Etiket Arşivleri: Sausage
What is a Sausage?
Word sausage is from word Salsus
Salsus means salt or preserved
Is a chopped or comminuted and seasoned meats that is formed into a symmetrical shape
Can contain non-meat ingredients
History of Sausage
Reason for discovery of America and trade with Asia
Used to be “Bags of Mystery”
Historically were made from by-products and left-overs
Modern sausage is made from lean trimmings or low value whole muscle cuts
Skeletal muscle, Cheek, jowl, and head meat from beef pork and poultry
Consumption of Sausage
Top Dinner Sausage Consuming Cities – 2009
1. Los Angeles
2. New York
3. San Antonio/Corpus Christi
5. Baltimore/Washington, D.C.
7. Dallas/Fort Worth
8. South Carolina
9. San Francisco/Oakland
Source: Information Resources Inc. Based on total retail sales, excluding Wal-Mart, for the 2009 calendar year. – National Hot Dog & Sausage Council
Degree of grinding or chopping
Coarse ground vs. emulsion or fine chop
Amount of cooking
Cooked vs. uncooked
Amount of smoke
Smoked vs. non-smoked
Amount of water added
Water added vs. no water added
Amount of curing
Cured vs. not cured
Amount of fermentation
Fermented vs. non-fermented
Amount of tissue moisture
Fresh: non-smoked and uncooked
Smoked: fresh and cured
Cooked: fresh and cured smoked and non-smoked
Cured: smoked and non-smoked
Dried: semidry and dry
Meat loaves and specialty items
Cooked and smoked
Dry and semidry
Luncheon meat, loaves and jellied
Summer sausage, kielbasa, bologna, bratwurst: The list goes on and on. There are so many varieties of sausage. How long can you store them — and where? Are they fully cooked or not? The following background information will answer these questions and others. Use the chart as a guideline for safe storage.
Types of Sausages
Sausages are either uncooked or ready to eat. They can be made from red meat (for example, beef, pork, lamb, or veal), poultry (turkey or chicken, for example) or a combination. Uncooked sausages include fresh (bulk, patties, or links) and smoked sausages.
To prevent foodborne illness, uncooked sausages that contain ground beef, pork, lamb or veal should be cooked to 160 °F. Uncooked sausages that contain ground turkey and chicken should be cooked to 165 °F.
Ready-to-eat sausages are dry, semi-dry, and/or cooked. Dry sausages may be smoked, unsmoked, or cooked. Semi-dry sausages are usually heated in a smokehouse to fully cook the product and partially dry it. Cooked sausages (for example, bologna, and frankfurters) are cooked and may also be smoked.
Who inspects sausages?
USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) inspects all sausages in interstate commerce and all sausages that are exported to other countries. If sausages are made in a retail establishment (such as a grocery store, meat market, or restaurant) and are sold within the State where the establishment is located, the sausage may be under the jurisdiction of that State’s health or agriculture department.
What is on the label?
The label provides consumers with information about a product at the time of sale. Labels are required to bear certain mandatory features including:
(1) the product name;
(2) an ingredients statement;
(3) the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor;
(4) an accurate statement of the net quantity of contents;
(5) the inspection legend and USDA establishment number;
(6) a safe handling statement if the product is perishable (for example, “Keep Frozen” or “Keep Refrigerated”);
(7) safe handling instructions, if the meat or poultry component of the product is not ready to eat; and
(8) nutrition facts information. The Nutrition Facts information on the label can help consumers compare products and make more informed, healthy food choices. If sausages are made and packaged in a local store, the nutrient information on the package is voluntary or it may be at the point of purchase. The application of a “use” or “sell by” date is optional.
Sausage is any meat that has been comminuted and seasoned. Comminuted means diced, ground, chopped, emulsified or otherwise reduced to minute particles by mechanical means.
A simple definition of sausage would be ‘the coarse or finely comminuted meat product prepared from one or more kind of meat or meat by-products, containing various amounts of water, seasoned and frequently cured.’ In simplest terms, sausage is ground meat that has been salted for preservation and seasoned to taste. Sausage is one of the oldest forms of charcuterie, and is made almost all over the world in some form or the other. Many sausage recipes and concepts have brought fame to cities and their people. Frankfurters from Frankfurt in Germany, Weiner from Vienna in Austria and Bologna from the town of Bologna in Italy. are all very famous. There are over 1200 known varieties world wide
Sausage consists of two parts:
Casings are of vital importance in sausage making. Their primary function is that of a holder for the meat mixture. They also have a major effect on the mouth feel (if edible) and appearance. The variety of casings available is broad.
These include: natural, collagen, fibrous cellulose and protein lined fibrous cellulose. Some casings are edible and are meant to be eaten with the sausage. Other casings are non edible and are peeled away before eating.
These are made from the intestines of animals such as hogs, pigs, wild boar, cattle and sheep. The intestine is a very long organ and is ideal for a casing of the sausage. The intestines are flushed clean, especially from the inside and soaked in a solution of KMNO4 for a period of 2 hours at 10°C. Sinews, blood vessels and fat clinging to the insides of the casing must be removed. Natural casings should not be over handled as the may puncture. They should be refrigerated at all times. Natural casings are available in Australia, New Zealand, and South America where cattle are reared on a very large scale. Casings are a by-product of the meat industry that is what these countries specialize in.
Use of natural casings is considered by many professional sausage makers to have many advantages:
They are semi porous and permit deeper smoke penetration.
Natural casings absorb flavors and release fats better
Generally, they hold their shape better and do not burst during cooking.
Natural casings are edible and need not be peeled before eating.
They have a natural color and have a better appearance.
Hogs casings are the most commonly used. Sheep casings are the highest quality available. Beef casings are also popular. Almost all casings are salted before they are packed. Natural casings need to be protected from extreme variations in temperature. The ideal storage temperature is 40-45°F
These are edible and are not synthetic casings. They are made from the hide of cattle. Collagen is obtained from the corium layer that is situated just under the skin of the animal. The fat, flesh and hair are removed from the hide and it is spit into two layers by special equipment. The hair side of the hide is used in the leather industry. The flesh side (corium) is used to make collagen casings. The material is first ground, and then swelled in an acidic medium. It is then sieved, filtered and finally extruded into casings.
The advantages of collagen casings are that they can be manufactured in the sizes that you require, both diameter and length. Their consistent diameter means that they are uniform and aid portion control. They are also stronger and are preferred while using machines in the commercial manufacture of sausages. They are ideal for smoking of sausages and require no special pre preparation and storage. Moreover, they are clean and sanitary.
