Huriye Hazal ERDOĞAN
SUPERVISIOR : PROF.DR.ŞENOL İBANOĞLU
Consisting of a large number of glucose units
Joined together by glycosidic bonds.
Consist of amylose and amylopectin
Produced by all green plants as an energy store
Nutrition value of corn starch
MODIFIED STARCH ?
Modified starch is a food additive which is prepared by treating starch causing the starch to be partially degraded.
Purpose of modification
The purposes of this modification are to enhance its properties particularly in specific applications such as to improve the increase in water holding capacity, heat resistant behavior, reinforce its binding, minimized syneresis of starch and improved thickening
METHODS OF MODIFICATION
Modified starch has many uses in food products:
Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat.
PROPERTIES OF PREGELATINIZED STARCH
High water binding capacity
Chemically more active
WHY DRUM DRYER?
Suitable for very viscous food material
Large heating surface
Requires small space for operation.
PROCESS LINE DIAGRAM
Stirring process is applied to get dough from starch with addition of 35-40 % water.
Starch slurry occur in %40 water and %60 starch.
A concentrated aqueous starch slurry, consisting of unmodified raw starch.
Process is fed to the roll with dip feed type feeding.
Temperature of stirring is 320C
It is consist of a drum of about 0.75-1.5 m in diameter and 2-4 m length, heated internally usually by steam and rotated on its horizontal axis.
Inlet steam temperature range 180 0C-200 0C.
Drum Surface Temperature :120-1700C
Drum Rotation Speed :2-6 rpm
Dry products from drum dryer are collected.
These products are sent to the hammer milling.
A hammer mill is a mill whose purpose is to shred or crush aggregate material into smaller pieces by the repeated blows of little hammers.
Rotary drum heater,
Steam pressure meter,
Water drainage valve,
Material distribution pipeline,
Flow regulating valves,
Material collecting hopper.
Drum Surface Temperature :120-1700C
Drum Rotation Speed :2-6 rpm
PROPERTIES OF FINISHED PRODUCT
Appearance : Fine white powder
Smell : Neutral
Shape: Not uniform, like ellipsoidal
Color : White
Swelling capacity : increased
High water solubility
High water absorption
Viscosity : increased
Size of the starch granules : reduced
Moisture content : 8 % max.
POTATO FLAKE PRODUCTION
PROPERTIES OF POTATO IN GENERAL
Potato is a starchy root vegetable of Central American origin.
Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L) is being used as a very old source of food, were even being used by people in Continental America before C. Columbus’s discovery.
Potatoes are rich in terms of Potassium, Vitamin C, Calcium, Vitamin A and carbohydrates.
Raw Material: RUSSET Potato
A russet potato is a type of potato that is large, with dark brown skin and few eyes. The flesh is white, dry, and mealy, and it is suitable for baking, mashing, and french fries.
What is Potato Flakes;
Are the most important form of dehydrated potato products. Includes; potato granules, pellets, powder, shredded and sliced potato. Potato flakes can be used anywhere, where one would use mashed potatoes like instant mashed potatoes, croquettes, pasta and fabricated snacks.
Potato Flake’s Official Introduction to Food Industry;
Flake-form instant mashed potatoes date back at least to 1954;
two United States Department of Agriculture researchers were issued a patent for “Drum drying of cooked mashed potatoes” (U.S. Patent 2,759,832);
which describes the end product specifically being “as a thin sheet or flake”.
FE-401 FOOD TECHNOLOGY
REFINED OLIVE POMACE OIL
Olive pomace is the pulpy residue from olives after pressing.
The total of olive weight, the pomace 70 – 90 %, the stone 9-27% and the seed about 2-3%.
Pomace contains about 2-8 % residual oil.
Olive pomace oils, obtained by refining of the oil extracted from the olive pomace.
The purpose of processing the remaining pulp from olive oil production is to produce edible oil.
Olive pomace should be delivered immediately to the extraction factory (on the same day it is produced) for drying in order to avoid any increases in acidity in the olive-pomace oil.
After drying, pomace extracted by hexane to yield raw olive-pomace oil
Raw olive-pomace oil must be refined to become edible.
The edible product sold as olive-pomace oil is refined olive-pomace oil
1)DRYING THE POMACE
Halt the fermentation of the pomace.
Carried out by blowing hot air over the pomace in a drum screen.
Lower the moisture content to around 5-6%
The hot drying gases are used at high
temperatures (400°C to 700°C).
