Etiket Arşivleri: Food safety

Probiyotikler ve Kullanım Alanları ( Başar UYMAZ )

Probiyotikler ve Kullanım Alanları
Probiotics and Their Use


Gıdaların üretiminde tüketici sağlığını destekleyici ve immün sistemi uyaran etkilere sahip mikroorganizmaların kullanımı giderek artmaktadır. Bu mikroorganizmaların önemli bir grubunu teşkil eden probiyotiklerin gastrointestinal sistem hastalıklarının engellenmesi ve tedavisinde ve normal mikrofloranın oluşumunda önemli bir rol oynadığı klinik denemelerle belirlenmiştir. Diğer yandan probiyotiklerin, suştan suşa farklılık gösteren gıda koruyucu etkileri ve değişik hastalıkların tedavisinde kullanım potansiyelleri üzerinde çalışmalar devam etmektedir. Özellikle çocuklarda görülen akut diyare ve antibiyotik kullanımına bağlı diyarenin tedavisinde etkin kullanım potansiyeli taşıyan probiyotik preparatları geliştirilmiştir. Bu derleme makalesinde probiyotik suşların seçiminde kullanılan karakteristikler, kullanım olanakları ve tedavi edici potansiyelleri, güncel bilgiler taranarak verilmiştir.

Anahtar Kelimeler : Probiyotik, Gastrointestinal sistem, Gıda güvenliği, Tedavi.


There is increasing demand to use the microorganisms, supporting consumer health and stimulating immune system, in food production. The role of probiotics which are one of the most important group of this microorganisms on the preventation of gastrointestinal diseases and treatment and development of normal gastrointestinal flora were determinated by clinical trials. On the other hand, studies on the strain-dependent food preservation effects and the potentials for treatment of different diseases of probiotics are ongoing. Probiotic preparats that have effective potential especially for the treatment acute diarrhea in children and antibiotic associated diarrhea have been developed. In this review, newsworthy information on the criteria for probiotic strain selection, curing potentials and their application possibilities were presented.

Keywords : Probiotics, Gastrointestinal system, Food safety, Treatment.


Current Status and Options for Biotechnologies in Food Processing and in Food Safety in Developing Countries ( FAO )

This background document is the result of the joint effort of many contributors. The initial key contributions were made by Olusola B. Oyewole from University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria and Ruud Valyasevi from the National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (Biotec),
Biotec, Bangkok, Thailand.
Sections relevant to biotechnology applications in food processing: Coordination was done by Rosa Rolle (Senior Agro-Industries and Post-harvest Officer, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific) who also made significant contributions to the document.
Sections relevant to biotechnology applications in food safety: Coordination was done by Masami Takeuchi (Food Safety Officer, Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division). Significantcontributions were made by Sridhar Dharmapuri, FAO consultant. Technical contributions from several FAO colleagues, including Maria de Lourdes Costarrica (Senior officer, Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division) and Annika Wennberg (Senior Officer, FAO JECFA Secretariat, Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division), to the document are also gratefully acknowledged. Comments from the following members of the ABDC-10 Steering Committee are gratefully acknowledged: Adama Diallo (Joint FAO/IAEA Division, Austria), Kathleen Jones (US Food and Drug Administration, United States), Marci Levine (International Life Sciences Institute, United States), Haruko Okusu (CGIAR Science Council, Italy), Masashi Kusukawa (Codex AlimentariusCommission, Italy) and Jørgen Schlundt (World Health Organization, Switzerland). Technical support and comments from John Ruane and Preet Lidder from the ABDC-10 Secretariat are also gratefullyacknowledged

