Etiket Arşivleri: Sausage
Fermente Sausage’ların Aroma Kimyası
Lezzet kompleks bir duyusal fenomendir.
Tadı kokuyu ve de tekstürü içine alır.
Fermente sausagelarda markaya göre değişen ve de kurutma ile fermantasyon süreçlerindeki kimyasal değişiklikler ve içerikten türeyen aroma mevcuttur.
!!! Ürünün lezzeti kuru sosislerdeki dumanlamadan, tuzlamadan, nitrat nitrit ve onların dekompozisyon ürünlerinden, baharatlardan, çeşitli bakteriyel fermentlerden ve de etin içerdiği enzimlerden oldukça etkilenir.
Bakteriyel fermentlerden ve de etin enzimlerinden etkilenen lezzet oluşumu fermente edici lezzet oluşumu olarak tanımlanmıştır.
Öncelikle protein, yağların ve de karbonhidratların hidrolizini içerir. Yağ hidrolizinin zamanlamasının karbonil içeren bileşiklerin birikmesine ve bakterilerin kimyasal değişiklikler üretmedeki rollerinin önemine pek çok araştırmacı tarafından değinilmiştir.
Bu yağ bozulması sürecinin farklı yanlarının niceliksel ve niteliksel detayları üzerine daha fazla bilgi edinilmiş ve mikrobiyel ve endojen et enzimlerinin göreceli olarak önemine dair daha fazla şey öğrenilmiştir.
Sosis yapımında kullanılan ham et %0,9 a kadar laktik asit ve daha az oranlarda(<0,1%) glikoz ve fosforlanmış glikolitik ara ürünler içerir.
Glikoz ve belki bazı fosforlanmış ara maddeler, ek olarak bileşen olarak eklenmiş karbonhidratlar etin endojen florası, ya da starter kültürler tarafından büyüme için gerekli enerji kaynağı olarak kullanılır. Bu durumun yarattığı ana sonuç laktik asit bakterilerini fermente edici metabolizmaları yüzünden daha fazla laktik asit birikimidir.
Üretilen laktatın miktarı, mevcut ya da eklenen karbonhidrat miktarına göre değişir. Bu yüzden kısaca karbonhidrata göre değişkendir. Laktat ayrıca amino asit metabolizmasından da üretilebilir.
Mikrobiyel kökenli olduğuna inanılan asetik asit fermente sausage ‘larda önemli miktarında gözlemlenen başka bir asit türüdür.
Kaynakları ne olursa olsun laktat ve asetatın asit aroması ve fermente sausage tadında ana belirleyiciler oldukları
Laktadın pH’ın azaltılmasındaki kilit rolü vasıtasıyla bu
doğrudan etkisinin yanı sıra protein çözünürlüğündeki etkisi, sausage’ların tekstürel özelliklerinin (ki bu özellikler genel tadın ana belirleyicilerinden biridir) gelişiminde önemli rol oynadıkları düşünülmektedir.
pH’ın amino asit karboksil grupların iyonizasyonu üzerindeki etkisi ve bunun aroma üzerindeki belirleyiciliği unutulmamalıdır. Tabloda daha önce belirttiğim bütanik ve pentanoik asitlerin karakteristik kokuları ve düşük eşikleri vardır.
Curing and Sausage Making Safe Food Principles
Retail Meat & Poultry Processing Training Modules
Produced under a Cooperative Agreement from the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
