2.1. Türkiye’de Kefir
3. KEFİRİN TANIMI
3.1. Kefir Danesi
3.1.1. Kefir Danesinin Yapısı ve Mikroflorası
4.KEFİRİN BESLENME DEĞERİ ve SAĞLIKLA İLİŞKİSİ
4.1. Kefirin Sağlık Açısından Yararları
4.2. Kefir Doğal Sağlık İksiridir
4.3. Kefir Sindirim Sisteminde Tam Beslenme Sağlamaktadır
4.5. Kefir Doğal Enerji Kaynağıdır
4.6. Kefir Doğal Antibiyotiktir
4.7. Kefir Doğal Gençlik İksiridir
5.1. A Vitamini
5.2. D Vitamini
5.3. E Vitamini
5.4. B Vitaminleri
5.5. K Vitamini
5.6. PP Vitamini
6. TIP DÜNYASINDA KEFİR ve PROBİYOTİKLER
7. KEFİRİN YAPILIŞI
7.1. Geleneksel Kefir Üretimi
7.2. Endüstriyel Kefir Üretimi
8. KEFİRİN ÜRETİMİNDEKİ DEĞİŞMELER
8.1. Laktozda Değişimler
8.2. Proteinlerdeki Değişimler
8.3. Süt Yağındaki Değişmeler
9. KEFİRİN ÖZELLİKLERİ
9.1. Kefirin Duyusal Özellikleri
9.2. Kefirin Kimyasal Özellikleri
10. MEYVELİ KEFİR ÜRETİMİ
10.1. Çilekli Kefir
10.1.1. Çileğin Yararları
10.2. Muzlu Kefir
10.2.1. Muzun Yararları
10.3.Karışık Meyveli Kefir
10.3.1. Elmanın Yararları
10.3.3. Şeftalinin Yararları
10.4. Orman Meyveli Kefir
10.4.1. Böğürtlenin Yararları
10.4.2. Ahududunun Yararları
11. KEFİRİN AMBALAJLANMASI
Kuzey Kafkasya da uzun yaşamın sırrı olarak belirtilen ve günümüzde ülkemizde ve birçok ülkede büyük ilgi gören ve sağlık kaynağı kabul edilen kefir; evlerde yapılan kefirin hijyen ve sağlık açısından risk oluşturmasına karşılık starter kültür kullanılarak üretilen kefirin endüstriyel üretiminin desteklenmesiyle de daha hijyenik koşullarda üretim yapılmış ve sağlıklı biçimde tüketiciye
ulaşmıştır. Ayrıca endüstriyel üretimin desteklenmesiyle meyveli kefir lıght kefir gibi çeşitleri de üretilmiştir. Endüstriyel olarak üretilen meyveli kefirin vitamin ve mineral içeriği ile enerji düzeyi artmıştır ve ürünün sağlık üzerine olumlu etkileri ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Özellikle üretilen meyveli kefirlerin mikrobiyal yapısı ve her bir mikroorganizmaya ait özelliklerin açıklanması ile ürünün probiotik özelliği belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca meyveli kefirin başta çocuklar olmak üzere daha fazla severek
ve istenerek tüketildiği belirlenmiştir.
Çizelge 5.1. Kefirdeki Enerji ve Besin Değerleri
Çizelge 9.1. Çeşitli Kefirlerin Özellikleri
Çizelge 9.2. Kefirin Kimyasal Özellikleri
Çizelge 10.1. Çilekli Kefirin Enerji ve Besin Öğeleri
Şekil 7.1. Geleneksel Kefir Üretimi Akım Şeması
Şekil 7.2. Endüstriyel Kefir Üretim Akım Şeması
Şekil 10.1. Meyveli Kefir Üretimi Akış Şeması
FE471 FOOD FERMENTATION LABORATORY
GROUP = B – 5
M. ALİ KARADAĞ
FE 471 Food Fermentation Laboratory
The purpose of this experiment was to recognize the kefir culture and to determine the effect of inoculation rate and fermentation time on the kefir production.