FIBROUS CELLULOSE CASINGS
These are by – products of the food processing industry. Cellulose and fiber is extracted from the husk, skin, peels, pips and seeds of the fruit and vegetables during the processing stage. These are processed further to make casings. These types of casings are also referred to as peel-able cellulose. The fiber adds to the strength of the casing and enables them to handle high temperatures.
PROTEIN LINED FIBROUS CELLULOSE CASINGS
A protein lining is often added to the inside of the above type of casing. These casings are ideal for the dried sausages. The protein lining causes the casing to shrink as the meat is cooked or dried so that it retains the shape of the sausage. Used mainly for dry or semi-dry sausages, they come in a red color (salami) or clear. They need to be soaked in water before stuffing, as the protein tends to stiffen during storage. Sometimes, the casing needs to be soaked in vinegar or even liquid smoke. This makes it easier to peel off the casing when the finished product is sliced.
Besides these, there a some other types of casings that are also used in the sausage making industry. Plastic casings have recently become popular. They are cheaper, stronger and uniform in size. However, they need to be removed before the product is served. Caul fat, a membrane like lining of the stomach, is also used as a casing to make the flat sausages, crepinette. The membrane is networked like a spider web, with streaks of fat. Caul fat is ideal to wrap items of uneven sizes like the loukanika (patty like Greek sausage) and the crepinette.
The filling of the sausage is made up of two parts:
– The meat component
A variety of meats are used in the sausage making industry. Each type provides a particular flavor, texture and color in the product.
Lean meats make up the largest proportion of the meat component providing the dominant character of the product. The color, flavor, texture and appearance of the product are determined by these meats. Pork is by far the most common and popular meat used in sausage making. Beef is also becoming popular of late, because of its excellent binding properties as well as its deep red color. Veal, lamb and poultry are also being used in certain products of late.
Pork fat adds to the taste, flavor and the texture of the forcemeat. Jowl fat is the most commonly used product in charcuterie. It is obtained from the cheek of the animal. Normally, not more than 30% of the forcemeat is fat.
Variety meats are the offal of the carcass and can be added into the forcemeat in the production of sausage. Variety meats used include heart, kidney, tripe, liver and tongue. These meats have a low binding power and if a lot of them are added into the forcemeat, you would require additional binders in the mixture.
NON MEAT COMPONENT:
Non meat ingredients are food item, which are added to the filling before stuffing. They enhance the flavor and the color, slow or prevent bacteria growth, act as a preservative and increase the volume and bulk of the mixture. There are six types of these additives: water, curing agents, curing accelerators, sensory enhancers, stability enhancers, and extenders and binders.
WATER is usually added to the sausage mixture during the blending stage. It improved the mixing and helps to extract the proteins from the meat. It is used in all sausage mixtures.
CURING AGENTS are necessary to inhibit the growth of bacteria (especially clostridium botulinum – an anaerobic bacteria which can cause death) and improve the shelf life. They also help to improve, fix and retain the color of the forcemeat. The two common curing agents are sodium nitrate and nitrite. Nitrite is used in cured, cooked or smoked products. Nitrate is used in dried sausages.
CURING ACCELERATORS such as ascorbic acid, sodium erythorbate and citric acid are used in cured, cooked and fermented products. As their name suggests, they speed up the curing process.
SENSORY ENHANCERS are a variety of items that are used to enhance the flavor, smell, color, feel and mouthfeel.
Salt is used in all sausage products for the enhancement of flavor and as an aid in the extraction of protein from the meats.
Sweeteners (both nutritive and non-nutritive) are often added to the forcemeat. Non nutritive sweeteners such as saccharin and sorbitol add sweetness and aid in peeling. Nutritive sweeteners such as cane or beet sugar, dextrose and corn syrup are also used.
Flavorings for sausage include spices, plant, vegetable and milk protein, yeast extract and even mustard flour. These add flavor, taste, increase the volume and act as binders. Colorings for sausage meat can be natural as well as artificial. Artificial colors are used a lot in sausage production. Chefs do not recommend these. Natural colors can be obtained from red peppers, saffron, turmeric and caramel. These will add not only color but also flavor. The use of natural colors is recommended wherever possible.
Smoke, both natural and liquid smoke contribute to the taste and flavor of the product. Use of too much liquid smoke will tend to make he product bitter. Liquid smoke also tends to fade on storage.
Flavor enhancers are products, which bring out the flavor of the other ingredients, yet have no flavor of their own. The one most commonly used in the kitchen is MSG, mono sodium glutamate. This is a natural product but must be used sparingly. MSG and nucleotides and other flavor enhancers are often used in mass production of sausage but are not widely used or common.
Other sensory enhancers include bacterial cultures, enzymes, phosphates and acidulants. They serve a variety of purposes including flavoring, softening of the tissues, juice retention and are used only in the mass commercial production of sausages and not in the hotel kitchens.
STABILITY ENHANCERS are used in sausage making to protect the flavor of the product, to slow down mold growth and to extend and bind the product.
EXTENDERS AND BINDERS are usually either animal based, fermentation based and cereal grain based. Gelatin, stock and non – fat dry milk are the animal based ones used most often in the kitchen. Fermentation based extenders and binders involve the introduction of specified types of microorganisms into the forcemeat. As these grow, they create favorable changes in the sausage. Cereal grain based ones include oats, wheat, barley, corn and rye. These products are also used to extend the volume – this is often termed as the filler. These items are far more popular in the commercial mass production of sausage rather than in specialized kitchen preparations.
TYPES OF FILLINGS USED FOR SAUSAGES
There are primarily four types of fillings that are used in the production of sausages.
Coarse minced forcemeat – This forcemeat contains tender and lean meat as well as fat in the mixture. The ratio is normally 3 parts of meat to one part of fat. The mixture is coarsely ground and the proportion gives optimum quality. Only good grade of meat and fat is used, as the mixture is easily identifiable. Salami is a good example of this type of a filling.
Cutter pulverized forcemeat – All types of sausage containing finely ground forcemeat including frankfurters and cocktail sausages come under this group. 5 parts of meat and 3 parts of fat are the normal ratio. Second grades of meat can be utilized, as they are not identifiable, being ground into a fine mixture. Meats from older carcasses can also be used.
Combination forcemeats – are a mixture of the above two types. One part of coarse forcemeat and two parts of cutter pulverized forcemeat are normally use. Pepperoni and chippolatas are examples of sausages that use this type of a forcemeat. Both good and inferior quality of meat can be used. This makes it more commercially viable as well.