Minnesota Department of Agriculture,
Dairy and Food Inspection Division
Hennepin County Environmental Health
Minnesota Department of Health
University of Minnesota Extension Service
• Sausage definition
• Types of sausage
• Role of ingredients
• Function of cure
• Cure rates
• Casing label requirements
• HACCP Plan
• Critical control points
• Steps in processing
• Cooking temperatures
• Cooling guidelines
• Labeling requirement
• Storage and display
1. List 3 types of sausage.
2. Name 4 main ingredients and their purpose.
3. Explain the function of cure and acceptable cure rates.
4. Identify the critical control points of a HACCP plan in sausage making.
5. Recite the cooling requirements for sausage.
6. List 4 items that are required on a sausage label.
• Sausage production is one of the earliest forms of food preservation
• The word sausage is derived from the Latin word “Salsus” which means salted meat
Role of Salt
• Salt plays a more limited role in sausage preservation today
• Present day salt levels provide less of a preservative effect than the higher levels of the past
• Most sausage recipes contain 1-3% salt
• Salt levels are usually adjusted for taste
A mixture of ground or chopped meats combined with spices and other ingredients and usually formed or shaped in casings of various sizes
Primary Sausage Types
• Fresh Sausages
• Cooked Sausages
• Fermented Sausages
• Meat Loaves and Jellied Products
• Raw/uncooked meat product
• Does not contain the “curing” ingredient nitrite or nitrate
• Examples are: fresh pork sausage, fresh bratwurst, and fresh Italian sausage
• Fully cooked ready-to-eat sausages
• Most are also smoked but may be water or steam cooked as well
• May be eaten without reheating
• Examples include: wieners, smoked sausages, bologna, cooked bratwurst
• Have a characteristic “tangy” flavor
• Produced through fermentation by lactic acid producing bacteria or the direct addition of encapsulated acids
• These sausages can be shelf-stable with the proper amount of drying and acidification
• Semi-dry: summer sausage and snack sticks
• Dry: pepperoni, hard salami
Meat loaves and Jellied Products
• Loaves: Mixtures of chopped meat that are usually “formed” and cooked in pans or metal molds
• Examples: pickle and pimento loaf and honey loaf
• Jellied products: consist of a cooked mixture of meat chunks placed in gelatin
• Examples: jellied roast beef and head cheese
• Reducing Agents
• Binders and Extenders
Meat Use only fresh meat in good condition and from an approved source.
• Maintain all meats at a temperature of 41°F or less during storage and production prior to cooking.
• Salt is a necessary ingredient for flavor
• It aids in preserving some sausages
• It is essential for extracting the “soluble” meat protein that is responsible for binding the sausage together when the sausage is heated
• Most sausages contain 1-3 % salt
• All spices and seasoning should be fresh to achieve maximum and consistent flavors
• Store seasonings at 55°F or below in air tight containers to maintain freshness
Meat Curing Ingredients
• Nitrates and nitrites are the common “curing” ingredients used in the production of sausage
• Nitrite is the compound that distinguishes fresh products from cured products
• Nitrate is converted to nitrite during the fermentation and cooking process
Function of Cure
• provides protection against the growth of botulism
• extends shelf life
• stabilizes the flavor of the cured meat
• used to achieve the characteristic flavor and color
What is a Sausage?
Word sausage is from word Salsus
Salsus means salt or preserved
Is a chopped or comminuted and seasoned meats that is formed into a symmetrical shape
Can contain non-meat ingredients
History of Sausage
Reason for discovery of America and trade with Asia
Used to be “Bags of Mystery”
Historically were made from by-products and left-overs
Modern sausage is made from lean trimmings or low value whole muscle cuts
Skeletal muscle, Cheek, jowl, and head meat from beef pork and poultry
Consumption of Sausage
Top Dinner Sausage Consuming Cities – 2009
1. Los Angeles
2. New York
3. San Antonio/Corpus Christi
5. Baltimore/Washington, D.C.
7. Dallas/Fort Worth
8. South Carolina
9. San Francisco/Oakland
Source: Information Resources Inc. Based on total retail sales, excluding Wal-Mart, for the 2009 calendar year. – National Hot Dog & Sausage Council
Degree of grinding or chopping
Coarse ground vs. emulsion or fine chop
Amount of cooking
Cooked vs. uncooked
Amount of smoke
Smoked vs. non-smoked
Amount of water added
Water added vs. no water added
Amount of curing
Cured vs. not cured
Amount of fermentation
Fermented vs. non-fermented
Amount of tissue moisture
Fresh: non-smoked and uncooked
Smoked: fresh and cured
Cooked: fresh and cured smoked and non-smoked
Cured: smoked and non-smoked
Dried: semidry and dry
Meat loaves and specialty items
Cooked and smoked
Dry and semidry
Luncheon meat, loaves and jellied
Summer sausage, kielbasa, bologna, bratwurst: The list goes on and on. There are so many varieties of sausage. How long can you store them — and where? Are they fully cooked or not? The following background information will answer these questions and others. Use the chart as a guideline for safe storage.
Types of Sausages
Sausages are either uncooked or ready to eat. They can be made from red meat (for example, beef, pork, lamb, or veal), poultry (turkey or chicken, for example) or a combination. Uncooked sausages include fresh (bulk, patties, or links) and smoked sausages.
To prevent foodborne illness, uncooked sausages that contain ground beef, pork, lamb or veal should be cooked to 160 °F. Uncooked sausages that contain ground turkey and chicken should be cooked to 165 °F.
Ready-to-eat sausages are dry, semi-dry, and/or cooked. Dry sausages may be smoked, unsmoked, or cooked. Semi-dry sausages are usually heated in a smokehouse to fully cook the product and partially dry it. Cooked sausages (for example, bologna, and frankfurters) are cooked and may also be smoked.
Who inspects sausages?
USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) inspects all sausages in interstate commerce and all sausages that are exported to other countries. If sausages are made in a retail establishment (such as a grocery store, meat market, or restaurant) and are sold within the State where the establishment is located, the sausage may be under the jurisdiction of that State’s health or agriculture department.
What is on the label?
