# FE 480 FOOD ENGINEERING OPRATION LABORATORY

# LOSSES IN PIPING SYSTEMS

# MEHMET ALİ KARADAĞ

HAKAN MAVİŞ

ALİ SÖNMEZ

# INTRODUCTION

# One of the most basic calculations performed by any process engineer, whether in design or in the plant, is line sizing and pipeline pressure loss. Typically known are the flow rate, temperature and corresponding viscosity and specific gravity of the fluid that will flow

through the pipe. These properties are spreadsheet along with some pipe physical data (pipe schedule and roughness factor) and out pops a series of line sizes with associated Reynolds Number, velocity, friction factor and pressure drop per linear dimension. The pipe size is then selected based on a compromise between the velocity and the pressure drop. With the line now sized and the pressure drop per linear dimension determined, the pressure loss from the inlet to the outlet of the pipe can be calculated

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# Discussion

# Our aim was to measure frictional pressure losses in pipes valves fittings and simple flow measuring devices. To design or specify a piping system the pressure drop must be calculated very well.and the pressure drop is caused by head loss and also the pressure drop is affected by friction factor. At this point major losses and minor losses must be considered.because they affect the head loss.therefore they can affect the pressure drop

# In summary major losses due to viscous resistance extending throught the total length of circuit.minor losses due to localized effects such as valves elbows sudden changes in area of flow bends and fittings of all types.so the overall heat loss is a combination of both this categorized.

# The maximum water pressure avilable to supply each fixture depends on the water service pressure at the point where the building distrubution system begins.this pressure depends either on local pressure limits set by local codes pressure designed by the system designer or on a combination of this.In any case it soudnt higher than 80 psi

# However the entire water service pressure is not available at each fixture due to pressure losses inherent to the system. The pressure losses include losses in flow through the water meter static losses in lifting water to higher elevations in the system and friction losses encountered in flow through piping fittings valves equipments. Due to that point, the calculations and graps were took place in order to understand losses in piping system.

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