Chunky forcemeat – In this type of a filling, the meat and fat are left in chunks. Three parts of meat to 1 part of fat are used. This type of a filling is used for the spicy South American sausages like the chorizo, which have predominant Portuguese and Spanish influence. The meat and the fat are dried before the are filled into the casing.
Once the forcemeat is prepared, it is ready for filling into the casing. It may be done manually or, a sausage filler may be used. A sausage filler is a machine something like a mincing machine, which has a nozzle with changeable diameters. The rolled up casing is fitted onto the nozzle and the machine is started. The casing then un – rolls as it fills up. A stapling machine cum sealer then separates the sausages into links and seals the ends. Heat treatment is used in the sealing process. Twisting/knotting natural casings or tying with string or cord were are also used originally to separate the links of sausage into individual pieces.
Besides meat, which is the traditional filling, nowadays a host of other ingredients are also used. Poultry seafood, vegetables, lentils and soybean are being introduced.
There are five varieties of sausages that are available in the commercial market.
Fresh sausage (e.g.: Brokwurst)
Cooked sausage (Mortadella)
Cooked-smoked sausage (Bologna, Frankfurters, Berliners)
Uncooked-smoked sausage (Kielbasa – the Polish sausage, Mettwurst)
Dry/semi dry sausage (Salami)
Wurst is the german word for sausage….. the germans eat a lot of their meats in the processed form rather than in the fresh form. Sausage is used in stews, pies and other such dishes. They even have a currywurst !!!!
SOME FAMOUS SAUSAGES:
ANDOUILLETTE French sausage made of pork, tripe and calf mesentery.
BERLINER from Berlin, made of pork and beef, flavored with salt and
BIERSCHENKEN a German sausage containing ham or ham fat + peppercorns and pistachio
BIERWURST a German beef and pork sausage flecked with fat and smoked.
BLACKPUDDING/BLOOD SAUSAGE there are many versions of this sausage or pudding, made out of pigs blood. The British one has oatmeal. The German version is called Blutwurst and the French one is known as Boudin Noir. The Spanish call it Morcilla, the Irish Drisheen and the Italians, They are usually sliced and sold.
BOCKWURST a delicately flavored, highly perishable German white sausage consisting of fresh pork and veal, chopped chives parsley, egg and milk.
BOLOGNA There are a number of versions of this popular Italian sausage. It usually has a mixture of smoked pork and beef. The English version is called Polony.
BOUDIN BLANC unlike boudin noir, this is a fresh sausage, made of pork, eggs, cream and seasoning
BRATWURST a German sausage made of minced pork / veal and spiced.
BUTIFARA a Spanish pork sausage flavored with garlic and spices – comes from the Catalonian region of Spain.
Cambridge an English sausage made from pork and flavored with herbs and spices.
CERVELAT the name originated from the Latin word for brains. Nowadays it contains pork and is seasoned with garlic
CHORIZO is a Spanish and South American spicy sausage made of pork and uses small casings. Some Chorizos are fresh but others are dried or smoked. Longaniza is a Portuguese version.
CREPINETTE a general term for a small minced meat sausage – some contain lamb; others pork. They are coated with breadcrumbs and fried.
CUMBERLAND SAUSAGE an English sausage made of coarsely minced pork with pepper.
EXTRAWURST a lightly smoked beef/pork sausage from Germany.
FRANKFURTER an ancestor of the ubiquitous hot dog, it is made of lean pork and is very finely ground. Vienna sausage is a small cocktail frankfurter
HAGGIS is a Scottish sausage served on festive occasions. It is mad from the offal of sheep and oats. It is stuffed into the inner lining of the stomach – the thymus and needs prolonged slow cooking.
KABANOS is a Polish sausage made out of minced pork.
KALBWURST a German veal sausage, flavored with pistachio nuts.
KATENRAUSCHWURST German sausage made of smoked pork, dark skinned and firm.
KNOBLAUCHWURST a German garlic sausage.
KOLBASA/KIELBASA the first the Russian version and the second, the Polish. Both words men sausage. Made with beef and pork.
LAP CHEONG a Chinese sausage of chopped pork, soy, cereal and paprika.
LIVERWURST/LEBERWURST a German liver sausage of which there are many kinds. Made of pork and pork or veal liver and may even contain truffle.
MERGUEZ a spiced sausage from North Africa made from goat or mutton flavored with chili and cumin.
METTWURST a German spreading sausage of pork or beef.
MORTADELLA a bland Italian sausage from Bologna, made of pork and flavored with pepper, pistachio or coriander. Ready to eat, it is served sliced
OXFORD SAUSAGE an English sausage containing veal, pork, beef suet, herbs and spices.
PEPPERONI an Italian sausage made of pork and beef.
SALAMI there is a vast range of salami sausage available. These include: Birnenformige, Edel, Land and Netz from Germany Alesandre, Calabrese, Cotto, Felinetti, Genoa, Napoli,Milano, Easter Nola,andToscana from Italy Arles from France. There are varieties from America, Holland, Denmark and Hungary as well. All are made of uncooked meat, which may be pork, beef or a mixture of the two and variously flavored. Salami may be air dried or smoked or both. It is ready to eat, thinly sliced and eaten cold. However, chopped and sliced salami finds its way into many Italian dishes. Salamini are smaller versions of the usually large Salami. Kosher salami is made out of only beef and flavored with garlic, mustard, juniper and coriander.
SALSICCIE is an Italian sausage very often home made and flavored with garlic and peppercorn.
SAUCISSON are large French sausage, air dried or smoked. Some are coated with dried herbs.
STRASSBURGER a liver and veal sausage containing pistachio nuts.
TEEWURST is like mettwurst- a spreading sausage. Made of pork or pork and beef. Spiced and lightly smoked.
TOULOUSE SAUSAGE from Toulouse in France made of pork and pork fat flavored with pepper and sugar. It is an essential ingredient of several French recipes especially the cassoulet of Toulouse
WIESSWURST a mildly spiced German sausage made of pork and veal.
WHITE PUDDING or Boudin Blanc – it is made of white meats and will include pork, cream, eggs and spices. Eaten hot.
ZAMPONE an Italian sausage from Modena, where the meat is stuffed into the skin of the leg of pig trotters.
ZUNGENWURST a large German smoked sausage made of pork fat, pork tongue and sometimes liver and blood
Meat fermentation is a biological process that preserves the meat and provides distinct properties such as flavor and tenderness.
Traditionally, fermentation relied on the natural microbial load of the meat but, in modern production, a selected microbial culture is added.
