a) Define Cream, mention normal minimum percentage of milk fat. list four constituent of fresh cream

b) List four different types of butter, write two properties of each

c) Describe the term ultra high temperature pasteurization.

d) List eight constituent and its approximate concentration which indicate milk quality.

a) Describe the term ‘the vacreation process”

b) Explain with reason the fat losses during butter making.

a) Describe separation of cream by gravity method and centrifugal method.

b) Comment on clean milk production.

c) Give eight merits of homogenized milk.

d) Give eight flavour defects in milk and prevention.

e) List four different types of cream available in market.

f) Define rehydrated milk, give two merits of rehydrated milk

a) Give four characteristics of fermented milk and its products.

b) List additives permitted to be use in butter and the role in it.

c) What is irradiated milk?

d) List eight micro-organisms beneficial to the dairy industry.

e) Mention three steps after filtration in toned milk and write appropriate temperature.

a) Write four types of milk available in market and give two characteristic of each.

b) How can spoilage of milk between reception and storage be reduced.

c) Draw flow diagram of recombined milk.

d) Give four defects in butter and how can prevent these defect in butter.

a) What is the action of milk on metal?

b) Explain in details continuous butter making process.

a) List four microbiological factor related to milk, give example of each.

b) Draw a flow diagram to show manufactured of flavoured milk write the function of each step in four lines.

c) Give four defects in cream, their causes and prevention.

a) Give eight uses of butter.

b) Write two physical and two chemical properties of cream. State its effect on quality of cream.

c) Why HTST method is more useful in milk industry than other method. Give four reason.

d) List which stabilizer is used in flavoured milk. State its two properties.

e) Give four adulterants in butter.

b) Draw a sketch and describe the principle of convection as a mode of heat transfer.

c) Define perfect Black body.

d) Name two heat transfer equipments where latent heat is exchanged.

b) Draw the diagram and describe the concept of optimum thickness of insulation with a neat diagram.

1) Heat loss per unit area.

2) Temperatures at interfaces

b) Water is flowing in a tube of 16 mm diameter at a velocity of 3 m/s. The temperature of tube is 297 K and the water enters at 353 K and leaves at 309 K.

Data: Properties of water 12204

1) Density of water = 984.1 kg/m3

2) Specific heat of water = 4.187 KJ/kg.k

3) Viscosity of water = 485 x 10 -6 Pa.s

4) Thermal conductivity of water = 0.657 W/m.K

Calculate the heat transfer coefficient.

c) Cold fluid is flowing through a double pipe heat exchanger at a rate of 15 m3/hr. It enters at 303 K and is to be heated to 328 K. Hot thermic fluid is available at the rate of 21 m3/hr. & at 383 k.

Data: 1) Specific heat of thermic fluid = 2.72 KJ/kg.K

2) Density of water = 1 gm/cm3

3) Density of thermic fluid = 0.95 gm/cm3

4) Specific heat of water = 4.187 KJ/kg.k

Find out the log mean mean temperature difference for counter current type of flow by the following steps:

i) Outlet temperature of hot fluid

ii) Temperature difference at two ends

iii) LMTD

b) Mention any four characteristics of solutions to be considered before selecting the evaporator?

c) Differentiate evaporation and drying on two points.

d) What is dropwise condensation and filmwise condensation?

e) Mention any four dimensionless groups used in heat transfer and give significance of each group.

b) Write down equation to calculate Nusselt number in laminar flow and explain all the terms.

c) Explain why heat transfer rate is more in dropwise condensation? Give two reasons.

d) Draw a graphical diagram indicating co-current and counter current heat exchange and give expression for LMTD in both the cases.

a) Draw a neat diagram of a plate heat exchanger and show the types of flow in it. Give only one advantage of this type of heat exchanger.

b) What are surface extended heat exchangers? What is their specific application in chemical industry?

b) Water is to be heated from 298 K to 313 K at a rate of 30 kg/s. Hot water is available at 353 K at the rate of 24 kg/s for heating in a counter-current heat exchanger. Calculate the required heat transfer area if overall heat transfer coefficient is 1220 W/ m2K.

c) An evaporator at atmospheric pressure is fed at the rate of 10,000 kg/hr of 4% concentration of caustic soda. Thick liquor leaving evaporator contains 20% caustic soda. Find:

i) Capacity of evaporator.

ii) If 9000 kg of steam is fed. What will be the economy of an evaporator.

a) Differentiate between Natural convection and Forced convection on the following points. i) rate of heat transfer ii) how the currents are generated?

b) What is Dittus-Boelter equation? Write it down and give it’s use in heat transfer.

c) State and explain Stefan Boltzmann law of radiation.

d) Explain the terms absoptivity, reflectivity.

e) How economy of an evaporator can be increased? Name methods and explain any one of them?