Etiket Arşivleri: Maize

Maize ( Sakil Ahmed )

MAIZE

Maize (Zea mays subsp.), known in some English-speaking countries as corn, is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain the grain, which are seeds called kernels. Maize kernels are often used in cooking as a starch.

1. Structure and physiology

The maize plant is often 2.5 m (meters) (8 ft) in height, though some natural strains can grow 12 m (40 ft).The stem has the appearance of a bamboo cane and is commonly composed of 20 internodes of 18 cm (7 in) length. A leaf grows from each node, which is generally 9 cm (3.5 in) in width and 120 cm (4 ft) in length. Ears develop above a few of the leaves in the midsection of the plant, between the stem and leaf sheath, elongating by citation needed 3 mm/day, to a length of 18 cm (7 in) (60 cm/24 in being the maximum observed in the subspecies). They are female inflorescences, tightly enveloped by several layers of ear leaves commonly called husks. Certain varieties of maize have been bred to produce many additional developed ears. These are the source of the “baby corn” used as a vegetable in Asian cuisine. The apex of the stem ends in the tassel, an inflorescence of male flowers. When the tassel is mature and conditions are suitably warm and dry, anthers on the tassel dehisce and release pollen. Maize pollen is anemophilous (dispersed by wind), and because of its large settling velocity, most pollen falls within a few meters of the tassel.

2. Varieties

Many forms of maize are used for food, sometimes classified as various subspecies related to the amount of starch each had:

– Flour corn — Zea mays var. amylacea

– Popcorn — Zea mays var. everta

– Dent corn — Zea mays var. indentata

– Flint corn — Zea mays var. indurata

– Sweet corn — Zea mays var. saccharata and Zea mays var. rugosa

– Waxy corn — Zea mays var. ceratina

– Amylomaize — Zea mays

– Pod corn — Zea mays var. tunicata Larranaga ex A. St. Hil.

– Striped maize — Zea mays var. japonica

3. Climate, soils and production areas

3.1 Temperature requirements

The optimum temperature for maize growth and development is 18 to 32 °C, with temperatures of 35 °C and above considered inhibitory. The optimum soil temperatures for germination and early seedling growth are 12 °C or greater, and at tassel ling 21 to 30 °C is ideal. Low temperature is rarely a limiting factor for crop production.

3.2 Rainfall requirements

Maize can grow and yield with as little as 300 mm rainfall (40% to 60% yield decline compared to optimal conditions), but prefers 500 to 1200 mm as the optimal range. Depending on soil type and stored soil moisture, crop failure would be expected if less than 300 mm of rain were received in crop. However, through practicing reduced tillage, maintaining ground cover or applying crop residues such as rice straw, the impact of drought can be greatly reduced by lowering soil temperature and surface evaporation. In one upland experiment maize yield was increased by 61% by simply adding crop residues to the soil (known as mulching).

3.3 Photoperiod

Maize is grown globally from 50°N to 40°S, and from sea level up to 4000 m altitude. Maize is a short-day plant with 12.5 hours/day being suggested as the critical photoperiod. Photoperiods greater than this may increase the total number of leaves produced prior to initiation of tassel ling, and may increase the time taken from emergence to tassel initiation (Birch 1997). Day length
increases from January to June and becomes shorter from July until December. Therefore, the same variety of maize planted between mid-May and early August may be slightly slower than if planted outside this period, when day length is less than 12.5 hours per day .


Maize Production Technologies in India

›Maize Production Technologies in India

›Maize:

›Zea mays (Maize) is one of the emerging crops under agro-climatic conditions.

›Called as Queen of Cereals

›Maize is the third most important crops after wheat and rice

›Used for various purpose includes grain, fodder, sweet corn, baby corn, pop corn in peri-urban areas.

›Nutrient Management:

›Maize is hybrid and general crop responsive to nutrients through organic or inorganic sources.

›Crop Stages :

›Basal at sowing-20% Nitrogen rate

›V4 four leaf stage-25 % Nitrogen rate

›V8 eight leaf stage-30 % Nitrogen rate

›VT tasseling stage-20 % Nitrogen rate

›GF grain filling stage-5% Nitrogen rate

›Soil:

›The Indian environment is suitable for growing maize.

› India is one of the largest producers of maize in the world. Balamurugan Traders is one of the upcoming maize export from India.

›Soil with excellent organic and natural make a difference content getting excessive mineral water having potential with neutral

›pH are viewed as perfect for greater efficiency.

›Time of Sowing:

›Maize may be expanded in all of the seasons.

Time of Sowing

›Kharif  Season – Last week of June

›Rabi Season –  Last Week of October

›Spring Season – First week of February

›Sowing methods for achieving more yield:

›Raised Bed Planting

›Zero-till planting

›Furrow planting

›Conventional till flat planting

›Transplanting

›Maize-Inter Cropping

›Maize + Gladiolus

›Maize + Cauliflower

›Maize+ Pea

›Maize+ Carrot

›Maize + Cotton

›Maize  + Pigeon pea

›Given by

Info Developed by,

http://www.balamurugantraders.com


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The Cereals An Overview

THE CEREALS: an overview

Grasses: members of the Grass family
Critically important food sources for humans and animals
Cereals are basic foods for humankind.
wheat, rye, oats, barley, rice, maize, sorghum and millet
Cereal crops are energy dense, containing 10,000 -15 000 kJ/kg, about x10-20 times > than most fruits and vegetables
important sources of dietary protein, carbohydrates, the B complex of vitamins, vitamin E, iron, trace minerals, and fibre
Important for development of early civilisations (agriculture)

OVERVIEW OF CEREALS

Cereals not grown in deserts (dry and arctic) and mountain regions
Grain Characteristics
CEREALS: WHEAT & RICE PRODUCTION BY REGION
OVERVIEW OF CEREALS: STRUCTURE
WHEAT
RICE (Oryza Sativa)
RICE: a major crop in Asia
RICE: STRUCTURE
MAIZE: (Zea Mays) (Corn)
MAIZE
TYPES OF MAIZE
OATS: AN IMPORTANT EUROPEAN CROP
OATS: DISTRIBUTION & USES
OATS: DISTRIBUTION & USES
RYE: INTRODUCTION
RYE: WORLD DISTRIBUTION
RYE: PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION
RYE: ERGOT
SORGHUM: A SEMI-ARID CROP
SORGHUM DISTRIBUTION
SORGHUM: (Sorghum Bicolor)
MILLETS