Kefir is a remarkable culture of about thirty beneficial microbes that is known to have been around for at least a thousand years. They live together in a special structure they create it looks a little bit like like soft bits of cauliflower. They multiply at room temperature between 18 – 30° C (65- 86° F) as they turn milk into kefir. Drinking the cultured milk, called kefir, replenishes the intestinal flora as there are always small ‘grains’ of the kefir microbes passing over to the kefir solution. An improved intestinal flora will alleviate a lot of common ailments. Some scientific tests have shown that kefir can help to reduce cancer and eliminate Candida. I do want to emphasize here that the fermentation of milk by the kefir culture creates a lot of enzymes, which are very important to our health.
Kefir is a mysterious culture. The colony of microbes forms themselves a matrix that is so unique it has its own name. With other cultures, like yoghurt, one can always create a new culture by for example exposing milk to the air (the bacteria in the air enter the milk). But kefir is different. Scientists have never succeeded in recreating a new culture. The microbes never come together to form that unique matrix. Kefir can only be multiplied by dividing the existing culture. People have been dividing it for about a thousand years.
a jar with lid
100 ml pasteurized milk was taken and put in the jar then amount of kefir culture was taken and added to milk at room temperature milk and kefir culture were incubated for 24 hours. After 24 hours kefir separated from milk and washed the kefir culture and then sample was tested according to our sensory properties.
Result and Calculation:
Before incubation; pH = 6, 94 and used amount (ml) of NaOH = 1, 9 ml
After incubation; pH = 4, 93 and used amount (ml) of NaOH = 4, 3 ml
a1*M1*V1 = a2*M2*V2 à 1*0, 1 M*1,9ml = 1*M2*5ml à M2 = 0, 038 M
M2 = n/V à 0, 038 = n / 100*10-3 L à n = 0, 0038
n = m/Mw à 0, 003 = m / 90 g/mol à m = 0, 342 g lactic acid
M1*V1 = M2*V2 à 0, 1 M*4,3ml = M2*5ml à M2 = 0, 086
M2 = n/V à 0, 086 = n / 100*10-3 L à n = 0, 0086
n = m/Mw à 0, 0086 = m / 90 g/mol à m = 0, 774 g lactic acid
Our kefir sample is that;
by the direction of odour = 3
by the direction of flavour = 6
by the direction of bitter test = 1
by the direction of milk taste = 4
by the direction of sour taste = 2
by the direction of acceptability = 6 were evaluated.
In this experiment we studied the kefir culture and kefir production. Kefir is a Russian drink and this drink is consumed at high ratio in Russian.
Kefir includes between 0, 6 – 0, 9 % lactic acid and 0, 2 – 0, 8 % alcohol. Because of carbon dioxide content it has creamy and foamy. For kefir there are different cultures. These are Saccharomyces cerevisae, Saccharomyces propilis, L. brevis etc. after incubation kefir and milk were separated with plastic sieve from each other.
Before incubation pH of kefir and milk mixture was measured as 6, 94 and amount of lactic acid was calculated as 0, 342 g. after incubation pH of kefir was measured as 4, 93 and amount of lactic acid was calculated as 0, 774 g.
According to our result values our kefir sample had acceptable values. By the direction of odour, flavour, bitter taste, milk taste, and sour taste our kefir sample was appropriate to original kefir culture approximately.
The Benefits of Fermented Foods
Our digestive system is composed of a network of beneficial bacteria that are responsible for assisting our digestive system to digest food, absorb nutrients, battle harmful bacteria, and eliminate toxins. When these bacteria are killed off due to food additives, antibiotic drugs, processed foods, our gut health is affected. Eating the right kind of fermented foods and avoiding foods that feed unhealthy bacteria can help nourish our healthy gut bacteria and balance the ratio of beneficial-to-bad bacteria, which will eventually reflect on our overall health and well being.
To achieve the proper ratio of beneficial-to-bad bacteria you need to increase the raw fruits and vegetables, cultured and properly fermented foods, limit sugary foods and anything that your body converts to sugar quickly like refined grains and processed foods. So eat more organic foods, especially greens and all vegetables, fiber-rich foods which cleanse the body like flax, chia and psyllium, and eat a variety of anti-fungal foods like coconut, turmeric, ginger, garlic, onion, oregano, cruciferous vegetables, cloves, cinnamon, coriander and olive oil.