During the fermentation process, fermentable sugars (dextrose or fructose) that are present in the meat or added by the manufacturer are transformed into an acid, called lactic acid.
The formation of lactic acid in the product leads to an increase in acidity. The more acidic the meat product is the lower the pH will be.
The pH of fresh meat is approximately 5.6-5.8. The pH of fermented meat is usually below 5.3.
Besides lactic acid, there are a variety of other products that are formed during the fermentation process. These include organic acids, carbon dioxide and alcohols that give the fermented products distinct flavor and texture.
For many years, sausages have been inoculated with a concentrated and selected mixture of bacteria, called starter culture or inoculums, to begin fermentation. The use of starter cultures means that the proper type of bacteria in the amount required is added to the sausage emulsion to ensure efficient and safe fermentation.
There are two species of bacteria that are primarily responsible for converting sugars into lactic acid:
· Lactobacilli spp used in slow fermentation processes
· Pediococci spp used in rapid fermentation processes
(In Europe, as well as in Turkey, these genera are most often used in combination with micrococci and staphylococci.)
Depending on their pH and aw levels, raw fermented sausages are classified as: semi-dry sausages and dry sausages.
Semi-dry (quickly fermented) sausages differ greatly from dry sausages by their “tangy” flavor resulting in lactic acid accumulation. Semidry sausages are usually stuffed in medium and large diameter natural or artificial casings.
The length of production (smoking and fermentation) of these sausages depends on their type, but rarely exceeds several days.
The pH of semidry sausages is clearly acid; 4.8 to 5.4.
Semidry sausages are regularly smoked and only exceptionally slightly cooked by the heat applied in the smokehouse at various temperatures, mostly not exceeding 45°C and sometimes raising to 60°C. After smoking the sausages are usually air-dried for a relatively short time.
Semidry sausages usually contain an important proportion of beef meat. Their shelf life is surprisingly good due to low water activity. Semidry sausages have improved stability if stored in the chiller, protected from humidity rather than at room temperature.
Properties of dry (slow-fermented) sausages depend not only on the bacterial fermentation, but are also strongly influenced by biochemical and physical changes occurring during the long drying or ageing process.
The length of production, either with or without smoking, and drying periods depends on some factors; such as diameter and physical properties of casings, sausage formulation, choice and methods of preparing meat, conditions of drying etc., but overall processing time require up to 90 days.
The final pH of dry sausages is usually between 5.0-5.5. It increases during the second part of this long ageing process.
Dry sausages are made from selected, mainly coarsely chopped, meat. Their water content is under 50% for sucuk and 35% for other dry sausages.
Some of dry sausages are subjected to cold smoking (12 to18°), but sometimes not; in some countries they are often heavily spiced with red pepper or garlic or heavily smoked and strongly salted.
The formulation, degree of grinding, level of fermentation, smoking intensity, temperature of ageing and type and size of casing as well as other factors determine the properties of the final product.
In the preparation of dry sausages natural casings are preferred because they adhere closely to the sausages as sausages shrink.
The shelf life of dry sausages is excellent, which may be especially attributed to the high salt-to-moisture ratio. These sausages are normally kept without refrigeration.
Raw sausages, which are not submitted to the smoking process, are known as air-dried sausages.
The principle of dry sausages is salami of different types produced in many countries as small-diameter dry sausages. Dry sausages may be hard, intended for slicing and soft style sausages, which can be spread.
Selection of raw materials
Chilling of meat and fat (0 to 7˚C.)
Comminution and blending of meat and fat
(bowl chopper or mincer and vacuum mixer)
Addition of spices and curing salt
(as well as carbohydrate and starter culture if applicable)
Air removal (vacuum chopper or vacuum mixing)
Stuffing (vacuum stuffer)
Drying of surface of sausage
Smoking (if applicable)
Incubation (if starter culture is added)
Ripening and drying
Process ﬂow for dry sausage manufacture
The main ingredients used in fermented sausages are; meat, salt, nitrite or nitrate salts, sugar, acidulants, starter cultures and spices.
Only the highest quality of meat should be used in fermented sausages. When selecting meat, three criteria are important:
Wholesomeness- free of pathogens, parasites, chemical residues and physical hazards.
Functional characteristics- composition, pH and binding properties.
Color- meat color is affected by species, freshness and pH.
For optimal meat quality:
Chill fresh meat rapidly and keep cold
Use meat soon after slaughter (within three days)
If not use immediately, freeze meat as soon as possible.
Most fermented products contain between 2.5-3% salt. The main characteristics salt brings to the fermented products are flavor and binding. The salt used in meat products should be free of impurity; which if present in meat could lead to fat oxidation.
To inhibit the growth of Clostridium Botulinum spores and development of their toxins in shelf stable cured products. Nitrate, rather that nitrite, is added in the process of slow fermented sausages. Nitrate itself does not have a significant impact on bacterial growth, therefore has to be transformed to nitrite. Bacteria called Micrococci that are usually contained in the starter cultures make this transformation possible.
Sugars are added to provide nutrition for fermenting bacteria. The most common sugaradded is dextrose, but other sugars such as sucrose, corn syrups, glucose and brown sugar. The more sugar that is used, the more lactic acid results, so the lower the pH will be.
Acidulants are acid substances that may be used to reduce the pH of the emulsion. And spices are aromatic substances that are usually added to improve the flavor of the product.
Should People “At Risk” Eat Dry Sausages?
Because dry sausages are not cooked, people “at risk” (the elderly, very young children, pregnant women and those with weakened immune systems) might want to avoid eating them. The bacterium E. coli O157:H7 can survive the process of dry fermenting, and recently some children became ill after eating dry cured salami containing the bacteria.
SAUSAGE STORAGE CHART
If the sausage has a “use-by” date, follow that date. It is the last date recommended for the use of the product while at peak quality. The date has been determined by the manufacturer of the product.
If the sausage has a “sell-by” date, or no date, store it for the times recommended below.
Sausage Storage Chart
Type of Sausage
Refrigerator – Unopened
Refrigerator – After Opening
Fresh Sausage, uncooked
1 to 2 days
(included in unopened storage)
Fresh Sausage, after cooking by consumer
3 to 4 days
indefinitely in refrigerator; 6 weeks in pantry
3 weeks in refrigerator, or until it turns rancid
Hot Dogs and other Cooked Sausage
Summer Sausage (Semi-dry)
Freeze if you can’t use within times recommended above for refrigerator storage. Once frozen it doesn’t matter if the date expires because foods kept frozen continuously are safe indefinitely. However, for best quality use within 1-2 months.
