1.- Fruit juices and squash – general information
– JUICE –
Fruit juices are made from pure filtered fruit juice with nothing added. Sodium benzoate can be added as a preservative to extend the shelf life, but this is not essential. Properly pasteurised juice has a shelf life of several months. Most fruits can be used to make juice. The most popular ones are pineapple, orange, mango, grapefruit and passion fruit.
– SQUASH AND CORDIAL-
Squashes and cordials are concentrated, sweetened drinks made from a 30% mix of fruit pulp and sugar syrup. They are diluted before drinking. The sugar concentration must be high enough (12-14%) to preserve the squash after the bottle has been opened.
Some juices, such as guava juice are not filtered after pulping. They are bottled and sold as fruit nectars.
2.- Processing details for fruit-juice production
By: Saime Sever Özlem Sağır Fadime Gözde Serter Şilan Reyhanoğulları Abdulkadir Seyhaneyıldızı Ethem Özen Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Mustafa Bayram
Introduction About Raw Material Process Control Points End Product Properties Alternative Technologies
Pomegranate is grown under tropical and subtropical climate. It is rich in antioxidant, polyphenolic and vitamin C precursor content. And they are thought to have benefits for human body. So there is an increasing trend on consuming pomegranate juice around the world.
There is 500 different type of pomegranate around the world. In Turkey, approximately 98 types of pomegranate are grown. These are commercial types: • Hicaz Type • Caner Type • Wonderful Type • Deve Dişi Type • Esin Type • İzmir çekirdeksiz Type • İzmir 23 Type • Caner Tatlı Type
About Hicaz Pomegranate Hicaz pomegranate is most commonly used in industry It is grown Aegean and Mediterranean regions, in Turkey 90% of total Hicaz pomegranate is exported. High yield, cold-resistant Consumed as Fruit, Juice, Sauce, Syrup, its seeds and Jam
pomegranate washing sorting deshelling pressing pasteurization First evaporation cooling Enzyme addition filtration evaporation cooling Aseptic filling
pomegranate washing sorting Mainly; deshelling sugar content is glucose and fructose pressing mineral is potassium and respectively pasteurization calcium, phosphorus, magnesium pre evaporation acid is citric acid and then malic acid cooling Enzyme addition amino acid is glutamic acid filtration evaporation cooling Aseptic filling
pomegranate washing Immersion washing basin model To prevent the contamination of juice sorting deshelling pressing pasteurization pre evaporation cooling Enzyme addition filtration evaporation cooling Aseptic filling
pomegranate washing sorting deshelling pressing Sorting line model pasteurization pre evaporation cooling Enzyme addition filtration evaporation cooling Aseptic filling
pomegranate Pomegranate is one of the most difficult fruits to process washing Øincorrect technology can contaminate the juice with tannic elements, thus sorting damaging its quality. deshelling ØMEGRA is considered the most appropriate deshelling machine pressing The special construction allows changing the working parameters for an pasteurization optimized operation of the machine. The yield of grains can reach up to 99%, pre evaporation minimizing the presence of fragments of peels and white membranes cooling Enzyme addition filtration evaporation cooling Aseptic filling
pomegranate The squeezing system we supply is a membrane press, which has the washing big advantage of providing a very soft pressing. ( 30-50 bar) sorting deshelling This improves the juice quality pressing substantially as the product has a strongly reduced contamination with pasteurization tannins and seed fragments pre evaporation Approximately 35.2 % pure pomegranate juice cooling Enzyme addition filtration evaporation cooling Aseptic filling
pomegranate washing sorting deshelling High temperature pasteurization(HTP) pressing — 90 °C for 5 sec pasteurization Low temperature pasteurization(LTP) Pre evaporation ― 65 °C for 30 sec Decrease the amount of anthocyanin cooling Hurdle technology is proposed to reduce Enzyme addition the anthocyanin degradation in filtration pasteurization evaporation cooling Aseptic filling