E. Glossary of selected terms
Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP): Amplified fragment length polymorphism is a novel molecular fingerprinting technique that can be applied to DNAs of any source or complexity. Total genomic DNA is digested using two restriction enzymes. Double-stranded nucleotide adapters are ligated to the DNA fragments to serve as primer binding sites for PCR amplification. Primers complementary to the adapter and restriction site sequence, with additional nucleotides at the 3’-end, are used as selective agents to amplify a subset of ligated fragments. Polymorphisms are identified by the presence or absence of DNA fragments following analysis on polyacrylamide gels. This technique has been extensively used with plant DNA for the development of high-resolution genetic maps and for the positional cloning of genes of interest. However, its application is rapidly expanding in bacteria and higher eukaryotes for determining genetic relationships and for epidemiological typing.
Biosensor: is the self-contained analytical device that responds selectively and reversibly to the concentration or activity of chemical species in biological samples using various types of sensors of biological nature. Any sensor physically or chemically operated in biological samples can be considered as biosensor.
Classical mutagenesis: The process involves the production of mutants through the exposure of microbial strains to mutagenic chemicals or ultraviolet rays to induce changes in their genomes. Improved strains thus produced are selected on the basis of specific properties such as improved flavour-producing ability or resistance to bacterial viruses.
Conjugation: This is a natural process whereby genetic material is transferred among closely related microbial species as a result of physical contact between the donor and the recipient micro-organisms.
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): An immunoassay that uses specific antibodies to detect antigens or antibodies in body fluids. The antibody-containing complexes are visualized through enzymes coupled to the antibody. Addition of substrate to the enzyme-antibody-antigen complex results in a coloured product.
Genomics: is the study of genes and their functions, and related technologies.
Hybridization: This is the common sexual breeding or mating process leading to genetic recombination. Such sexual crossing has led to offspring with superior or improved qualities. For example, the crossing of haploid yeast strains with excellent gassing properties and good drying properties could yield a novel strain with both good gassing and drying properties.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): is a method to amplify DNA in vitro, involving the use of oligonucleotide primers complementary to and annealing at different positions of nucleotide sequence in a target gene. The copying of target sequences is by the action of DNA polymerase.
Probe: is a single-stranded nucleic acid that has been radio-labelled, and is used to identify a complementary nucleic acid sequence that is membrane-bound.
Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD): Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) represent novel DNA polymorphism assays, sometimes referred to as DNA fingerprinting, that involve the amplification of random DNA segments using PCR and oligonucleotide primers of arbitrary sequence. Products defining the polymorphisms exhibit Mendelian inheritance, and thus possess tremendous potential utility as genetic markers in a diverse array of scientific disciplines.
Recombinant DNA Technology: This technology is the application of in vitro nucleic acid techniques including recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and direct injection of nucleic acids into cells and organelles (adapted from Codex CAD/GL 44-2003, CAD/GL 45-2003, CAD/GL 45- 2003 and CAD/GL 68-2008)


Food Safety vs Food Sanitation


Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety

What’s the difference?

Food Safety

Food safety is how food is handled to prevent foodborne illness. This includes:

Food preparation methods




Food Safety 101 ( Heather Stinson )

What is Foodborne Illness?

Commonly known as food poisoning, foodborne illness is caused by eating food that is contaminated by bacteria or other harmful substances.

How does food become hazardous?

Food becomes hazardous by contamination. Contamination is the unintended presence of harmful substances or microorganisms in food. Food can become contaminated from:

Chemical hazards

Physical hazards

Biological hazards

What is “cross contamination?”

Cross-contamination is the transportation of harmful substances to food by:

What conditions encourage bacteria to grow?

Warm Neutral-slightly acidic pH

Moist Protein-rich

41°F (5°C) and 135°F (57°C)

Food Safety in Malaysia ( Dr. Abdul Rahim bin Mohamad )

Malaysia’s Food Safety System “The Malaysia food safety system is characterized by its complexity and diversity; with different authority entrusted with the task of ensuring food safety at different stages of the food chain”


Supply of A gricultural Inputs e.g Fertilizers, pesticides,animal feeding stuffs, veterinary drugs

Primary Production

e.g. farmers, fisherman, fish farmers

Primary Food Processing

e.g on farm, dairi es, abbatoirs, grain mi ll s

Secondary Food Processing

e.g. canning, freezing, drying, brewing

Food Retailing/ Food C atering

e.g. r estaur ants, street foods, hospitals, schools su permarkets, shops

Food D istribution

e.g. nati onal/international, im port/export

Domestic Food




Local Government



Local Government


Cus toms/Local Govt.