Et emülsiyonları gıda sektöründe en yeni sahalardan biridir. Her ne kadar sosis ve salam üretimindeki kayıtlar M.Ö. 500 yıllarına kadar uzanıyorsa da, et emülsiyonları alanındaki araştırma ve yayınların hemen hemen tamamı 1960’lı yıllardan sonradır. Emülsiyonlar üzerinde çalışmalara geç başlanmış olmasına rağmen et emülsiyonları son yıllarda üzerinde en çok durulan ve araştırma yapılan konuların başında gelmektedir (Gökalp ve ark. 1990).Yurdumuzda genel olarak şekil ve büyüklük bakımından sosis ve salam diye iki sınıfa ayırarak işlenen bu ürünleri, genel sosis ve uygulanan teknolojik işlemler yönünden tek bir genel isim altında toplayarak incelemek mümkündür. Bunlar, temelde emülsiyon teknolojisi uygulanarak üretilmiş et ürünleridir. Dünya gıda teknolojisi ve sanayiinde genel olarak “Sausage” (sosis) olarak adlandırılır (Gökalp ve ark. 1999).
Tarihte ilk sosis imali etlerin doğranması, kurutulması ve kuru kabuklu yemişlerle karıştırıldıktan sonra prese edilerek kek şekline sokulması gibi basit bir metoda dayanmakta idi. Roma İmparatorluğunun yükselme yıllarına tesadüf eden tarihlerde ve özellikle Akdeniz ülkelerinde bugünkü bildiğimiz tipte sosis üretimine başlanmıştır ( Göğüş, 1986). Bugün dünyada, genellikle 250 kadar değişik tip, şekil ve yapıda sosis üretilmektedir. Ancak, genel olarak ufak reçete ve yapım farklılıkları ile birlikte, üretilen sosis çeşidi birkaç bini bulabilmektedir (Gökalp ve ark. 1999).
Sosis (sausage) kelimesi; Latince’de tuzlanmış ve sonra muhafaza edilmiş anlamına gelen “salsus” kelimesinden gelmektedir. Salsus kelimesi o zamanlarda; et, kan ve et kırpıntılarının çeşitli katkı maddeleriyle karıştırılıp, hayvan midelerine doldurulması ile elde edilen ürünler anlamında kullanılmaktaydı. Sosise ait ilk kayıtlara, M.Ö. 9. yüzyılda yazılmış olan Homer in “Odyssey” eserinde rastlanılmaktadır. M.Ö. 500 yıllarında yazılmış olan Yunan oyunu “The Orya” adlı eserde sausage ve salami kelimelerine rastlanmaktadır. Şimdi “salam” diye kullandığımız bu kelimelerin, Kıbrıs’ın doğu kıyısındaki “Salamis” isimli kasabadan köken aldığı ihtimali üzerinde durulmaktadır. Salami, buradan İtalya, Fransa, Macaristan, Almanya, Danimarka ve İspanya’ya yayılmıştır. Bugün bu ülkelerde çok değişik görünüm ve formülasyonda sosis ve salam üretilmektedir (Gökalp ve ark. 1999).
Genel olarak sosis; sığır, domuz, manda ve koyun etleri ve yan ürünlerinden, emülsiyon teknolojisi uygulanarak hazırlanmış ve içerisine çeşitli katkı maddeleri ilave edilmiş, doğal veya yapay kılıflara doldurularak üretilmiş ürünlerdir. Sosis; genelde et ve yan ürünlerden hazırlanmakla birlikte, bazen özellikle Japonya, Çin, Hindistan ve diğer Uzak Doğu ülkelerinde çeşitli balıklardan ve vejeteryanların ihtiyaçlarını karşılamak üzere yalnız sebze, un ve nişastalarından da üretilebilmektedir. Ancak, sosis kelimesi, temelde kırmızı et, yağ ve çeşitli katkı maddeleri ile hazırlanan ürünler için kullanılmaktadır (Gökalp ve ark. 1999).Emülsiyon tipi ürünlerin üretiminde dikkat edilecek en önemli husus, ürün içerisindeki proteinlerin miktar ve kalitesinin yanında bunların fonksiyonel özellikleri, besleyicilik değeri ve fiyatıdır. Onun için bu ürünlerde et proteinlerine ilaveten bağlayıcı, şirinki azaltıcı, emülsiyon kapasitesini ve stabilitesini arttırıcı, su bağlama ve ürün dilimlenebilirlik gibi özelliklerini ıslah edici ve formülasyonunun fiyatını azaltıcı etkiye sahip bazı bitkisel proteinlerin katkı olarak kullanımı çok önemlidir (Gökalp ve ark. 1990)
Preservation of a meat product by fermentation and drying has been used for hundreds of years. For a long time, the technology of fermentation has been considered an “art”; however, more recently the process has been studied and as a result, products of quality can now be repeatedly produced under controlled conditions.
Dry or semidry fermented sausages are prepared by mixing ground meat with various combinations of spices, flavourings, salt, sugar, additives and bacterial cultures. The mixtures, in bulk or after stuffing, are allowed to ferment at different temperatures for varying periods of time. Following fermentation, the product may be smoked and/or dried under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity.
Chemical acidification may be used to help lowering the pH. Citric acid or glucono delta lactone are commonly used for this purpose. If product is acidified, controls shall be in place and records kept to ensure that pH of 5.3 or lower is achieved by the conclusion of the process.
Fresh sausages cover a variety of items manufactured from tissue of different species. The most popular is fresh pork sausage, which is a minced and seasoned fresh pork product. However, even fresh pork sausages can differ in texture, seasoning, type of casings (or without casings) and meat content. Pork sausages are usually not smoked, but can also be smoked. All fresh sausages must be cooked before eating, even those that have been smoked.
Tissues used for manufacturing fresh sausages should have a low bacterial count (since no heat is used which used to reduce their numbers) and product temperature should be maintained at or below 2 °C (35 °F) during mincing and mixing. The temperature should be lowered to 0 °C (32 °F) during holding and transit. For extended shelf-life, the temperature could be lowered to –18 °C (0 °F, which is frozen) until shipped. Meats utilized for manufacturing include pork trimmings, for example extra lean 95%, special lean 85%, regular pork trimmings and cheek meat. The colour of the trimmings will influence the colour of the sausage. PSE (pale, soft and exudative) pork tissue will not only result in a lighter colour, but will also result in more shrinkage when cooked. DFD (dark, firm and dry) pork tissue will result in darker sausages with a pH more favourable for bacterial growth; however, this tissue has increased water-holding capacity. ‘Dark Cutter’ beef muscles will yield similar results. The percentage of red (darker) as opposed to white (lighter) fibres in a muscle is influenced by the animal’s genetics and the location in the carcass, with the more active muscles (e.g. heart, shank, neck, many muscles in the fore quarter) resulting in darker muscles. Even in the hind leg area, different muscles have different amounts of pigmentation.