WHAT ARE FERMENTED FOODS
Fermented foods contain healthy live bacteria known as probiotics and are foods that have gone through a process during which this bacteria converts the starches and sugars in that food into lactic acid and acetic acid. Fermented foods have high nutritional values (vitamin- K2, trace minerals, B-vitamins and probiotics), are easy to prepare and are economical.
Fermentation is an old food preservation method and was used by the Romans who consumed sauerkraut, Ancient Indians who enjoyed “ Lassi” a pre-dinner yogurt drink, Bulgarians who are known for their high consumption of fermented milk and Kefir, Turks who are famous for their Ariana drink alongside their meals, Asians who pickle cabbage, turnips, eggplant, cucumbers, onions, squash, and carrots and Middle Easterners who use yoghurt to accompany almost every meal.
BENEFITS OF FERMENTED FOODS
1. Optimize your immune and defense system against disease. The
skin and the lining of our intestinal system is the first line of defense against the outside world. Housed in the lining of our gut are intraepithelial lymphocytes, key players in our immune system that are activated by compounds in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage. Maintaining the optimal conditions in our gut is crucial for our health. Prebiotics, such as fiber rich fruits and vegetables not only are covered in lactic acid bacteria (the good bacteria) but also provide the fiber on which the good bacteria thrive. Live good bacteria also known as probiotics also play a crucial role in the development and operation of the immune system in our digestive tract, aiding in the production of antibodies to pathogens. The key is to balance our ratio of beneficial-to-bad bacteria in the microflora or inner ecosystem of the gut. So if we take an antibiotic, we need to replenish the good bacteria in our gut as quickly as possible as antibiotics are indiscriminate killers that kill not only the pathogens but also 300-1000 different species of essential bacteria which is the foundation of your immune system.
2. Improve your mood and behavior. Our gut is now known as our second brain due to the size, complexity and similarity in terms of neurotransmitters with our brain. In fact, “good bacteria” can stimulate cells in the lining of our intestine to produce the feel good neurotransmitter serotonin.
3. Help control diabetes. There is evidence that certain intestinal bacteria may actually produce compounds that increase estrogen, which in turn has been linked to increased risk for diabetes. Eating a diet high in fiber, low in sugar, allows our beneficial gut bacteria to flourish and flushes out the “unhelpful” bacteria.
4. Fight obesity. Studies have found that certain bacteria may help our bodies retain calories and others may help us shed calories. Restoring our gut flora is crucial when you’re struggling to lose weight.
5. Detoxification. The beneficial bacteria in fermented foods are detoxifiers, capable of drawing out a wide range of toxins and heavy metals from the body.
MOST POPULAR FERMENTED FOODS
Made from fermented cabbage rich in B vitamins and probiotics.
Similar to sauerkraut but spicier and known as Korean kraut. It may contain peppers and other vegetables. Rich in antioxidants.
Made with cucumbers and spices. The best brands will just include organic cucumbers, salt (preferably sea salt) and water. Several brands also include herbs and spices like dill or even garlic and onion Rich in probiotics and minerals like silica.
4. Milk Yogurt, Ariana, Kefir
These cultured foods that are made with milk can regulate your digestive tract. Unlike fermented foods milk is mixed with certain types of live cultures like acidophilus and are kept in a stabilized environment to ensure the right cultures develop. Different types of milk can be used with the best being goat or sheep milk.
5. Coconut Yoghurt, Coconut Kefir
Is a great option if you’re a dairy-free eater. Choose homemade raw coconut yogurt that contains antiviral nutrients like lauric acid and caprylic acid known to fight and kill yeasts and other forms of bad bacteria in the body.
6. And: green bananas, fermented dark chocolate, tempeh, kombucha, seed cheese, tofu, sour cream, wine, beer, brewed ginger ale, cottage cheese, whey, soy sauce, yeasted breads (sourdough),Tabasco Sauce, Worcestershire Sauce, vinegar, “aged” cheeses like parmesan, blue cheese, and feta cheese.
HOW MUCH PROBIOTIC IN KEFIR & YOGURT?
By Probiotics Expert: Dr. Raga
What is probiotics?