The label provides consumers with information about a product at the time of sale. Labels are required to bear certain mandatory features including:
(1) the product name;
(2) an ingredients statement;
(3) the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor;
(4) an accurate statement of the net quantity of contents;
(5) the inspection legend and USDA establishment number;
(6) a safe handling statement if the product is perishable (for example, “Keep Frozen” or “Keep Refrigerated”);
(7) safe handling instructions, if the meat or poultry component of the product is not ready to eat; and
(8) nutrition facts information. The Nutrition Facts information on the label can help consumers compare products and make more informed, healthy food choices. If sausages are made and packaged in a local store, the nutrient information on the package is voluntary or it may be at the point of purchase. The application of a “use” or “sell by” date is optional.
Sausage is any meat that has been comminuted and seasoned. Comminuted means diced, ground, chopped, emulsified or otherwise reduced to minute particles by mechanical means.
A simple definition of sausage would be ‘the coarse or finely comminuted meat product prepared from one or more kind of meat or meat by-products, containing various amounts of water, seasoned and frequently cured.’ In simplest terms, sausage is ground meat that has been salted for preservation and seasoned to taste. Sausage is one of the oldest forms of charcuterie, and is made almost all over the world in some form or the other. Many sausage recipes and concepts have brought fame to cities and their people. Frankfurters from Frankfurt in Germany, Weiner from Vienna in Austria and Bologna from the town of Bologna in Italy. are all very famous. There are over 1200 known varieties world wide
Sausage consists of two parts:
Casings are of vital importance in sausage making. Their primary function is that of a holder for the meat mixture. They also have a major effect on the mouth feel (if edible) and appearance. The variety of casings available is broad.
These include: natural, collagen, fibrous cellulose and protein lined fibrous cellulose. Some casings are edible and are meant to be eaten with the sausage. Other casings are non edible and are peeled away before eating.
These are made from the intestines of animals such as hogs, pigs, wild boar, cattle and sheep. The intestine is a very long organ and is ideal for a casing of the sausage. The intestines are flushed clean, especially from the inside and soaked in a solution of KMNO4 for a period of 2 hours at 10°C. Sinews, blood vessels and fat clinging to the insides of the casing must be removed. Natural casings should not be over handled as the may puncture. They should be refrigerated at all times. Natural casings are available in Australia, New Zealand, and South America where cattle are reared on a very large scale. Casings are a by-product of the meat industry that is what these countries specialize in.
Use of natural casings is considered by many professional sausage makers to have many advantages:
They are semi porous and permit deeper smoke penetration.
Natural casings absorb flavors and release fats better
Generally, they hold their shape better and do not burst during cooking.
Natural casings are edible and need not be peeled before eating.
They have a natural color and have a better appearance.
Hogs casings are the most commonly used. Sheep casings are the highest quality available. Beef casings are also popular. Almost all casings are salted before they are packed. Natural casings need to be protected from extreme variations in temperature. The ideal storage temperature is 40-45°F
These are edible and are not synthetic casings. They are made from the hide of cattle. Collagen is obtained from the corium layer that is situated just under the skin of the animal. The fat, flesh and hair are removed from the hide and it is spit into two layers by special equipment. The hair side of the hide is used in the leather industry. The flesh side (corium) is used to make collagen casings. The material is first ground, and then swelled in an acidic medium. It is then sieved, filtered and finally extruded into casings.
The advantages of collagen casings are that they can be manufactured in the sizes that you require, both diameter and length. Their consistent diameter means that they are uniform and aid portion control. They are also stronger and are preferred while using machines in the commercial manufacture of sausages. They are ideal for smoking of sausages and require no special pre preparation and storage. Moreover, they are clean and sanitary.
FIBROUS CELLULOSE CASINGS
These are by – products of the food processing industry. Cellulose and fiber is extracted from the husk, skin, peels, pips and seeds of the fruit and vegetables during the processing stage. These are processed further to make casings. These types of casings are also referred to as peel-able cellulose. The fiber adds to the strength of the casing and enables them to handle high temperatures.
PROTEIN LINED FIBROUS CELLULOSE CASINGS
A protein lining is often added to the inside of the above type of casing. These casings are ideal for the dried sausages. The protein lining causes the casing to shrink as the meat is cooked or dried so that it retains the shape of the sausage. Used mainly for dry or semi-dry sausages, they come in a red color (salami) or clear. They need to be soaked in water before stuffing, as the protein tends to stiffen during storage. Sometimes, the casing needs to be soaked in vinegar or even liquid smoke. This makes it easier to peel off the casing when the finished product is sliced.
Besides these, there a some other types of casings that are also used in the sausage making industry. Plastic casings have recently become popular. They are cheaper, stronger and uniform in size. However, they need to be removed before the product is served. Caul fat, a membrane like lining of the stomach, is also used as a casing to make the flat sausages, crepinette. The membrane is networked like a spider web, with streaks of fat. Caul fat is ideal to wrap items of uneven sizes like the loukanika (patty like Greek sausage) and the crepinette.