Local Government


Local Government




Food Import

• The importation of food from foreign countries is overseen by the

– Ministry of Health( Food Inspectors at entry points)

– Department of Veterinary Services (DVS) for meat

– Fishery Department for life fish and fish

Food Export

• Certification (Health Cert., Free Sale etc) for exported food including fish & fish products are issued by Ministry of Health( Food Safety & Quality) based on requirements by importing countries or by the exporters for the purpose of getting letter of credit (LC).

• Certification for live fish is by Fishery Department; meat by DVS and plants/vegetables by DOA respectively.

• In 2002, Malaysia food export amounted to about RM7.4 billion. (Euro 1.5billion)

Yoğurt Üretiminde HACCP Sisteminin Kurulması ( Yusuf OKÇU )


Bu  çalışmanın  esası  yoğurt  üretiminde  HACCP  organizasyonuna  dayanmıştır.  Bu   çalışmada günlük 80-100 ton süt işleme kapasitesine sahip bir tesisin yoğurt üretim hattında   HACCP sistemi kurulmuştur. Çalışmada   metot   olarak   7   temel   HACCP   prensibinden   baz   alınarak   geliştirilen mantıksal HACCP  organizasyon  şeması  kullanılmıştır  (Ünlütürk  ve  Turantaş,1998;  Karaali,   2003; Anonymous, 2005).  Şirketin HACCP Planının geliştirilmesinde Kanada Gıda Denetim   Kurumunun jenerik HACCP modellerinden yararlanılmıştır.         Çalışmada  ilk  olarak  söz  konusu  planı  gerçekleştirebilecek  bilgi  ve  uzmanlığa  sahip   üçü  fabrikanın  farklı  kademelerinde  görev  yapan  beş  kişilik  bir  ekip  oluşturulmuştur.  Ekip   tarafından ürünün tanımı yapılmış ve sürece etkileyen önemli ürün özellikleri (pH, minimum   yağ  ve  yağsız  kuru  madde  yüzdeleri  vb.)  belirlenmiş,  ürün  ingredientleri  ve  hammaddeleri   listelendikten sonra bir proses akış şeması hazırlanmıştır. Ürünün   hammaddesinden   son   ürüne   kadar   tüm   aşamalarda   ortaya   çıkabilecek   tehlikeler bilimsel kaynaklardan araştırılmış ve oluşturulan HACCP  ekibi ile   değerlendirilmiştir. Hammaddeden (çiğ süt) başlayarak ürünün dağıtımına kadar ortaya konan   her bir potansiyel tehlike kritik kontrol noktası karar ağacına tatbik edilmiştir. Çalışmamızda   6  farklı  kritik  kontrol  noktası  tespit  edilmiş  olup,  söz  konusu  işlem  aşamaları  şu  şekilde   sınıflandırılmıştır:  1)  Hammadde  (Çiğ  süt  ve  süt  tozu);  2)  Çiğ  süt  soğutma  ve  depolama; 3)  Pastorizasyon;  4)  Starter  kültür  alımı  ve  ilavesi;  5)  Kaselere  dolum;  6)  İnkübasyon  /   Soğutma HACCP  çalışmasının  güvenirliğini  artırmak  için  kritik  kontrol  noktalarının  asgaride   tutulmasına  dikkat  edilmiştir.  Kritik  kontrol  noktaları  dışında  kalan  kontrol  noktalarının   güvenliği      alım     spesifikasyonları,        standart     operasyon   prosedürleri, GMP (İyi    Üretim   Uygulamaları) ve GHP (İyi Hijyen Uygulamaları) benzeri ön şart programları ile sağlanmıştır. 2007, 67 sayfa