Probiotics are microorganisms such as bacteria and yeasts which are believed to be beneficial to the body when consumed in adequate amounts.
According to most researchers, they believe that probiotics are able to aid in the improvement of digestive imbalances. It has been thought by the researchers that when the microflora in the intestines are not balanced in the way that they should be, certain health problems arise such as disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
Probiotics are known to help in restoration of the right amount of beneficial bacteria in the intestines which overall affects improved overall health.
Kefir is a fermented milk product which is believed to have originated from the Caucasus Mountains in Eastern Europe.
Commercial Kefir is produced from a milk product that is heated to remove possibly pathogenic bacteria. Then, a mixture of bacteria and yeasts is added for fermentation. This starter culture is called kefir grains which has a cauliflower like appearance. This is what gives kefir a unique taste and texture. Home grown Kefir only requires grains.
The bacteria used in kefir production is Lactobacillus caucasius which turns the lactose to lactic acid. This results to its tangy taste.
Meanwhile, the yeasts, Saccharomyces kefir and Torula kefir, ferment lactose into a small amount of carbon dioxide and alcohol. This plays a role in its carbonation.
Nutrient source: Kefir contains essential nutrients and minerals that are important for proper functioning of the body such as protein, vitamin D, calcium, and calories
Probiotics: It aids in the maintenance of digestive health and prevents growth of harmful bacteria in the intestines. Also, helps in prevention of digestive disorders.
Eases off lactose intolerance
Weight loss due to its low calorie contents
Possible cancer prevention
Kefir Probiotic Count
Kefir contains some probiotic strains which cannot be found in yogurts. These are Lactobacillus Caucasus, Leuconostoc, Acetobacter species, Streptococcus species, Saccharomyces kefir and Torula kefir.
It has three times the amount of probiotics that are in yogurt. This is because of the fact that in order to ferment a milk with kefir, 10 to 20 different types of probiotic bacteria and yeasts should be mixed.
For example an organic kefir is comprised of about 40 billion probiotic organisms per half cup serving.
Kefir ve diğer probiyotiklerin insan sağlığındaki önemi
Yeterli miktarda yenildiğinde insan ya da hayvan sağlığını olumlu yönde etkileyen mikroorganizmalara probiyotik denir.
Bağırsaktaki bazı mikroorganizmaların çoğalmasını artıran ve/veya aktivitesini uyaran ve insan ya da hayvan sağlığını olumlu yönde etkileyen maddelere (besinsel lifler gibi) prebiyotik denir
Schrezenmeir J, de Vrese M. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics—approaching a definition. Am J Clinical Nutr 2001; 2; 361S-364S
Kitab-ı Mukaddesin Farsça bir versiyonunda Hazreti İbrahimin uzun yaşaması(yüzlerce yıl!) fazla miktarda fermante süt ürünleri (yoğurt, süt, peynir vb) yemesine bağlanmıştır(Genesis, yaradılış, tekvin”18:8)
MÖ 76 yılında Roma tarihçisi Plinius ishal tedavisinde fermante süt ürünlerinin kullanılmasını salık vermiştir.
Bottazzi V. Food and feed production with microorganisms. Biotechnology 1983;5:315–63.
1912 Nobel Tıp Ödülünü kazanan Rus bilim adamı Élie Metchnikoff bilim dünyasında probiyotiklerin kaşifi sayılabilir.
Metchnikoff yoğurt, kefir ve peynir gibi süt ürünlerinde bulunan asit yapan mikroorganizmaların bağırsaktaki hastalık yapan mikroorganizmaları nötralize ettiğini saptamıştır.
Metchnikoff Bulgaristan ve Kafkasya’da yaşayan insanların ederek uzun ömürlü olması probiyotiklerden zengin gıdaların fazla tüketilmesiyle açıklamıştır.
Metchnikoff E. The prolongation of life—optimistic studies. London: Heinemann, 1908
TGK Fermente Süt Ürünleri Tebliği (Tebliğ no: 2009/25)’ne göre;
Kefir: Fermentasyonda spesifik olarak Lactobacillus kefiri, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus ve Acetobacter cinslerinin değişik suşları ile laktozu fermente eden (Kluyveromyces marxianus) ve etmeyen mayaları (Saccharomyces unisporus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ve Saccharomyces exiguus) içeren starter kültürler ya da kefir tanelerinin kullanıldığı fermente süt ürününü ifade eder.