The filling of the sausage is made up of two parts:
– The meat component
A variety of meats are used in the sausage making industry. Each type provides a particular flavor, texture and color in the product.
Lean meats make up the largest proportion of the meat component providing the dominant character of the product. The color, flavor, texture and appearance of the product are determined by these meats. Pork is by far the most common and popular meat used in sausage making. Beef is also becoming popular of late, because of its excellent binding properties as well as its deep red color. Veal, lamb and poultry are also being used in certain products of late.
Pork fat adds to the taste, flavor and the texture of the forcemeat. Jowl fat is the most commonly used product in charcuterie. It is obtained from the cheek of the animal. Normally, not more than 30% of the forcemeat is fat.
Variety meats are the offal of the carcass and can be added into the forcemeat in the production of sausage. Variety meats used include heart, kidney, tripe, liver and tongue. These meats have a low binding power and if a lot of them are added into the forcemeat, you would require additional binders in the mixture.
NON MEAT COMPONENT:
Non meat ingredients are food item, which are added to the filling before stuffing. They enhance the flavor and the color, slow or prevent bacteria growth, act as a preservative and increase the volume and bulk of the mixture. There are six types of these additives: water, curing agents, curing accelerators, sensory enhancers, stability enhancers, and extenders and binders.
WATER is usually added to the sausage mixture during the blending stage. It improved the mixing and helps to extract the proteins from the meat. It is used in all sausage mixtures.
CURING AGENTS are necessary to inhibit the growth of bacteria (especially clostridium botulinum – an anaerobic bacteria which can cause death) and improve the shelf life. They also help to improve, fix and retain the color of the forcemeat. The two common curing agents are sodium nitrate and nitrite. Nitrite is used in cured, cooked or smoked products. Nitrate is used in dried sausages.
CURING ACCELERATORS such as ascorbic acid, sodium erythorbate and citric acid are used in cured, cooked and fermented products. As their name suggests, they speed up the curing process.
SENSORY ENHANCERS are a variety of items that are used to enhance the flavor, smell, color, feel and mouthfeel.
Salt is used in all sausage products for the enhancement of flavor and as an aid in the extraction of protein from the meats.
Sweeteners (both nutritive and non-nutritive) are often added to the forcemeat. Non nutritive sweeteners such as saccharin and sorbitol add sweetness and aid in peeling. Nutritive sweeteners such as cane or beet sugar, dextrose and corn syrup are also used.
Flavorings for sausage include spices, plant, vegetable and milk protein, yeast extract and even mustard flour. These add flavor, taste, increase the volume and act as binders. Colorings for sausage meat can be natural as well as artificial. Artificial colors are used a lot in sausage production. Chefs do not recommend these. Natural colors can be obtained from red peppers, saffron, turmeric and caramel. These will add not only color but also flavor. The use of natural colors is recommended wherever possible.
Smoke, both natural and liquid smoke contribute to the taste and flavor of the product. Use of too much liquid smoke will tend to make he product bitter. Liquid smoke also tends to fade on storage.
Flavor enhancers are products, which bring out the flavor of the other ingredients, yet have no flavor of their own. The one most commonly used in the kitchen is MSG, mono sodium glutamate. This is a natural product but must be used sparingly. MSG and nucleotides and other flavor enhancers are often used in mass production of sausage but are not widely used or common.
Other sensory enhancers include bacterial cultures, enzymes, phosphates and acidulants. They serve a variety of purposes including flavoring, softening of the tissues, juice retention and are used only in the mass commercial production of sausages and not in the hotel kitchens.
STABILITY ENHANCERS are used in sausage making to protect the flavor of the product, to slow down mold growth and to extend and bind the product.
EXTENDERS AND BINDERS are usually either animal based, fermentation based and cereal grain based. Gelatin, stock and non – fat dry milk are the animal based ones used most often in the kitchen. Fermentation based extenders and binders involve the introduction of specified types of microorganisms into the forcemeat. As these grow, they create favorable changes in the sausage. Cereal grain based ones include oats, wheat, barley, corn and rye. These products are also used to extend the volume – this is often termed as the filler. These items are far more popular in the commercial mass production of sausage rather than in specialized kitchen preparations.
TYPES OF FILLINGS USED FOR SAUSAGES
There are primarily four types of fillings that are used in the production of sausages.
Coarse minced forcemeat – This forcemeat contains tender and lean meat as well as fat in the mixture. The ratio is normally 3 parts of meat to one part of fat. The mixture is coarsely ground and the proportion gives optimum quality. Only good grade of meat and fat is used, as the mixture is easily identifiable. Salami is a good example of this type of a filling.