Species, age of the animal and exercise will influence colour. Beef and lamb tissues are usually darker than pork, which is usually darker than chicken. As the animal ages, the muscles usually become darker, and as the tissue dries out it darkens. Mechanically deboned tissue contains more red pigment due to the increase in bone marrow and a decrease in connective tissue. The quantity of connective tissue can have an influence on tenderness and chewiness as well as on emulsifying stability in emulsified products. Again, the active shank muscles, cheek muscles and a portion of the fore quarter are higher in these tissues. However, fresh sausage is minced and usually not an emulsion, so tenderness and emulsifying stability is usually not a major problem. Male sex and age can influence boar taint, which can impart an undesirable flavour and odour to sausage products. The older intact boar is the major contributor of this undesirable problem.
Fresh pork sausage in the United States must use pork trimmings that do not exceed an average maximum of 50% trimmable fat. An entire pork carcass will yield approximately 50–70% of sausage tissue, if the whole carcass is utilized.
Seasoning is varied according to the individuals manufacturing the products. Some of the more popular seasoning mixtures can be found in . In most cases, the proper blend must be selected to suit the required taste. If all of the spices listed are used, the sausages will be too spicy for most tastes. There is a wide range of ethnic and regional preferences in seasoning. Areas that are more tropical and/or produce spices (e.g. India) generally prefer more spice intensity. Even in regions of the country that are in close proximity, flavour desirability can vary a great deal (e.g. fresh pork sausage with or without sage). Fresh sausages are not heat treated and they are sold in a raw state. In principle, fresh sausages are not cured. Fresh sausages actually comprise the mixtures of meats, fat and spices stuffed into casings with the intention that the consumer himself cooks them prior to serving. In many countries they are manufactured on request in butcher shops.
The basic raw materials used in fresh sausage manufacture are pork and beef, including their trimmings. Veal is also often processed, especially for higher quality products. Meat and fat are generally coarsely ground. The ratio of lean to fat has a decided bearing on the quality of the product, particularly in controlling the shrinkage that occurs during cooking. The leaner formulae show less shrinkage than formulae with more fat. The addition of a small amount of water or milk (3 to 5 percent) facilitates the stuffing operation. Occasionally, however, dry or sticky meat can cause stuffing and linking problems which can be avoided by the addition of more water. A meat temperature of 2 to 4°C at stuffing and good fluid properties of the meat mass are the best conditions for preparation of fresh sausages for stuffing. If any binder is used at all, its amount should not be more than 1–3 percent of the weight of the meat. A mechanical mixer is highly desirable for larger quantities.
Fresh sausages are normally stuffed in pig or sheep casings. The casings are washed with water prior to being placed upon the stuffing horn. They are filled to maximum capacity. Medium size casings are preferably used for pork sausages, especially if they are stuffed into links. Narrow casings are more suitable for fresh beef sausages. The stuffed casings are divided by linking into shorter units. This is carried out by giving the stuffed casing a twist at regular intervals. The sausage units are of various length depending upon local market demands. After stuffing and linking, fresh sausages should be dried at room temperature for a short time and chilled rapidly. Chilling should be done by hanging sausages in a chiller
Meats must be clean, sound, and wholesome. These products should be inspected when arriving at the facility, and just prior to use, to ensure that they were not contaminated during transit or handling.The specific meats used in a sausage formulation must be correctly identified by type and quantity.
Excessive handling also cuts protein fibers too short. All of these problems could result in product quality defects. The blending process must also obtain a uniform distribution of any non-meat ingredients within the product formulation. For example, flavorings, salts, and other ingredients must be consistently mixed throughout a sausage formulation.
To create the natural casings, the casing processor washes, scrapes, and treats the casings, grades the casings for size and condition, then salts, packages, and ships the casings in brine or propylene glycol (for preservation) to the sausage manufacturer. The stuffed casings are then separated into uniform segments of equal length in a process called linking. These segments form the single sausage portions. The linking process is typically accomplished by twisting the casing.
The addition of a small amount of water or milk (3 to 5 percent) facilitates the stuffing operation
Sausage may be stuffed into casings, linked or not linked or sold as sausage meat (loose or unstuffed).
Natural casings utilized are small and large intestines of the hog and come in sizes of extra narrow (29 mm or less), narrow (28–32 mm), narrow mediums (32–35 mm), English mediums (35–38 mm), wide (38–43 mm), and extra wide (43 mm and up). Sheep casings can also be used and popular sizes are 20–22
mm and 24–26 mm. Animal casings are highly contaminated and fragile when removed from the animal carcass and must be cleaned immediately after slaughter. Cleaning involves mesentery fat removal, passage through a manure stripper, water soaking, passage through a crusher, further water soaking, passage through a mucosa stripper, through a finishing machine and soaking in salt water. Factors that influence the casing quality would include age of the animal, breed, fodder consumed or other factors related to the animal itself (e.g. parasites) or conditions under which they were raised. After cleaning, the casings are sorted, slated, packed in salt and shipped. Before the casings are used they are often soaked in water to remove the excess salt. Reconstituted collagen (corium layer is extracted from animal hides (usually beef) and extruded), fibrous cellulose, polyethylene and cloth casings or bags are also sometimes used.
Pre-rigor sausage production (removal from carcass by hot boning before chilling) is gaining in popularity.
This technique is particularly utilized when whole hog sausages are manufactured, since tenderness is not a major problem when utilizing minced tissue. One major advantage of pre-rigor sausage manufacturing is an extended shelf-life of the sausage as a result of getting the salt to microbiologically fairly clean tissue prior to extensive microbial growth and increased chilling efficiency. Hot boning can also
increase yield and the shelf-life can almost be doubled.
Production and Types of Sausage
In principle, fresh sausage is one of the simplest types of sausage to make, since it is usually neither cured, cooked nor smoked prior to being sold. It is simply minced tissue that is seasoned, mixed and stuffed into a casing or sold in bulk. The typical fresh pork sausage is processed by mincing through a 1 2 in (12.5 mm)plate, mixing, remincing through a 3 16 in (5 mm) plate, stuffing and selling fresh or frozen.
