Etiket Arşivleri: PALM OIL

Palm Yağı ve Sağlık ( Sedanur MACİT )

Palm Yağı ve Sağlık (Palm Oil and Health)
Sedanur MACİT, Nevin ŞANLIER

Palm yağı, palmiye ağacının meyvesinden elde edilen, bitkisel yağ olmasına rağmen yüksek miktarda (% 50) doymuş yağ içeren, oda ısısında yarı katı olan bir yağdır. Gıda sanayinde diğer yağlara göre ucuz olması sebebiyle sıklıkla kullanılmaktadır. Sektörde bisküvi, kek, çikolata gibi hazır gıda ve margarin yapımında tercih edilmektedir. Artan talep karşısında, palm yağının üretim alanları da giderek artmaktadır. Malezya ve Endonezya palm yağının ana üreticileri ve ithalatçılarıdır. Palm yağı tokoferol ve karotenler vb. antioksidanları fazlaca içermesi nedeniyle kalp-damar hastalıkları, diyabet, kanser vb. hastalıklardan koruyucu özelliğe sahip olmakla birlikte doymuş yağ içeriğinin yüksek olması nedeniyle hastalık gelişimi açısından risk faktörüdür. Doymuş yağlar, kolesterol seviyelerinde artışa neden olarak kardiyovasküler hastalık gelişimini hızlandırmaktadır. Bu nedenle palm yağının sağlığa olan etkileri tartışmalıdır. Palm yağının gıda sanayinde yaygın kullanımı, son yıllarda palm yağına olan ilgiyi arttırmış ve palm yağıyla ilgili pek çok çalışma yapılmıştır. Bu çalışmada palm yağı, palm yağının bileşimi, üretim süreci, Dünya ve Türkiye’deki durumu ele alınmaktadır. Palm yağıyla
ilgili çalışmaların derlenerek, palm yağının sağlığa olan etkilerinin ortaya konması amaçlanmaktadır.

Palm oil is an oil which is obtained from palm tree’s fruit,although being vegetable oil, contains high saturated fat (% 50) and semi-solid in the room temperature. Because of being cheaper than other oils, it’s commonly used in the food industry. In the sector, it is prefered to make prepared foods like biscuit, cake and margarine, Increasing demand, palm oils production areas increasingly growing. Malesia and Indonesia are the main producers and exporters of palm oil. The reason palm oil contains much antioxidants like
tocoferols and carotens, it has the protective feature from disease like cancer, diabetes, cardiovaskuler at the same time the reason it contains high saturated fat, it is a risk factor for disease progress. Saturated fats accelarate the cardiyovasculer disease by increasing the cholesterol levels. Therefore palm oils effects on health are controversial. In last years, palm oils common use in food industry increase the interest to palm oil and various studies
have been done about palm oil. In this study, palm oil, palm oil’s ceontent, productin process, situation in World and Turkey. It’s aimed to present palm oil’s effects on health by compilng the studies about palm oil.


Palm Oil Industry in Malaysia

Origin of Palm Oil

Global Palm Oil Industry

Palm Oil Value Chain & Applications

Palm Oil Benefits

Oil Palm Cultivation Area

Palm Oil Industry Against Economic Cycles

Palm Oil Production & Midterm Prospects

Economic Importance To Malaysia

History Of The Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

Oil Palm Introduction and Commercialisation

The oil palm tree was first introduced to Malaya by the British as an ornamental plant in 1875 but it was only commercially planted in Tennamaran Estate, Selangor 1917 by Henri Fauconnier.

Crop Diversification Efforts

Despite threats of the Emergency during the 1960s, the oil palm expansion in Malaysia was rapid as its economic potential was recognised by the Malaysian Government as a complementary crop to rubber in the poverty eradication programme. The Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) first introduced the oil palm in 1961 on an initial size of 375 ha to help the landless farmers. Due to the fall in rubber and tin prices, estate planting of oil palm tended to be on old rubber estate land when the prospects of high yields and profitability of palm oil were recognised. In 1966, Malaysia overtook Nigeria as the world’s leading exporter of palm oil. Compared to Malaysia, the Indonesia government only started to directly invest in state owned plantations in 1968.