Anahtar kelimeler: Gıda güvenliği, HACCP, Yoğurt


The  foundation  of  this  study  is  based  on  the  HACCP  organization  in  yoghurt   production. In this study, HACCP system was set up in the yoghurt production line of a dairy   plant which has a daily capacity of 80 – 100 tonnes of milk. The logic sequence for application of HACCP which had been developed basing on 7   basic principles (Unlütürk and Turantas,1998; Karaali, 2003; Anonymous, 2005) was used as   a method in this study. In the development of the company’s HACCP plan, generic HACCP   models of Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) were been utilized. Initially  a  team  consisting  of  five  persons  three  of  whom  are  employed  in  different   positions of the company and who had sufficient knowledge and expertise to be able to carry   out the plan in question were assembled. The definition of the product was made by the team,   and important product characteristics those effect on the process (pH, minimum fat and SNF   percentages etc.) were determined and after  the product ingredients and raw materials have   been listed a process flow diagram was prepared. The hazards that could arise from the raw  material of the product to the end product   were researched and they were been evaluated by the assembled HACCP team. Each potential   hazard  that  have  been  put  forward  from  raw  material  (raw  milk)  to  the  distribution  of  the   product was been applied to the critical control point decision tree. 6 different critical control   points  was  determined  and  the  process  stages  in  question  were  been  classified  as  follows: 1)   Raw   material   (Raw   milk   &   Milk   powder);   2)   Raw   milk   cooling   and   storage; 3) Pastorization; 4) Purchase  and addition of starter cultures; 5) Packaging; 6) Incubation /   Cooling                In order to enhance the reliability of the HACCP study, it was paid attention to keep   the critical control points at the minimum level. The safety of the control points other than the   critical   control   points   were   assured   by   the   prerequisite   programs   such   as   purchase   spesifications, standard operation procedures, GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) and GHP   (Good Hygiene Practices). 2007, 67 pages

Keywords: Food safety, HACCP, yoghurt

Bir Hazır Yemek İşletmesinde HACCP Sisteminin Kurulması ( B. BİLGİN )

Bu  araştırmada,  2000  kişi/gün  kapasiteli  ve  40  çalışanı  bulunan  özel  sektöre  ait  bir  hazır  yemek   işletmesinde   HACCP   gıda   güvenliği   sistemi   kurulmuştur.   Kurulan   HACCP   sistemi   yedi   prensipten   oluşmuştur:       (1)    Tehlike analizleri,    (2)    KKN       (Kritik    Kontrol      Noktaları)‟nın       tanımlanması,       (3)   karşılaşılabilecek   her   KKN‟nın   başlangıç   limitlerinin   doğrulanması,   (4)   doğrulanan   her   prosedürün   KKN‟larına  kaydedilmesi,  (5)  limitlerin  aşılması  durumunda  düzeltici  önlemlerin  alınması,  (6)  HACCP   sisteminin çalıştığının doğrulanması ve (7) gerekli kayıtların tutularak HACCP sisteminin belgelendirilmesi.         Bahsedilen  işletmede  HACCP  sisteminin  kurulmasında  şu  işlem  basamakları  takip  edilmiştir:  (1)   Terimlerin ve amacın tanımlanması, (2) HACCP ekibinin oluşturulması, (3) ürünün tanımlanması, (4) ürünün   amaçlanan kullanımı ve tüketici gruplarının tanımlanması, (5) üretim akış şemasının oluşturulması, (6) akım   şemasının  üretim  hattında  kontrolü,  (7)  üretimin  her  aşamasındaki  tehlikelerin  saptanması  ve  önlemlerin   belirlenmesi,  (8)  KKN‟nın  belirlenmesi,  (9)  tanımlanan  her  bir  KKN  için  limit  ve  kontrol  kriterlerinin   belirlenmesi, (10) gerekli durumlarda KKN‟nda düzeltici önlemlerin alınması, (11) kayıtların tutulması, (12)   sistem etkinliğinin kanıtlanması ve (14) HACCP planının gözden geçirilmesi.