However, some products are cooked (meat precooked before manufacture, fried, or cold or hot smoked and cooked (142 °F/62 °C). The cooking process takes it out of the fresh sausage category. In some cases the casing is peeled or the sausage may be moulded rather than being in a casing. The precooked and peeled sausage is often called ‘brown and serve’ sausage. Other types of fresh sausage are described below.
In this section, you will go over the main steps that are utilized to produce standard sausage products, including Fresh Sausages, Cooked and Smoked Sausages, and Dry Sausages. Fresh Sausages are made from selected cuts of fresh and sometimes frozen meats. Fresh sausages are not allowed to contain curing agents [i.e., sodium or potassium nitrites, nitrates, or salt in sufficient quantities to preserve the product] and are not cooked. Fresh sausages are usually seasoned, and have limited water content. These types of sausages require refrigerated storage, and must be thoroughly cooked before serving.
Fresh sausages are not as widely produced as cooked sausages, and are typically consumed as breakfast meals. Typical fresh sausages include products such as pork sausages, beef sausage, breakfast sausage, Italian sausage, and fresh chorizo sausages. This chart provides some of the FSIS established Standards of Identity for typical fresh sausages. [see 9 CFR 319.140-145] These FSIS standards are presented as guidelines for State and local inspection.
Standards of Identity for Fresh Sausages
Type Fat Content Characteristics
Fresh Pork Sausage
Up to 50% No pork by-products, paprika, binders, or extenders allowed. Water/ice up to 3% permitted. Country Style Pork Sausage Up to 50% All spices and flavorings must be natural.
Whole Hog Sausage
Up to 50% Can use meat parts from entire hog, including muscle by-products like tongue and heart, in proportions consistent with the natural animal. Water/ice up to 3% permitted.
Up to 50% Can contain mechanically-separated product up to 20% of the meat portion, and binders and extenders up to 3.5%. Can contain meat ingredients from multiple species. Water/ice up to 3% permitted. Paprika not permitted.
Fresh Beef Sausage
Up to 30% Can contain mechanically-separated beef product up to 20%. Binders, extenders, and paprika are not permitted. Water/ice up to 3% permitted.
No fat limitation.Usually made from pork but can be made from poultry if properly identified on label. Can contain binders and extenders up to 3.5%. Water/ice up to 3% permitted.
By standard is only pork, special labeling for others Up to 35% Must contain 85% meat/fat. Can contain mechanically-separated pork product up to 20% of the meat portion, approved condiments, and additional food ingredients. Water/ice up to 3% permitted. Paprika is permitted. Must have anise or fennel as spices, which provide product identity.
Of course, establishments may want to produce other types of sausage. Establishments have the flexibility to design their own particular sausage formulas. Many manufacturers are creating gourmet-type fresh sausage products that are acceptable as long as a truthful, descriptive product name and an accurate ingredients statement are included on the label.
The main processes used to produce Fresh Sausages are:
Grinding meat ingredients
Adding non-meat ingredients
In this section we’ll briefly review each stage of the production process for creating most types of fresh sausages.
These steps are also used to create other types of sausages.
Adding Non-Meat Ingredients
The first step in sausage production is grinding the ingredients. The grinding stage reduces the meat ingredients into small, uniformly sized particles. Ground meat is the primary ingredient in a sausage formulation. The characteristics of the meat ingredients used to
create the sausage define the type of sausage – the overall taste, texture, aroma, along with the protein and fat content. A variety of raw meat ingredients are utilized in the sausage production process. Each ingredient contributes a specific property to the final sausage formulation. Meats must be clean, sound, and wholesome. These products should be inspected when arriving at the facility, and just prior to use, to ensure that they were not contaminated during transit or handling. The specific meats used in a sausage formulation must be correctlyidentified by type and quantity. Prior to grinding, the meat is held in cold storage. Although the Food Code requires the meat to be held at 41°F or less, often processors prefer to chill the meat to below 30°F to minimize the potential for fat smearing. The grinder blades must be sharp and matched with the grinding plate to ensure an efficient grind without generating extra heat during the grinding process. Grinding processes will vary according to the manufacturer and the nature of the product. Some sausage products use coarsely ground meats, others use more finely ground meat ingredients. Some manufacturers grind the lean and fat trimmings separately, grinding the lean trimmings to a finer consistency than the fat meats. There are many non-meat ingredients that are essential to the sausage making process. These non-meat ingredients stabilize the mixture, and add specific characteristics and flavors to the final product. Ingredients used in fresh sausage include water, salt, and antioxidants, along with traditional spices, seasonings, and
flavorings. It is important to note that the use of some non-meat ingredients is limited or prohibited. In fresh sausage, for example, water is limited to 3 percent of the total weight, and binders and extenders such as dry milk powder are limited to 3.5 percent of the total weight.
Paprika is a spice that is considered both a flavoring and a coloringagent, because of its strong red color. For this reason, paprika or oleoresin of paprika may not be used in any fresh meat product, except products that it is traditionally expected in, such as Italian sausage and chorizo. The amount of non-meat ingredients, such as spices, is determined by the overall weight of the product mixture. Since the amounts of these ingredients must be carefully controlled, and measuring very small amounts of numerous specific ingredients within a manufacturing environment is often not practical, many manufacturers use a commercially pre-measured and packaged mix of these ingredients.
Manufacturers carefully control the blending of the meat and nonmeat ingredients to create the desired characteristics for a specific sausage formulation. The meat and non-meat ingredients are placed in a mixer and thoroughly blended. The manufacturer must monitor and control the blending process, since excessive mixing can cause the salts in the formulation to break down excessive amounts of protein, or friction created by the blending process can increase the product temperature and cause fats to partially render. Excessive handling also cuts protein fibers too short. All of these problems could result in product quality defects. The blending process must also obtain a uniform distribution of any non-meat ingredients within the product formulation. For example, flavorings, salts, and other ingredients must be consistently mixed throughout a sausage formulation.