Export Diversification

Realising from historical experience with rubber and tin that dependence on narrow product lines can bring price downswings, the Malaysian government embraced diversification as a way to sustain production and exports.

Acting against the advice of international agencies, the Malaysian government began in the late 1970s to encourage a shift from CPO exports to refined products through taxation and incentive policies. The 1980s saw the “Malaysianisation” of 3 major plantation companies previously run by the British i.e. Sime Darby, Guthrie and Harrison & Crossfield (later Golden Hope Plantations) 1980 also saw the founding of the Kuala Lumpur Commodity Exchange (KLCE), a key instrument for price setting, hedging and dissemination of market information to reduce market risk in the trading of palm oil.

Vegetable Ghee

Vegetable Ghee

Vegetable ghee is mostly vegetable fat in composition with a melting point of 34-40°C
-is widely used in the Indian and Middle East.
-has a homogeneous consistency with no phase seperation
Vegetable ghee is marketed under different conditions due
to wide area in its use


Vegetable Shortening
Imitation Ghee
Artificial Butter


-Vegetable ghee is manufactured from combination of various vegetable oils
-Palm Oil (mostly used)
-Palm Kernel Oil
-Sesame Oil
-Sunflower Oil
-Cottonseed Oil
-Soya bean Oil
-Watermelon sead Oil
-Mango Kernel Oil


-Palm oil is also known as palm fruit oil.
-Consumed for more than 5,000 years, its nutritional value, health benefits and value as a natural resource continue to be discovered even today.
-Palm oil is produced from the fruit of the oil palm tree Elaeis guineensis.
-Palm oil is sometimes confused with palm kernel oil, but in fact it is quite different compositionally.
-Palm oil comes from the mesocarp (flesh of the fruit) .
Palm oil contains approximately
Palm oil is 50% saturated fat and 50% unsaturated fat.
-44% palmitic acid
-5% stearic acid
-39% oleic acid (monounsaturates)
-10% linoleic acid (polyunsaturates)
– Myristic acid and lauric acid are negligible.

Manufacturing Process

(Modern Method)

Deodorisated oil (200-260°C 1-8mm Hg)
Homogenize, Add flavour-colour (50-60°C )
Crystallization in A unit of a SSHE (17-28°C )


Packing and Shipment


Undesirable odours and
flavours are removed from oil.
takes a place at low pressure(2-3 mbar) and high temperatures(200-260)
Vacuum is used to prevent atmospheric oxidation and formation of free fatty acids through hydrolysis from process.


The oil or mixture is heated to 70 °C in a mixing vessel under contionus stirring to ensure a homogenous melt.
The oil is agitated for about 5-10 minutes, so that all solid oil particles are fully

Incorporating Ingredients

These ingredients are optional. Being fat-soluble , they are dispersed in a small volume of fat blend and then mixed into the main body of fat under continuous stirring.

Crystallization in Vegetable Ghee

Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger (SSHE)
GS Nexus
GS Perfector

GS Kombinator

Technology of Crystallization

The oil in the crystalliser is cooled in a controlled manner by cooling water circulated in the coils.
A temperature between 17 °C -28 °C and 300-700 rpm pump speed are maintained. The mixture crystallizes quickly with an increase in its viscosity.
Cooling the crystallised oil to a lower temperature or prolonging the holding time will produce OLEIN with better cold stability.
Filteration of crystallised palm oil is carried out commonly through membrane filter press.
The crystallised palm oil is pumped at a higher flowrate to the filter press.
The Palm OLEIN is separated & flows out from the filter press while the Palm STEARIN accumulates in the filter chambers to form the filter cake.


Vegetable ghees have a solid state at room temperature as opposed to oils. They therefore require hot filling.
Vegetable ghees are most often packaged in metal cans or plastic trays


The packed product is stored at 25-30°C to allow it time to complete its crystallization.