pomegranate washing Increase the concentration slightly sorting deshelling pressing pasteurization pre evaporation cooling Enzyme addition filtration evaporation cooling Aseptic filling
pomegranate washing Refrigeration at 5 °C to prevent growth of m/o for 120 days sorting deshelling To provide the enzyme inactivation. pressing pasteurization pre evaporation cooling Enzyme addition filtration evaporation cooling Aseptic filling
pomegranate Amylase washing — refers to a group of enzyme whose catalytic function is to hydrolase sugar and starch sorting deshelling pressing Pectinase pasteurization — Assist to breaking down of the cell walls pre evaporation — Increases yield of juice — Lowers the viscosity of the juice cooling — Reduces the cloudiness of the juice Enzyme addition *30-50 g Amylase or Pectinase per ton juice filtration evaporation cooling Aseptic filling
The colloidal and mucilaginous pomegranate substances in the pomegranate juice are taken out by vacuum washing rotating filters with Kieselguhr pre-coat. sorting deshelling pressing Additional clarification can be achieved bye plate filter. pasteurization pre evaporation cooling Enzyme addition filtration evaporation cooling Aseptic filling
Flash term-Plate evaporators designed for pomegranate the treatment of clear or low viscosity juices. This concentration group can be washing equipped with a thermo compressor and sorting an aroma recovery group. deshelling pressing pasteurization First evaporation The filtrated pomegranate juice is contcentrated to 55-60 ⁰B by using vacuum evaporator. cooling Enzyme addition filtration evaporation cooling Aseptic filling
pomegranate Pomegranate juice is cooled to 20°C before filling, To prevent m/o growth washing sorting deshelling pressing pasteurization First evaporation cooling Enzyme addition filtration evaporation cooling Aseptic filling
C.A.F. – Compact Aseptic Filler Single-head or double-head compact pomegranate aseptic filler designed with opportune washing accessories for the filling of 3-20 liter bags and 200 liter bags in drums. sorting The machine equipped with 1”filling-head is suitable for filling liquid, dense and deshelling viscous products, and even low acid products. The machine equipped with 2” pressing filling-head is suitable for filling products containing pieces. pasteurization First evaporation cooling FILLING IN CONSUMER BAGS Enzyme addition In cooperation with reliable partners a wide range of filling lines also for filling filtration into bottles, cartons or daypacks. evaporation cooling Aseptic filling
Brix value (14°Brix) Number of formal Titratable acidity Citric acid Malic acid Izositric acid Glucose , fructose, sakkaroz Sorbitol Sodium , magnesium, calcium Phosphor
R: Raw Material C: Crushing (Deshelling) P: Pressing Pa: Pasteurization E: Enzymation F: Filtration S: Storage
Sorbitol Glucose Fructose Saccorose Total Glu/fru ( g/L) (g/L) (g/L) (g/L) Sugar (g/L) (g/L) 0.9 51.7 55.9 107.8 107.8 0.9 Titratable Citric acid Malic acid Isositric # of formal Acidity (g/L) (g/L) acid (ml 0.1N (g/L) (mg/L) NAOH/100ml) 13.8 11.5 0.6 47.1 12.9
Calsium Magnesium Phosphor Sodium potassium (mg/L) (mg/L) ous (mg/l) (mg/L) (mg/L) 2288 52 64 112 66 L a b 2.04 ± 0.69 20.99±3.13 -0.34±0.46 15.39±1.99 0.40±0.30 3.49±1.23
Laboratory Equipment – Ph meter – Refractometer – HPLC – Turbid meter – Atomic Absorption Spectrometer – Color Flex Hunter Lab
BY PRODUCT • Shell v Contain allegic acid which prevent the cancer for bodies. v It has oxidant, anticancerogen and antimutogen effect v It has antibiotic effect for animal body (neutral antibiotic) So it is used as animal feed • Grain v It contains palmitic acid 4.62%, stearic acid 2.77%, oleic acid 6.83%, linoneic acid 5.81%, arashidic acid 1.14%, punicic acid 78.83%. v Also has tennin and anticionin antioxidants prevents the cancer diseases. v This oil uses in cosmetic industry. v Decrease the hypertension v Reduces the stress effect
Microwave heating in juice concentration step Ultrafiltration Stemming or destemming before pressing Hurdle technology may used in pasteurization step. Its propose is to reduce the anthocyanin degradation in pasteurization