Etiket Arşivleri: functional food

Avokado – Post-harvest Operations ( FAO )

Contents

Preface

1 Introduction

1.1. Economic and Social Impact

1.2 World Trade

1.3 Primary Product (fresh)

1.4 Secondary product (processed)

1.5 Elements on quality assurance and export marketing

1.6 Consumer preferences

2 Post- Production Operations

2.1 Harvesting

2.2 Packinghouse operations

2.3. Packing and packaging materials

2.4. Cooling system

2.5. Storage of avocado

2.6. Transportation systems

2.7. Processing

3. Pest control and decay

3.1 Pest species

3.2 Relative status of major pest species

3.3 Pest control

3.4 Others

4. Economic and social considerations

4.1 Overview of costs and losses

4.2 Major problems

4.3 Proposed improvements

5. References

6. Annex

Preface

The importance of post-harvest operations in developing countries relies in the quality control of the fresh fruit that they achieve. Post-harvest operations begin with a selection of the fruit, then a cleaning, packing, proper storing and transporting. All these operations benefit producers because they enable the fruit to reach the market at higher prices, and also create jobs in the packinghouses and orchards for both educated and non-educated labor. The domestic and international consumer benefits with a high-quality fresh fruit, free of diseases and other defects.

Avocado is a fruit with an exquisite taste and aroma, which has been traditionally consumed even before the arrival of Spaniards to the Americas. It is called “aguacate” or “palta” in LatinAmerican countries. Nowadays, as a result of different investigations, it is recognized that besides being a source of energy and vitamins, it also delivers specific non-nutritive physiological benefits that may enhance health. From this point of view, avocado can be considered as a “functional food”, according to the definition of Mazza (1998). Some nutraceutical ingredients that have been found in avocado pulp are antioxidants, such as vitamin E or tocopherols (4.31 UI/100 g) and glutathion (17.7 mg/100g). They both work as antioxidants, neutralizing free radicals that may damage aging cells, the heart, and contribute to the development of some types of cancer, such as mouth and pharynx (O’Toole, 2000, Heber, 2001). It has also been reported that avocado is a source of lutein (248 mg/100g, considered a high content), a carotenoid that helps to protect the eye from diseases such as cataracts. The amount of b-sitosterol in this fruit is similar to the one found in soy and olives. Animal studies have demonstrated that this compound is related to the inhibition of cancerous tumors (Heber, 2001). An other nutraceutical component in avocado is a mix of high quality lipids: w3, w6, and w9 fatty acids. When Carranza et al (1997) made clinical studies in patients with high cholesterol levels, they found that an avocado enriched diet produced a significant reduction in low density lipoproteins (“bad cholesterol”) and total cholesterol, while diets enriched with soy and sunflower did not change the total cholesterol concentrations. Lerman et al in 1994 concluded that in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients it was beneficial to replace carbohydrates for lipids, such as the ones found in avocado. This will favor the reduction of triglycerides in the blood plasma. For all of the above, it can be concluded that the inclusion of avocado in the everyday diet can bring health benefits to the health of human beings, bearing in mind that no food is 100% complete, and a single food will not provide all required nutrients and nutraceuticals (except for breast milk). The diet shall include several food items from all the different groups in
order to deliver a good nutrition.

Source: http://www.fao.org/3/a-au996e.pdf

Gıda Üretimi ve Depolanması Sırasında Probiyotiklerin Canlılıklarını Etkileyen Faktörler ( Ecem AKAN )

Özet

Probiyotik gıdaların vücudun dengesinin ve intestinal floranın doğal yapısının sürdürülmesi, patojenlerin gelişimine karşı direnç gösterme gibi sağlığa pek çok yararı bulunmaktadır. Probiyotik bakterilerin kullanıldığı fonksiyonel gıdalara karşı eğilim tüketicilerin bu gıdaların sağlığa olumlu etkilerinin fark etmeleri sebebiyle giderek artmaktadır. Probiyotiklerin bağırsak mikroflorasını patojenlere karşı koruma, bağışıklık sistemini güçlendirme, serum kolesterol seviyesini ve kan basıncını düşürme, antikarsinojenik etki gösterme, besin maddelerinden faydalanımın ve gıdaların besin değerinin artması gibi çok sayıda sağlığa faydası vardır. Günümüzde probiyotik bakteriler kullanılarak pek çok ürün üretimi gerçekleştirilmektedir. Probiyotiklerin sağlık üzerine olumlu etki gösterebilmesi için ürün tüketimi sırasında yeterli miktarda probiyotik bakterinin gıda ile birlikte vücuda alınması gerekmektedir. Ancak bazen probiyotik bakterilerin kullanıldığı gıdaların tüketimi sırasında vücuda yeterli dozda probiyotik alınamayabilmektedir. Çünkü ürün üretimi ve depolaması sırasında çeşitli faktörler probiyotik bakterilerin hayatta kalmalarını etkilemektedir. Gıdalarda probiyotik varlığı bazen ürün kalitesini ve duyusal özelliklerini olumsuz yönde etkileyebilmektedir. Son yıllarda ürün üretiminden son tüketiciye ulaşana kadar probiyotiklerin canlılıklarının sürdürülmesi için farklı gıdalarda çeşitli uygulamalar yapılmaktadır. Bu uygulamalardan en önemlisi çeşitli koruyucular ilavesiyle üretim ve depolama koşullarının değişimi yoluyla enkapsülasyon tekniği yardımıyla mikroorganizmaların korunmasıdır. Bu makalede probiyotiklerin sağlığa yararlı etkileri, gıdaların üretimi ve depolanmaları sırasında gıdalarda yaşayabilirliklerini etkileyen faktörler, üretim ve depolama sırasında canlılıklarını sürdürmelerine yardımcı olabilecek teknolojik uygulamalar incelenecektir.