Cutter pulverized forcemeat – All types of sausage containing finely ground forcemeat including frankfurters and cocktail sausages come under this group. 5 parts of meat and 3 parts of fat are the normal ratio. Second grades of meat can be utilized, as they are not identifiable, being ground into a fine mixture. Meats from older carcasses can also be used.
Combination forcemeats – are a mixture of the above two types. One part of coarse forcemeat and two parts of cutter pulverized forcemeat are normally use. Pepperoni and chippolatas are examples of sausages that use this type of a forcemeat. Both good and inferior quality of meat can be used. This makes it more commercially viable as well.
Chunky forcemeat – In this type of a filling, the meat and fat are left in chunks. Three parts of meat to 1 part of fat are used. This type of a filling is used for the spicy South American sausages like the chorizo, which have predominant Portuguese and Spanish influence. The meat and the fat are dried before the are filled into the casing.
Once the forcemeat is prepared, it is ready for filling into the casing. It may be done manually or, a sausage filler may be used. A sausage filler is a machine something like a mincing machine, which has a nozzle with changeable diameters. The rolled up casing is fitted onto the nozzle and the machine is started. The casing then un – rolls as it fills up. A stapling machine cum sealer then separates the sausages into links and seals the ends. Heat treatment is used in the sealing process. Twisting/knotting natural casings or tying with string or cord were are also used originally to separate the links of sausage into individual pieces.
Besides meat, which is the traditional filling, nowadays a host of other ingredients are also used. Poultry seafood, vegetables, lentils and soybean are being introduced.
There are five varieties of sausages that are available in the commercial market.
Fresh sausage (e.g.: Brokwurst)
Cooked sausage (Mortadella)
Cooked-smoked sausage (Bologna, Frankfurters, Berliners)
Uncooked-smoked sausage (Kielbasa – the Polish sausage, Mettwurst)
Dry/semi dry sausage (Salami)
Wurst is the german word for sausage….. the germans eat a lot of their meats in the processed form rather than in the fresh form. Sausage is used in stews, pies and other such dishes. They even have a currywurst !!!!
SOME FAMOUS SAUSAGES:
ANDOUILLETTE French sausage made of pork, tripe and calf mesentery.
BERLINER from Berlin, made of pork and beef, flavored with salt and
BIERSCHENKEN a German sausage containing ham or ham fat + peppercorns and pistachio
BIERWURST a German beef and pork sausage flecked with fat and smoked.
BLACKPUDDING/BLOOD SAUSAGE there are many versions of this sausage or pudding, made out of pigs blood. The British one has oatmeal. The German version is called Blutwurst and the French one is known as Boudin Noir. The Spanish call it Morcilla, the Irish Drisheen and the Italians, They are usually sliced and sold.
BOCKWURST a delicately flavored, highly perishable German white sausage consisting of fresh pork and veal, chopped chives parsley, egg and milk.
BOLOGNA There are a number of versions of this popular Italian sausage. It usually has a mixture of smoked pork and beef. The English version is called Polony.
BOUDIN BLANC unlike boudin noir, this is a fresh sausage, made of pork, eggs, cream and seasoning
BRATWURST a German sausage made of minced pork / veal and spiced.
BUTIFARA a Spanish pork sausage flavored with garlic and spices – comes from the Catalonian region of Spain.
Cambridge an English sausage made from pork and flavored with herbs and spices.
CERVELAT the name originated from the Latin word for brains. Nowadays it contains pork and is seasoned with garlic
CHORIZO is a Spanish and South American spicy sausage made of pork and uses small casings. Some Chorizos are fresh but others are dried or smoked. Longaniza is a Portuguese version.
CREPINETTE a general term for a small minced meat sausage – some contain lamb; others pork. They are coated with breadcrumbs and fried.
CUMBERLAND SAUSAGE an English sausage made of coarsely minced pork with pepper.
EXTRAWURST a lightly smoked beef/pork sausage from Germany.
FRANKFURTER an ancestor of the ubiquitous hot dog, it is made of lean pork and is very finely ground. Vienna sausage is a small cocktail frankfurter
HAGGIS is a Scottish sausage served on festive occasions. It is mad from the offal of sheep and oats. It is stuffed into the inner lining of the stomach – the thymus and needs prolonged slow cooking.
KABANOS is a Polish sausage made out of minced pork.
KALBWURST a German veal sausage, flavored with pistachio nuts.
KATENRAUSCHWURST German sausage made of smoked pork, dark skinned and firm.
KNOBLAUCHWURST a German garlic sausage.
KOLBASA/KIELBASA the first the Russian version and the second, the Polish. Both words men sausage. Made with beef and pork.
LAP CHEONG a Chinese sausage of chopped pork, soy, cereal and paprika.
LIVERWURST/LEBERWURST a German liver sausage of which there are many kinds. Made of pork and pork or veal liver and may even contain truffle.
