Etiket Arşivleri: neutralization equations

Neutralization Reactions Mixing Acids & Bases

 Acid/Base Neutralization • A salt is any compound that can be derived from the neutralization of an acid and a base. • The word “neutralization” is used because the acid and base properties of H+ and OH- are destroyed or neutralized. • In the reaction, H+ and OH- combine to form HOH or H O (water molecules). 2 • A neutralization reaction is a type of double replacement reaction.

Writing neutralization equations When acids and bases are mixed, a salt forms + ─ + ─ NaOH + HCl ® H O + NaCl 2 base + acid ®water + salt The cation (metal) from the base and the anion acid join to form the salt. The OH from the base and the H from the acid join to form water .

Writing neutralization equations Example: Write the chemical reaction when lithium hydroxide is mixed with carbonic acid. Step 1: write out the reactants + ─ + ─ LiOH + H CO ® 2 3 Step 2: determine products…(make sure the salt is written with correct subscripts! Refer to Oxidation Chart.) +1 ─2 Remember the “criss-cross” H O Li CO method-Ch. 20 2 2 3 LiOH + H CO ® Li CO + H O 2 3 2 3 2

Writing neutralization equations Remember balancing equations… Step 3: balance the equation Ch. 21 (use coefficients only) LiOH + H CO ®Li CO + H O 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 lithium hydroxide + carbonic acid ®lithium carbonate + water

Writing neutralization equations Example: Complete the neutralization reaction… Ca(OH) + H SO ® 2 2 4 Step 1: already completed for you + ─ + ─ Ca(OH) + H SO ® 2 2 4 Step 2: determine products…(make sure the salt is written with correct subscripts! Refer to Oxidation Chart.) +2 ─2 Charge of cation equals the H O + Ca SO charge of the anion…no 2 4 need to add subscripts.

Writing neutralization equations Remember balancing equations… Step 3: balance the equation Ch. 21 (use coefficients only) Ca(OH) + H SO ® H O + CaSO 2 2 4 2 2 4 calcium hydroxide + sulfuric acid ®calcium sulfate + water

Writing neutralization equations Example: Complete the neutralization reaction… iron(II) hydroxide + phosphoric acid Step 1: write out the reactants …(make sure the acid and base are written with correct subscripts! Oxidation Chart.) +2 ─1 +1 ─3 Think “criss-cross” Method. Fe OH + H PO ® ( )2 3 4 Fe(OH) + H PO ® 2 3 4

Writing neutralization equations Step 2: determine products…(Is the salt written with correct subscripts? Oxidation Chart.) + ─ + ─ Fe(OH) + H PO ® 2 3 4 +2 ─3 H O + Fe PO 2 4 H O + Fe (PO ) 2 3 4 2 Step 3: balance the equation Remember balancing equations… Ch. 21 (use coefficients only) Fe(OH) + H PO ® H O + Fe (PO ) 3 2 6 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 iron II hydroxide + phosphoric acid ®iron II phosphate + water

Practice Write balanced chemical equations for these neutralization reactions. 1) Ba(OH)2 + HCl 2) calcium hydroxide + nitric acid 3) Al(OH) + H SO 3 2 4 4) KOH + HClO2

a) Ba(OH) + 2HCl ®BaCl + 2H O 2 2 2 barium hydroxide + hydrochloric acid ®barium chloride b) Ca(OH) + 2HNO ®Ca(NO ) + 2H O 2 3 3 2 2 calcium hydroxide + nitric acid ®calcium nitrate c) 2Al(OH) + 3H SO ®Al (SO ) + 6H O 3 2 4 2 4 3 2 aluminum hydroxide + sulfuric acid ®aluminum sulfate d) KOH + HClO ®KClO + H O 2 2 2 potassium hydroxide + chlorous acid ®potassium chlorite

Source

Mixing Acids and Bases

Is Dilution the Solution?

Some industries produce acidic wastes.  Do acids become harmless as they are diluted?

How much H2O is needed to neutralize an acid?

Let’s see what happens to 50 mL of 1 M HCl …

Mixing HCl with NaOH (demonstration)

Writing neutralization equations

Assignment