Anahtar kelimeler: Depolama, fonksiyonel gıda, probiyotik, teknolojik uygulama, üretim

Factors Effecting Probiotic Viability During Processing and Storage of Food

Abstract

Probiotic foods have several health benefits as they help maintain the human body balance and intestinal flora composition, and resist to pathogenic bacteria growth. The demand of probiotic functional foods is growing rapidly due to increased awareness of consumers about the impact of food on health. Probiotics provide a number of health benefits mainly through maintenance of normal intestinal microflora, protection against gastrointestinal pathogens, enhancement of the immune system, reduction of serum cholesterol level and blood pressure, anti-carcinogenic activity improved utilization of nutrients and improved nutritional value of food. During consumption of food, probiotics can’t be taken to body sufficiently. Because in food production and storage, several factors can effect viability of probiotic microorganism. The presence of probiotics in food products may also adversely affect their quality and sensory properties. Several attempts have been made during the last few years to improve the viability of probiotics in different food products during their production until the time of consumption. The most important implementation is a microencapsulation technique and it enables to protect microorganism via several added preservatives. In this article, it will be examined that the effects of probiotics on human health, factors responsible for survival of probiotic microorganisms, and recent technological advances in maintaining their viability during processing and storage.

Keywords: functional food, probiotic, processing, storage, technologic practice


Geleneksel ve Fonksiyonel Ürün Olarak Maraş Tarhanası ( Nihal ŞİMŞEKLİ )

Geleneksel ve Fonksiyonel Ürün Olarak Maraş Tarhanası

Nihal ŞİMŞEKLİ1 , İsmail Sait DOĞAN2

ÖZET: Maraş tarhanası yüksek besin değerine sahip tahıl esaslı fermente, geleneksel ve fonksiyonel bir üründür. Yapım aşamaları, son üründe ortaya çıkan tat ve aroma, tüketim şekli ve muhafaza koşulları gibi kendine has özellikleriyle diğer yörelerdeki tarhana çeşitlerinden farklıdır. Üretimi kolay olup, zahmetsiz muhafaza koşullarına sahiptir. Maraş tarhanasında temel ana bileşen olarak dövme ve yoğurt kullanılır. Tarhanayı çeşnilendirmek için yaygın olarak kekik, bazen de çörek otu kullanılmaktadır. Diğer tarhana çeşitleri ve bazı fermente fonksiyonel ürünlerden farklı olarak üretimin her bir aşamasında farklı şekillerde tüketilebilme avantajına sahiptir. Son yıllarda tüketim yöre ile sınırlı kalmamış ihraç edilmeye başlanmıştır. Bu çalışmada geleneksel Maraş tarhanasının ürün ve üretim aşamaları incelenmiştir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Fermente tahıl, fonksiyonel gıda, geleneksel tahıl, Maraş tarhanası

Traditional and Functional Fermented Product: Maras Tarhana

ABSTRACT: Maras tarhana is a cereal based fermented traditional and functional product. It has high nutrient value and physiological benefits on human health. Maras tarhana has quite different qualifications, such as process stages, flavor and aroma of final product, consumption styles and storage conditions according to tarhana types produced in other regions. It has easy production stages and storage conditions. Dövme (grinded wheat) and yoghurt are used as basic main components and commonly thyme, sometimes black sesame are added as flavoring agents in tarhana formulation. It has some advantages such as consumption of each stage of production differing from other tarhana types and some fermented functional products. In recent years, the consumption of Maraş Tarhana has not been limited in the region, also it has been started to export. In the study some features of product and production stages of Maras tarhana were investigated.

Keywords: Fermented cereal, functional food, traditional cereal, Maras tarhana