MERGUEZ a spiced sausage from North Africa made from goat or mutton flavored with chili and cumin.
METTWURST a German spreading sausage of pork or beef.
MORTADELLA a bland Italian sausage from Bologna, made of pork and flavored with pepper, pistachio or coriander. Ready to eat, it is served sliced
OXFORD SAUSAGE an English sausage containing veal, pork, beef suet, herbs and spices.
PEPPERONI an Italian sausage made of pork and beef.
SALAMI there is a vast range of salami sausage available. These include: Birnenformige, Edel, Land and Netz from Germany Alesandre, Calabrese, Cotto, Felinetti, Genoa, Napoli,Milano, Easter Nola,andToscana from Italy Arles from France. There are varieties from America, Holland, Denmark and Hungary as well. All are made of uncooked meat, which may be pork, beef or a mixture of the two and variously flavored. Salami may be air dried or smoked or both. It is ready to eat, thinly sliced and eaten cold. However, chopped and sliced salami finds its way into many Italian dishes. Salamini are smaller versions of the usually large Salami. Kosher salami is made out of only beef and flavored with garlic, mustard, juniper and coriander.
SALSICCIE is an Italian sausage very often home made and flavored with garlic and peppercorn.
SAUCISSON are large French sausage, air dried or smoked. Some are coated with dried herbs.
STRASSBURGER a liver and veal sausage containing pistachio nuts.
TEEWURST is like mettwurst- a spreading sausage. Made of pork or pork and beef. Spiced and lightly smoked.
TOULOUSE SAUSAGE from Toulouse in France made of pork and pork fat flavored with pepper and sugar. It is an essential ingredient of several French recipes especially the cassoulet of Toulouse
WIESSWURST a mildly spiced German sausage made of pork and veal.
WHITE PUDDING or Boudin Blanc – it is made of white meats and will include pork, cream, eggs and spices. Eaten hot.
ZAMPONE an Italian sausage from Modena, where the meat is stuffed into the skin of the leg of pig trotters.
ZUNGENWURST a large German smoked sausage made of pork fat, pork tongue and sometimes liver and blood
Meat fermentation is a biological process that preserves the meat and provides distinct properties such as flavor and tenderness.
Traditionally, fermentation relied on the natural microbial load of the meat but, in modern production, a selected microbial culture is added.
During the fermentation process, fermentable sugars (dextrose or fructose) that are present in the meat or added by the manufacturer are transformed into an acid, called lactic acid.
The formation of lactic acid in the product leads to an increase in acidity. The more acidic the meat product is the lower the pH will be.
The pH of fresh meat is approximately 5.6-5.8. The pH of fermented meat is usually below 5.3.
Besides lactic acid, there are a variety of other products that are formed during the fermentation process. These include organic acids, carbon dioxide and alcohols that give the fermented products distinct flavor and texture.
For many years, sausages have been inoculated with a concentrated and selected mixture of bacteria, called starter culture or inoculums, to begin fermentation. The use of starter cultures means that the proper type of bacteria in the amount required is added to the sausage emulsion to ensure efficient and safe fermentation.
There are two species of bacteria that are primarily responsible for converting sugars into lactic acid:
· Lactobacilli spp used in slow fermentation processes
· Pediococci spp used in rapid fermentation processes
(In Europe, as well as in Turkey, these genera are most often used in combination with micrococci and staphylococci.)
Depending on their pH and aw levels, raw fermented sausages are classified as: semi-dry sausages and dry sausages.
Semi-dry (quickly fermented) sausages differ greatly from dry sausages by their “tangy” flavor resulting in lactic acid accumulation. Semidry sausages are usually stuffed in medium and large diameter natural or artificial casings.
The length of production (smoking and fermentation) of these sausages depends on their type, but rarely exceeds several days.
The pH of semidry sausages is clearly acid; 4.8 to 5.4.
Semidry sausages are regularly smoked and only exceptionally slightly cooked by the heat applied in the smokehouse at various temperatures, mostly not exceeding 45°C and sometimes raising to 60°C. After smoking the sausages are usually air-dried for a relatively short time.
Semidry sausages usually contain an important proportion of beef meat. Their shelf life is surprisingly good due to low water activity. Semidry sausages have improved stability if stored in the chiller, protected from humidity rather than at room temperature.
Properties of dry (slow-fermented) sausages depend not only on the bacterial fermentation, but are also strongly influenced by biochemical and physical changes occurring during the long drying or ageing process.
The length of production, either with or without smoking, and drying periods depends on some factors; such as diameter and physical properties of casings, sausage formulation, choice and methods of preparing meat, conditions of drying etc., but overall processing time require up to 90 days.
The final pH of dry sausages is usually between 5.0-5.5. It increases during the second part of this long ageing process.