The Stuffing Process
After the blending is complete, the blended ingredients may be bulk packaged, or they many be extruded into a casing. This process is called stuffing. Fresh sausages are typically stuffed into natural animal casings. Natural casings used for fresh sausage are derived from the small intestines of sheep. To create the natural casings, the casing processor washes, scrapes, and treats the casings, grades the casings for size and condition, then salts, packages, and ships the casings in brine or propylene glycol (for preservation) to the sausage manufacturer. Fresh sausages may also be stuffed into a small diameter artificial casing, or may be extruded into a short, large diameter plastic casing called a “chub” pack, usually containing 1 to 2 pounds of meat
The stuffing process can be accomplished in a number of ways. Natural casings are typically flushed with water, and the mixture is injected into the casing at a pressure that is sufficient to fill the casing without leaving any air pockets, and without tearing the casing. The stuffing process is also sometimes conducted at lower temperatures (<35-380F) to minimize fat smearing on the casing. Smaller volume or specialty producers may stuff the formulation into the casing by hand or from a screw feed. These small operations may also bypass choppers, mixers, and stuffers, and stuff the output of the grinder directly into the casing. Larger manufacturers may use air or water-piston type automatic stuffers. The stuffed casings are then separated into uniform segments of equal length in a process called linking. These segments form the single sausage portions. The linking process is typically accomplished by twisting the casing.
The fresh sausage product is sometimes packaged for sale to the customer. The product may be wrapped in a gas impermeable plastic, and placed into refrigerated storage or display. The specific packaging will vary according to the needs of the end user, however, the processor must follow hygienic standards when packaging any sausage product to avoid contaminating the product.
Fresh sausages are more perishable than other types of sausages and should be handled with special care. Fresh sausages deteriorate relatively rapidly due to both microbial spoilage and oxidative rancidity. Fresh sausages muust be kept in a refrigerated room at a temperature close to 0° to 4°C. Fresh sausage storage life at refrigerator temperatures above freezing is usually 2 to 4 days. Freezing protects the product successfully against bacterial spoilage but not against oxidative rancidity, assisted by the catalytic activity of the salt.
Exposure of the fresh sausages to temperatures between 20° and 40°C is detrimental to the product which may not be immediately visible. The practice of mild smoking of some kinds of fresh sausage will not give longer protection. The proper circulation of air in a fresh sausage storage room is a subject requiring considerable study for each individual installation. Most processors consider that a moderate circulation of air will satisfactorily extend the shelf life of a product but if the air circulation is too rapid, an excessive shrinkage will occur associated with surface skin formation.
Air humidity in a storage room has much if not more influence than air circulation on surface spoilage, mould, shrinkage, and the appearance of fresh sausages. Air circulation in a sausage storage room must be kept reasonably dry. A humidity of 75 to 80 percent seems high enough with a temperature of 6° to 8°C to prevent excessive loss of moisture and low enough to keep the product for some days and to avoid the formation of mould.
•MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS
•Meat is a good source of easily digestible protein and contains essential amino acids which are vital for growth and maintenance of the body.
• It is also a good source of vitamins and minerals particularly iron.
• Processing, to form sausages, patties, or dried meat, does not have a substantial effect on the nutritive value when compared to normal cooking processes
•Fresh meat should be kept under refrigeration or cool storage and covered to protect it from insects and animals.
•In all meat processing, the aim is twofold: to preserve the meat for a longer storage life, and to change the flavour and texture to increase variety in the diet.
•Salted, smoked, and dried meat
•In salting and curing, the main aim is preservation. This is achieved by high concentrations of salt which inhibit most microorganisms. This can be achieved by either rubbing salt into the meat (salting) or by soaking in salt solution (curing or brining).
•Salting or curing of meat is practiced in some countries to produce products such as salted pork or bacon
•In smoking, the effects of heat from the smoke, and chemicals in the smoke, combine to preserve the meat. Smoke also adds distinctive and attractive flavours and colours to the meat.
•TYPES OF SAUSAGE
•Cooked Fermented Sausage
•Made with fresh meats and then fully cooked.
•Central temperature of sausage rise to 70 C during the cooking process
•Then sudden cooling is applied
•Fresh sausages are not as widely produced as cooked sausages, and are typically consumed as breakfast meals.
•Typical fresh sausages include products such as pork sausages, beef sausage, breakfast sausage, Italian sausage, and fresh chorizo sausages.
•Cooked Fermented Sausage
•Meat dough is filled into cover then at 30-35 C is kept until the pH of meat decrease to 5.2-5.3.
•Then it is kept at 40 C 6-8 hours or 40-45 min. at 65 C and then cooled rapidly.
•Sausages are smoked at 37-43 C and they are kept at 65-68 C during the central temperature of reach to 58 C. Then it is cooled rapidly.
•Production of Turkish Sucuk
What is fermented sausage?
A sausage is fermented if
•-its pH below 5.6 -its color is heat-stable
•-its texture is no longer crumble
•-its aroma is typical
•-lactic acid bacteria predominate
•-Enterobacteriaceae counts are low
àused about 2-7 %, show antibacterial action, it reduce water activity.
àIt imparts a typical salty taste.
for antimicrobial purpose
attained desired color
it has antioxidant action
NOTE:excess amount of them cause Cancerogenic effects
Carbohydrates: glucose,fructose,starches are added
•In fermented prodcts these are serve as energy source for microorganisms
•As a result of fermentation pH decrease
•Decrease in pH prevent growth of microorganisms
•When the pH of the system reach to isoelectric of muscle protins, slicing of sausage becomes easier.
•Increase th pH
•Increase water holding capacity of proteins
•Slicing of product becomes easier.
•Decrease the cooking time for old animal meat.
•Spices: for aroma and flavour
•Drying: Reduce water activity
•Chilling: Lower temperature reduce or prevent microbial growth.Fresh meat normally can stored for 5-7 day at refrigeration Temp.
•Freezing: It will cause to kill some m/o by thermal shock.Ice formation,dehydration or solute concentration can cause to killing. Normally meat freeze at -1,5oC and can be stored for 6-12 month at -18oC.
•Caning: Meat is cooked to sterilize after the sealing in cans at 116oC or higher.
•Cooking: the main reasons of cooking are to make palatable and to make it safer to eat.In this process the centeral point must kept at 70 oC for 2 min.
•Salting/Curing/Smoking: were used to preserve meat and to develop the charecteristic desirable taste and flavour.
•Fermentation: the production of specific flavour and to preserve for long time by using m/o.
1) moisture content
5) nitrite/ nitrate
7) bad flavour
8) microbial load.
•First of all it is important for microbial spoilage.
•It is important for textural properties
•Also it is important in terms of yield.
•It is important due to its antimicrobial effects.
•It gives salty taste.
•It is related with taste of meat products.
•And it gives idea about spoilage.
•It must be in limited amount in meat products
•It is important due to textural properties of meat products.
•Consumers do not prefer a meat product with high amount of fat instead of meat.
•Normally any additional coloring matter is not prefered. Its color must be natural.
•Due to their cancerogenic effect the residual nitrite and nitrate amount must be controlled.
•Its amount must be fixed with limitation in TSE.