days; if frozen they have to be kept no longer than 6–10 days; if sausages are not refrigerated they should be consumed within 8–12 hours;
C)Semidry sausages: at below 15°C for 10–15 days; if the sausages are held without refrigeration in a dry ventilated place, their shelf life will be several days;
D)Dry sausages: should be kept well protected from air humidity and circulation in a cool dark place.
SAUSAGE RETAIL PACKAGES
COMMONLY USED FOOD ADDITIVES IN SAUSAGES
NITRITES and NITRATES
They are antimicrobials or preservetives
Sodium Nitrite,NaNO2:Pale,to slightly yellow granular powder,or white,opaque,fused masses or sticks.1 g dissolves in abaut 1.5 ml of water,sparingly soluble in alcohol
Potassium Nitrite,KNO2:Small white or yellow deliquescent granules or cylindrical sticks.Very soluble in water
Sodium Nitrate,NaNO3:Colorless,white granules or powder.1 g dissolves in 1.1 ml water and in 125 ml alcohol
Potassium Nitrate,KNO3:White granular or crystalline powder.1 g dissolves in 2.8 ml water or in 620 ml alcohol
200 ppm is the max level
May have carcinogenic effect
Used as stabilizator
There is no living organism known that can synthesize the phosphate anion.Therefore is absorbed through the food supply
The polyphosphates have played a vital role in the origin of life
Used as antioxidant
It is the sodium salt of vitamin C
MONO SODIUM GLUTAMATE
Used as flavor enhancer
A salt of the amino acid glutamic acid
GRAS but negative effects may appear when eaten in large amounts