Supervisor: Prof. Dr. SİBEL FADILOĞLU
Asisstant : Res. Asisst. Hasene KESKİN
Mehmet Ali BACANAK
HISTORY OF KEFIR
Kefir was found 5000 years ago by the Turks who continued their nomadic life in Central Asia. When they first domesticated animals, the Turks, who benefited from their milk, carried milk products that they brewed in every area of their lives everywhere. They are constantly using horses, goats and sheep from their side; They produced kefir from horse milk, kumiss, goat or sheep milk.
That is why the Europeans gave the Turks the name “Lactafagus” (milk glutton).
They have been in the interest of researchers with their brain and physical strength, their protein nutrition, their very strong and healthy body structures.
Elie Metchnikoff is a Nobel Prize-winning biologist at the Pasteur Institute, he attributed the long and healthy life of the Caucasus Montains to their consumption of sour milk.
FERMENTATION OF KEFİR
Kefir fermentation is similar to yogurt fermentation.
Yogurt is only fermented by bacteria but kefir fermentation involves the help of bacteria as well as yeasts. These yeast produce some alcohol and carbon dioxide, which gives kefir its typical fizzy aspect.
Kefir is inoculated with special kefir grains. These grains are mixtures of bacteria and yeasts in a matrix of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates.
Kefir fermentation is done at room temperature, which makes the process easier. On the other hand, not everyone likes the taste of kefir.
C6H12O6 –> 2C3H6O3+2ATP Sugar (glucose) → Lactic Acid + Carbon Dioxide +Energy (ATP)or
Pyruvic acid + NADH → Lactic acid + NAD
PRODUCTION OF KEFİR
QUALITY PARAMETERS OF KEFIR
INGREDIENTS OF KEFIR
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF KEFIR
Kefir composition is non-uniform and not well described.The type and volume of milk affect its sensory, chemical and textural properties.
The composition of its grains and cultures and the production process influence its properties.
Kefir typically contains 89–90% moisture, 0.2% lipid, 3.0% protein, 6.0% sugar, 0.7% ash and 1.0% each of lactic acid and alcohol.
Kefir has been reported to contain 1.98 g/L of CO2 and 0.48% alcohol and the content of carbon dioxide (201.7–277.0 ml/L) positively correlated with the concentration (10–100 g/L) of kefir grains
Sütün uygun mikroorganizmalar tarafından fermantasyonu ile PH değerinin koagülasyonuna yol açacak veya açmayacak şekilde düşürülmesi sonucu oluşan ve içermesi gereken mikroorganizmaları yeterli sayıda,canlı ve aktif olarak bulunduran süt ürünlerine ‘fermente süt ürünleri ‘ denir.
Fermente süt ürünleri birçok ülkede değişik isimlerle ve değişik tür sütlerden üretilmekte ve tüketilmektedir.söz konusu ürünler,ilk olarak sütün uzun süre muhafaza edilmesi ve istenilen duyusal özellikler kazandırılması amacıyla ortaya çıkmıştır.sütün stareter kültürler tarafından fermente edilmesi ile ürünün raf ömrünü artıran laktik asit oluşmakta ve ürüne istenilen duyusal özellikler ve yapı kazandırılmaktadır.
Günümüzde Asidofiluslu süt, Ayran, Dadli(Dahi), Mahi, Irkıt, Kadam, Shubat, Koıyrtpak, Ymer, Gioddu, Hangop, Huslanka, Harma, Kefir, Kımız, Buttermilk, Sauerrahm, Omeire, Skuta, Lang Mjölk, Viili, Bifidus sütü, Yazma gibi fermente süt içecekleri, genel anlamda yöresel olarak geleneksel üretim yöntemleri ile yapılmaktadır.
Yoğurda su katılarak veya kurumaddesi ayarlanan süte Streptococcus Thermophilus ve Lactobacillus Bulgaricus’un kültürleri katılarak hazırlanan fermente süt ürünüdür.
Yağ Oranlarına Göre Ayran Çeşitleri