Anahtar kelimeler: Hazır yemek, Gıda güvenliği, Kritik kontrol noktası, HACCP

Establishment of the HACCP Plan in a Catering Plant

In this study, HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) plan was set up in a catering plant which   had a  capacity of 2000 persons/day and 40 employees. Founded HACCP system consisted of the following   seven principles: (1) Conducting a hazard analysis, (2) determining the Critical Control Points (CCPs), (3)   establishing  critical  limit(s),  (4)  establishing  a  system  to  monitor  control  of  the  CCP,  (5)  establishing  the   corrective  action  to  be  taken  when  monitoring  indicates  that  a  particular  CCP  is  not  under  control,  (6)   establishing   the   procedures  for   verification   that   the   HACCP   system   is   working   effectively   and   (7)   documentation of all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application.         That  action  was  carried  out  by  following  this  diagram:  (1)  Assembling  HACCP  team,  (2)  describing   terms   and   intention,   (3)   describe   product,   (4)   identifying   intended   use   and   consumer   category,   (5)   constructing the flow diagram, (6) on-site confirmation of flow diagram, (7) listing all potential hazards and   considering control measures, (8) determining CCPs,  (9) establishing a monitoring system and critical limits   for  each  CCP,  (10)  establishing  the  corrective  actions,  (11)  keeping  record  procedure,  (12)  establishing   verification procedures and, (13) revision of HACCP implementation.

Key Words: Catering, Food safety, Critical control point, HACCP


Food Safety ( Glenda Dvorak )