Final temperature of finished product not more than 70–80 °C.
Preparation of the fatty pulp
Extraction with hexane
Desolventizing of the extracted pulp
Types of Extractors
Pulp placed in an upright reactor
and sprayed with the hexane.
Commonly used for extraction.
Pulp washed with hexane.
Distillation of the oil-hexane mixture (miscella) in a distiller.
Try to remove the hexane from the oil as soon as possible at a temperature of around 100–110 oC.
The finished product to be lower than 150 ppm of hexane in oil.
WHY DOES IT NEED REFINING ?
The crude pomace oil obtained is a high acidity (more than 3% as oleic acid)
Dark green oil (high chlorophyll content)
High waxes content
Unpleasant odor and taste.
Achieved by hydrating the gums using 0.1% concentrated phosphoric acid
Reduction of phospholipid content.
Precipitation with acids.
To remove precipitate.
The crude pomace oil obtained is a high acidity (more than 3% as oleic acid)
Removes nearly all free-fatty acid by converting them into oil-insoluble soaps.
The oil-insoluble soaps are separated by centrifuge in the batch neutralizers.
Chemical reaction with caustic soda.
Caustic soda + Acid Soap + Water
Remove the unpleasant colors of the alkali neutralized pomace oil
The oil is heated to 100℃.
Stirred with the bleaching earth for 30 min under a vacuum (30-40 mmHg)
Bleached oil removed from the activated earth and charcoal by filtration.
The elimination of any compound that might cause the final product to appear cloudy
Removes waxes and high melting triacylglycerols.
The process is based on crystallization (5–8 ℃).
Increase the size of crystals.
The crystals are separated with filtration.
Final treatment step in the refining process.
Treatment of undesirable odours.
150 ℃ to 260 ℃.
Steam is used to better tastes and aromas
Absolute vacuum between 0.2– 0.4 mbar.
1)DETERMINATION of FATTY ACID CONTENTS
2)DETERMINATION of WAXES
3)DETERMINATION of FREE FATTY ACIDS (FREE ACIDITY)
4)DETERMINATION of PEROXIDE VALUE
5)DETERMINATION of STIGMASTADIENES
6)DETERMINATION of STEROL COMPOSITION
GENERIC CHEMICAL COMPOSITION PARAMETERS
Thanks for your attention
Definition of product
Properties of raw material
Process line diagram
Control points and parameters
Properties of finished product
It is believed to originate from the city and
region of Tekirdağ and hence also known as Tekirdağ Köfte.
Meat (veal) (84%)
Sodium bicarbonat (0.7%)
Black papper (0.3%)
Onion ( 3 %)
Instead of using a cutter, the grinder and mixer can be used at the same time.
1-Frying is an alternative but it is not used because the Tekirdağ köfte has a special cooking technique.
So we use oven baking
Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria count
Determination of Ammonia by the Nessler Method
Protein analysis by Kjeldahl
Odor (with GC or nose)
Shape (with eyes)
According to Turkish codex:
protein of not animal origin cannot be used in köfte (Starch, soy) but, Herbal protein and starch from spice or breadcrumbs can be maximum 5%
Total meat protein should be at least 12% bymass.
The product center temperatures hould be at least 72 oC at baking process.
The fat content of mincer products obtained from such products is at most 25% bymass.And salt contents hould be at least 2% bymass.
Bone is used in the bone flour and animal feed industries.
Fat is used in the animal feed industry.
HISTORY OF BREAD
The first bread produced was probably cooked versions of a grain-paste, made from roasted and ground loped by accidental cooking or deliberate experimentation with water and grain flour.
WHAT IS CORN BREAD?
Corn bread’s compositions is %50 of corn flour and %50 of wheat flour.
Little salt and sugar added in these mixture, after fermented dough is baked.
Strength of flour gluten,
Amount of protein,
Quality of protein,
Kneading and fermentation tolerance,
Water retention capacity of the flour.
Form the backbone of the dough,
Hold the CO2 gas in the dough,
Desired gluten is flexible,
As a result of these; bread is porous and high in the volume.
High amount of carbohydrate present in corn flour,
It rich for E, A, B2 vitamin, protein, calcium, phosphate,
Regulate blood sugar,
Good for digestion,
Rich for unsaturated fatty acid,
Gives desired fluid structure of the dough,
Provide medium for fermentation,
Medium hardness water should be used,
Increases the dough volume,
Faster CO2 production,
Yeast activities optimum temperature is; 25 – 30 ˚C,
80 – 85 % moisture
SALT & SUGAR
Improves the dough structure.