Dry sausages are made from selected, mainly coarsely chopped, meat. Their water content is under 50% for sucuk and 35% for other dry sausages.
Some of dry sausages are subjected to cold smoking (12 to18°), but sometimes not; in some countries they are often heavily spiced with red pepper or garlic or heavily smoked and strongly salted.
The formulation, degree of grinding, level of fermentation, smoking intensity, temperature of ageing and type and size of casing as well as other factors determine the properties of the final product.
In the preparation of dry sausages natural casings are preferred because they adhere closely to the sausages as sausages shrink.
The shelf life of dry sausages is excellent, which may be especially attributed to the high salt-to-moisture ratio. These sausages are normally kept without refrigeration.
Raw sausages, which are not submitted to the smoking process, are known as air-dried sausages.
The principle of dry sausages is salami of different types produced in many countries as small-diameter dry sausages. Dry sausages may be hard, intended for slicing and soft style sausages, which can be spread.
Selection of raw materials
Chilling of meat and fat (0 to 7˚C.)
Comminution and blending of meat and fat
(bowl chopper or mincer and vacuum mixer)
Addition of spices and curing salt
(as well as carbohydrate and starter culture if applicable)
Air removal (vacuum chopper or vacuum mixing)
Stuffing (vacuum stuffer)
Drying of surface of sausage
Smoking (if applicable)
Incubation (if starter culture is added)
Ripening and drying
Process ﬂow for dry sausage manufacture
The main ingredients used in fermented sausages are; meat, salt, nitrite or nitrate salts, sugar, acidulants, starter cultures and spices.
Only the highest quality of meat should be used in fermented sausages. When selecting meat, three criteria are important:
Wholesomeness- free of pathogens, parasites, chemical residues and physical hazards.
Functional characteristics- composition, pH and binding properties.
Color- meat color is affected by species, freshness and pH.
For optimal meat quality:
Chill fresh meat rapidly and keep cold
Use meat soon after slaughter (within three days)
If not use immediately, freeze meat as soon as possible.
Most fermented products contain between 2.5-3% salt. The main characteristics salt brings to the fermented products are flavor and binding. The salt used in meat products should be free of impurity; which if present in meat could lead to fat oxidation.
To inhibit the growth of Clostridium Botulinum spores and development of their toxins in shelf stable cured products. Nitrate, rather that nitrite, is added in the process of slow fermented sausages. Nitrate itself does not have a significant impact on bacterial growth, therefore has to be transformed to nitrite. Bacteria called Micrococci that are usually contained in the starter cultures make this transformation possible.
Sugars are added to provide nutrition for fermenting bacteria. The most common sugaradded is dextrose, but other sugars such as sucrose, corn syrups, glucose and brown sugar. The more sugar that is used, the more lactic acid results, so the lower the pH will be.
Acidulants are acid substances that may be used to reduce the pH of the emulsion. And spices are aromatic substances that are usually added to improve the flavor of the product.
Should People “At Risk” Eat Dry Sausages?
Because dry sausages are not cooked, people “at risk” (the elderly, very young children, pregnant women and those with weakened immune systems) might want to avoid eating them. The bacterium E. coli O157:H7 can survive the process of dry fermenting, and recently some children became ill after eating dry cured salami containing the bacteria.
SAUSAGE STORAGE CHART
If the sausage has a “use-by” date, follow that date. It is the last date recommended for the use of the product while at peak quality. The date has been determined by the manufacturer of the product.
If the sausage has a “sell-by” date, or no date, store it for the times recommended below.
Sausage Storage Chart
Type of Sausage
Refrigerator – Unopened
Refrigerator – After Opening
Fresh Sausage, uncooked
1 to 2 days
(included in unopened storage)
Fresh Sausage, after cooking by consumer
3 to 4 days
indefinitely in refrigerator; 6 weeks in pantry
3 weeks in refrigerator, or until it turns rancid
Hot Dogs and other Cooked Sausage
Summer Sausage (Semi-dry)
Freeze if you can’t use within times recommended above for refrigerator storage. Once frozen it doesn’t matter if the date expires because foods kept frozen continuously are safe indefinitely. However, for best quality use within 1-2 months.
Et emülsiyonları gıda sektöründe en yeni sahalardan biridir. Her ne kadar sosis ve salam üretimindeki kayıtlar M.Ö. 500 yıllarına kadar uzanıyorsa da, et emülsiyonları alanındaki araştırma ve yayınların hemen hemen tamamı 1960’lı yıllardan sonradır. Emülsiyonlar üzerinde çalışmalara geç başlanmış olmasına rağmen et emülsiyonları son yıllarda üzerinde en çok durulan ve araştırma yapılan konuların başında gelmektedir (Gökalp ve ark. 1990).Yurdumuzda genel olarak şekil ve büyüklük bakımından sosis ve salam diye iki sınıfa ayırarak işlenen bu ürünleri, genel sosis ve uygulanan teknolojik işlemler yönünden tek bir genel isim altında toplayarak incelemek mümkündür. Bunlar, temelde emülsiyon teknolojisi uygulanarak üretilmiş et ürünleridir. Dünya gıda teknolojisi ve sanayiinde genel olarak “Sausage” (sosis) olarak adlandırılır (Gökalp ve ark. 1999).