Food Safety

Foodborne illness
Prevention and Control
Estimated 250 foodborne pathogens
2 or more cases of a similar illness resulting from ingestion of a common food
Bacteria most common cause
Also viruses, parasites, natural and manufactured chemicals, and toxins from organisms
Foodborne disease outbreaks, cases and deaths
Salmonella had the highest number
Early 1900’s
Contaminated food, milk and water caused many foodborne illnesses
Sanitary revolution
Sewage and water treatment
Hand-washing, sanitation
Pasteurization of milk- 1908
Refrigeration in homes- 1913
Animals identified as a source of foodborne pathogens
Improved animal care and feeding
Improved carcass processing
Surveillance and research
Outbreak investigations
Laws and policies regarding food handling
Foodborne diseases each year in US
Affects 1 in 4 Americans
76 million illnesses
325,000 hospitalizations
5,000 deaths
1,500 of those deaths caused by Salmonella, Listeria, and Toxoplasma
Many unrecognized or unreported
Mild disease undetected
Same pathogens in water and person to person
Emerging pathogens unidentifiable
Greatest risk
FoodNet and PulseNet
Domestic and imported food
Meat, eggs, poultry
National Marine Fisheries Service
FoodNet: Active surveillance
Established 1996
CDC, USDA, FDA, select state health departments
Nine sites in U.S. monitor 13% of U.S. population
California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, Tennessee
PulseNet: Identify cause
Molecular fingerprinting
45 state public health labs certified
Passive surveillance: Survey methods
Hospital discharges
Outpatient treatment facilities
FoodBorne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System
All states submit outbreak data
Estimated Cost
Economic Research Service – USDA
Cost of top 5 foodborne pathogens
$6.9 billion annually
Medical cost
Productivity losses (missed work)
Value estimate of premature death
Oral route
Contamination varies
Organism, reservoir, handling/processing, cross-contamination
Human reservoir
Norwalk-like virus, Campylobacter, Shigella
Animal reservoir
Campylobacter, Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7, Listeria, and Toxoplasma
Contamination can occur at several points along the food chain
On the farm or in the field
At the slaughter plant
During processing
At the point of sale
In the home
Produce Processing
Important Organisms
Norwalk-like viruses
E. coli O157:H7
Clostridium botulinum
Shigella spp
Emerging organisms
Norwalk-like Viruses
Norovirus; Caliciviridae family
Most common foodborne agent
23 million cases annually
Shed in human feces, vomitus
Outbreaks in daycares, nursing homes, cruise ships
Contaminated shellfish
Norwalk-like Viruses
Small infectious dose
12-48 hours post-exposure
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps
Headache, low-grade fever
Duration: 2 days
Food handlers should not return to work for 3 days after symptoms subside
Campylobacter jejuni
Leading cause of bacterial diarrhea
2.4 million people each year
Children under 5 years old
Young adults (ages 15-29)
Very few deaths
Can lead to Guillain-Barré Syndrome
Leading cause of acute paralysis
Develops 2-4 weeks after Campylobacter infection (after diarrheal signs disappear)
Raw or undercooked poultry
Non-chlorinated water
Raw milk
Infected animal or human feces
Poultry, cattle, puppies, kittens, pet birds
Clinical signs
Diarrhea, abdominal cramps,
fever, nausea
Duration: 2-5 days
Gram negative bacteria
Many serotypes can cause disease
S. enteritidis and typhimurium
41% of all human cases
Most common species in U.S.
1.4 million cases annually
580 deaths
Raw poultry and eggs
Raw milk
Raw beef
Unwashed fruit, alfalfa sprouts
Reptile pets: Snakes, turtles, lizards
Onset: 12-72 hours
Diarrhea, fever, cramps
Duration: 4-7 days
E. coli O157:H7
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)
Surface proteins; toxin
Undercooked or raw hamburger; salami
Alfalfa sprouts; lettuce
Unpasteurized milk, apple juice or cider
Well water
Animals: Cattle, other mammals
E. coli O157:H7
Watery or bloody diarrhea, nausea, cramps
Onset: 2-5 days
Duration: 5-10 days
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
Acute kidney failure in children
Life threatening
Clostridium botulinum
Neurotoxin leads to flaccid paralysis
Infants at greatest risk
Annually: 10-30 outbreaks; ~110 cases
Sources: Home-canned
foods, honey
Double vision, drooping eyelids, difficulty speaking and swallowing
Onset: 18-36 hours
Bacillary dysentery
Most cases Shigella sonnei
90,000 cases every year in U.S.
Human fecal contamination of food, beverages, vegetables, water
Watery or bloody diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, cramps, fever
Onset: 2 days
Duration: 5-7 days
Toxoplasma gondii- intracellular protozoan
112,500 cases annually
Pregnant women/immunocompromised at greatest risk
Infected cats, soil, undercooked meat
Fever, headache, swollen lymph nodes
Emerging Pathogens
Cyclospora (Protozoan)
1996, imported raspberries
Listeria monocytogenes
Ready-to-eat meats, soft cheeses
Human abortions and stillbirths
Septicemia in young or low-immune
Prevention and Control
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
To monitor and control production processes
Identify food safety hazards and critical control points
Production, processing and marketing
Establish limits
Applied to meat, poultry, and eggs
On Farm Strategies
Testing and removal for Salmonella
Serologic, fecal culture, hide culture
Many serotypes
Varying effectiveness
Minimize rodents, wild birds
Isolation of new animals
At the Slaughter Plant
FSIS target organisms
Salmonella and E. coli
Control points
Removal of internal organs
Minimize contact between carcasses
Proper movement through facilities
Cooking processes (time, temperature)
Used since 1986 for Trichina control in pork
Gamma rays
Poultry in 1990/1992
Meat in 1997/1999
Reduction of bacterial pathogens
Kills living cells of organisms
Damaged and cannot survive
Identified with radura…..
Does not affect taste quality
Nutrients remain the same
Handle foods appropriately afterwards
Does not sterilize
Contamination can still occur
USDA Recall Classification
In the Home
Drink pasteurized milk and juices
Wash hands carefully and frequently
After using the bathroom
Changing infant’s diapers
Cleaning up animal feces
Wash hands before preparing food
In the Home
Wash raw fruits and vegetables before eating
After contact with raw meat or poultry
Wash hands, utensils and kitchen surfaces
Hot soapy water
Defrost meats in the refrigerator
In the Home
Cook beef/beef products thoroughly
Internal temperature of 160oF
Cook poultry and eggs thoroughly
Internal temperature of 170-180oF
Eat cooked food promptly
Refrigerate leftovers within 2 hours after cooking
Store in shallow containers
Additional Resources
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
U.S. Department of Agriculture