For easy fermantation,
For desired taste,
For desired crust color.
Make dough softer,
The amount of oil is dependent type of bread.
VOLUMETRIC DOUGH DIVIDERS,
PROOF BOX CLIMATE CONDITIONER,
White flour, corn flour, water, sugar, yeast, salt and oil are mixed.
Homogeneous and low friction mixing action due to wide diameter spiral and peripheral dough circulation around the bowl,
Stainless steel spiral dough hook and heavy duty stainless steel bowl,
Dual speed control,
Mixing capability for small and heavy batches,
Mixing head up/down motion via hydraulic system.
Fermantation required for; high volume bread
Equipment of cut and weight works accordings to volumetric principle,
Velocity of cut:12 -16 beat /min.
Rounding provide smooth surface before shaping increase properties of holding of gas,
Different models enabling dough rounding from 50 to 1600 grams between the rounding cone and adjustable or fixed rounding tracks,
Ideal and smooth rounding through long rounding tracks,
Channels with on/off switch blowing warm air to prevent dough sticking.
Desired shape of dough easily.
Intermediate proofer: depending on capacity.
Number of pockets and trays vary depending on the intermediate proof time required.
The pockets and trays are easily removable for sanitation and maintenance.
Firstly,dough is flatten and remove of gas in the dough after give desired shape,
If dough kneading slack, gas can’t remove from dough so,occur big pores in bread,
Range of shaping will adjust correctly,
Purpose of fermentation room, provide same volume everywhere in dough before baking,
Stainless steel frames,
High efficiency by polyurethane constructed walls,
Inside lumination allowing easy observation of the proofing process.
Proof Box Climate Conditioner
Separate temperature and humidity controls for a perfectly balanced proof box condition,
Sensitive temperature control through a thermostat,
Sensitive humidity control through sensors,
Automatic water level control with a solenoid valve,
Long-life operation with stainless steel construction.
Used revolving oven
Excellent baking performance as a result of high volume, low velocity air flow and quick recovery time,
High thermal efficiency and durable stainless-steel heat exchanger and stainless-steel interior panels,
High capacity self-contained steam generating system,
Low level providing easy loading and discharging,
Easily adjustable damper.
Amount of raw materıal
Amount of salt and yeast (%1yeast), (%1salt)
INTERMEDIATE PROOFER CP
FERMANTATION ROOM CP
High relative humidity(80-85%)
Time (30-40 min)
Chemical Analysis In Wheat Flour
Moisture content determination
Physical–Chemical Analysis(wheat flour)
Determination of gluten
Analysis of dough
Çilem Merve KIRINTI
Ömer Faruk MİR
Prof. Dr. Fahrettin GÖGÜŞ
Food bars are combinations of ingredients that provide food in a solid, low moisture form
They are consumed as a source of nutrients, as opposed to confectionery bars, which are consumed as sweet products
FEATURES OF BARS
The mysteries of controlling the texture of food bars can be understood only by a return to basic scientiﬁc principles
Positive features were identiﬁed as low cohesiveness, moistness of the bar mass, and moisture absorption
Negative features were described as hardness, roughness of the mass, excessive cohesiveness, and excessive density
Also known as snack bars or nutrition bars
The first energy bars were called “Space Food Sticks,” released in the late 1960s
They were manufactured by the Pillsbury Company
Evolution of bar market size and composition
Types of Bars formulations and compositions
Types of Bar
ENERGY BAR productION
Bars can be manufactured as;
PreparatIon of wet IngredIents
PREPARATION OF WET INGREDIENTS
The corn syrup is used between 80 and 82° brix
Syrup is heated to 88 °C
Texture depends on the temperature of mixing, shear, and mix time
For all bar types, the process starts with a mixing
Cooked syrup is added as 42% with dry ingredients in a mixer
To provide high shearing force to obtain high viscosity doughs
Mixture is placed onto a conveyor
Mixture travels under rollers
To form it into a slab, or sheet
Compress into thick sheet
Bars are cut with using mechanical or ultrasonic cutting machine
The product is transferred onto a takeaway conveyor to feed a cooling tunnel
The temperature of product down to room temperature
Products are packaged with;
Shelf-life of bars is changeable between 9 to 12 months
Sugar content ;25%
Moisture content ;12%
aw range ; 0.45 to 0.65
Color ; Changeable for product
Mesophilic aerobic bacteria count < 104
Yeast and molds count < 103
Osmophilic yeast count < 102
E.coli, Staphylococus Aureus, Salmonella should not included
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401 FOOD TECHNOLOGY
ÇAĞLA EFTELYA DURSUN
OSMAN BERAT KELEKÇİ
SUPERVISOR: Prof.Dr. Şenol İBANOĞLU
Consumption of Macaroni kg Per Person
Composition and Type of Macaroni
Standart macaroni contains only semolina and water.