Tarihte ilk sosis imali etlerin doğranması, kurutulması ve kuru kabuklu yemişlerle karıştırıldıktan sonra prese edilerek kek şekline sokulması gibi basit bir metoda dayanmakta idi. Roma İmparatorluğunun yükselme yıllarına tesadüf eden tarihlerde ve özellikle Akdeniz ülkelerinde bugünkü bildiğimiz tipte sosis üretimine başlanmıştır ( Göğüş, 1986). Bugün dünyada, genellikle 250 kadar değişik tip, şekil ve yapıda sosis üretilmektedir. Ancak, genel olarak ufak reçete ve yapım farklılıkları ile birlikte, üretilen sosis çeşidi birkaç bini bulabilmektedir (Gökalp ve ark. 1999).
Sosis (sausage) kelimesi; Latince’de tuzlanmış ve sonra muhafaza edilmiş anlamına gelen “salsus” kelimesinden gelmektedir. Salsus kelimesi o zamanlarda; et, kan ve et kırpıntılarının çeşitli katkı maddeleriyle karıştırılıp, hayvan midelerine doldurulması ile elde edilen ürünler anlamında kullanılmaktaydı. Sosise ait ilk kayıtlara, M.Ö. 9. yüzyılda yazılmış olan Homer in “Odyssey” eserinde rastlanılmaktadır. M.Ö. 500 yıllarında yazılmış olan Yunan oyunu “The Orya” adlı eserde sausage ve salami kelimelerine rastlanmaktadır. Şimdi “salam” diye kullandığımız bu kelimelerin, Kıbrıs’ın doğu kıyısındaki “Salamis” isimli kasabadan köken aldığı ihtimali üzerinde durulmaktadır. Salami, buradan İtalya, Fransa, Macaristan, Almanya, Danimarka ve İspanya’ya yayılmıştır. Bugün bu ülkelerde çok değişik görünüm ve formülasyonda sosis ve salam üretilmektedir (Gökalp ve ark. 1999).
Genel olarak sosis; sığır, domuz, manda ve koyun etleri ve yan ürünlerinden, emülsiyon teknolojisi uygulanarak hazırlanmış ve içerisine çeşitli katkı maddeleri ilave edilmiş, doğal veya yapay kılıflara doldurularak üretilmiş ürünlerdir. Sosis; genelde et ve yan ürünlerden hazırlanmakla birlikte, bazen özellikle Japonya, Çin, Hindistan ve diğer Uzak Doğu ülkelerinde çeşitli balıklardan ve vejeteryanların ihtiyaçlarını karşılamak üzere yalnız sebze, un ve nişastalarından da üretilebilmektedir. Ancak, sosis kelimesi, temelde kırmızı et, yağ ve çeşitli katkı maddeleri ile hazırlanan ürünler için kullanılmaktadır (Gökalp ve ark. 1999).Emülsiyon tipi ürünlerin üretiminde dikkat edilecek en önemli husus, ürün içerisindeki proteinlerin miktar ve kalitesinin yanında bunların fonksiyonel özellikleri, besleyicilik değeri ve fiyatıdır. Onun için bu ürünlerde et proteinlerine ilaveten bağlayıcı, şirinki azaltıcı, emülsiyon kapasitesini ve stabilitesini arttırıcı, su bağlama ve ürün dilimlenebilirlik gibi özelliklerini ıslah edici ve formülasyonunun fiyatını azaltıcı etkiye sahip bazı bitkisel proteinlerin katkı olarak kullanımı çok önemlidir (Gökalp ve ark. 1990)
Preservation of a meat product by fermentation and drying has been used for hundreds of years. For a long time, the technology of fermentation has been considered an “art”; however, more recently the process has been studied and as a result, products of quality can now be repeatedly produced under controlled conditions.
Dry or semidry fermented sausages are prepared by mixing ground meat with various combinations of spices, flavourings, salt, sugar, additives and bacterial cultures. The mixtures, in bulk or after stuffing, are allowed to ferment at different temperatures for varying periods of time. Following fermentation, the product may be smoked and/or dried under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity.
Chemical acidification may be used to help lowering the pH. Citric acid or glucono delta lactone are commonly used for this purpose. If product is acidified, controls shall be in place and records kept to ensure that pH of 5.3 or lower is achieved by the conclusion of the process.