Whole wheat macaroni contains whole wheat semolina and water,
Enriched macaroni contains semolina, water, vitamins and minerals.
Fortified macaroni contains semolina, water, vitamins, minerals and protein.
QUALITY PARAMATERS OF MACARONI
Amount of matter passing through to cooking water,
Colour after cooking,
WHY SHOULD YOU EAT MACARONI
Has higher protein and energy,
How Macaroni Should Be ?
The main factor is quality of durum wheat. The better durum wheat means the better semolina. Thus, good semolina affects quality of macaroni well.
Its color should be gold color
Air bubbles and some black or white points do not observed when it is front of light.
During the cooking it should be elastic and intact.
OUR RAW MATERIAL
Is the coarse,purified wheat middling’s of triticum durum wheat.
Macaroni,breakfast cereals,puddings and couscous.
Diameter of semolina is 125-140 micrometers.
Has amber color.
Drinking water property,
High microbial quality,
Process Of Macaronı
Kneading is a process,the semolina and water combined on the tank mixed by a horizontal,flat,screw and mixer.
Semolina has 13-15% moisture content.
Temperature of semolina should be 25°C
Kneading process takes about 15-20 minutes.
The dough which is kneaded enough comes to the compartment where the air is pieces.Vacuum is applied here for 3-5 minutes.
Vacuum chamber to remove air bubbles are present in the macaroni extrusion process prior to the pasta press.
Vacuum is applied to reduce air bubbles formation in macaroni.
The kneaded pasta dough comes to the mold with a certain pressure.
High quality of production.
The paste through the mold is converted to the desired shape.
The pre drying reduces the moisture content of the macaroni to 18-22 %.
The necessary time change according to the shape of macaroni (40-150 minutes ) in the drying cabin,the hot air that provides drying is spread on the product by means of fans.
Moisture released during product is removed from the environment by absorbing system.
The temperature increases as the product moves through the cabinet.
This provides the moisture balance of the inner and outer surface of the product.It also prevents cracking and breaking.
Dryıng System of Macaroni
Long springs arranged with suspension system first and last drying in drying chambers.After the cooling process again the system is suspended with the suspension system.
At the end of this period,the moisture content of the pasta is reduced to 12,5-13 %.The time and temperature applied are between 40-50 °C and 55-65 % relative humidity,depending on the type of pasta and the method used.
This process takes 4-5 hours.
This process increase the quality and provide the stabilization of the macaroni.Reduces the risk of crack formation.
This stage is called shocking.
At the end of the drying, macaroni is cooled in maximum 12.5% moisture content in 28-32˚C.
Cooling step is done using cooling air suddenly. And then, cooled macaroni are storage in storaged silos.
After the cooling our product ready for the packaging
Cooled macaroni is packaged in 500gr or 250gr packet by packaging machines.
Cellulose film , polyethylene and cellophane are used for packaging material.
There are two filling section ;
Vertical filling section.
Horizontal filling section.
RAW MATERİALS ANALYSIS
For water; Microbial test (E. Coli )
1) Moisture Content Analysis
2) Hectoliter Value
3) Protein Content
4) Impurity Determination
5) Gluten Content
6) Sedimentation Analysis
Codex of macaronı
CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS ANALYSIS OF COOKED MACARONI
firmness during cooking
amount of substance passing water from pasta
total amount of organic matter
Amount of ash
FE 401 FOOD TECHNOLOGY
CORN OIL PRODUCTION
SUPERVISOR: PROF. DR. FAHRETTİN GÖĞÜŞ
Corn, Zea mays L., a plant belonging to the grass family, is native to both North an South America.
It was the staple grain of the Indians for centuries before Europeans reached the New World.
In 1889, Theadere and Benjamin Hudnut made a machine which extracts the corn oil from corn germ.
Industrial Uses of Corn
Glucose syrup production
Alcohol and whiskey production