Etiket Arşivleri: FE 401

Pregelatinezed Starch ( Gamze ÇELİK )

  • FE-401 FOOD TECHNOLOGY

Gamze ÇELİK

Rafia ÇETİNTAŞ

Rojda DAKAK

Zehra DEMİRCİ

Simge Deveci

Huriye Hazal ERDOĞAN

SUPERVISIOR : PROF.DR.ŞENOL İBANOĞLU

  • STARCH

  • Polysaccharide carbohydrate

  • Consisting of a large number of glucose units

  • Joined together by glycosidic bonds.

  • Consist of amylose and amylopectin

  • Produced by all green plants as an energy store

  • Corn Starch

  • Nutrition value of corn starch

  • Carbohydrate:88.8%

       –Diatary fiber:0.5%

       –Carbohydrate, available:88.3%

  • Fat:0.6%

  • Protein:0.4%

  • Moisture Content:10.2%

  • Energy:1534 kj

MODIFIED STARCH ?

Modified starch is a food additive which is prepared by treating starch causing the starch to be partially degraded.

  • Purpose of modification

  • The purposes of this modification are to enhance its properties particularly in specific applications such as to improve the increase in water holding capacity, heat resistant behavior, reinforce its binding, minimized syneresis of starch and improved thickening

METHODS OF MODIFICATION

  • Hydrolysis

  • Oxidation

  • Cross-linking

  • Pregelatinization

Modified starch has many uses in food products:

  • PREGELATINIZATION

  • Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat.

  • PROPERTIES OF PREGELATINIZED STARCH

High water binding capacity

High digestibility

High viscosity

Water soluble

Chemically more active

Low crystallinity

WHY DRUM DRYER?

  • Suitable for very viscous food material

  • Quick method

  • Large heating surface

  • Requires small space for operation.

  • Efficient

  • PROCESS LINE DIAGRAM

  • Stirring

  • Stirring process is applied to get dough from starch with addition of 35-40 % water.

  • Starch slurry occur in %40 water and %60 starch.

  • A concentrated aqueous starch slurry, consisting of unmodified raw starch.

  • Process is fed to the roll with dip feed type feeding.

  • Temperature of stirring is 320C

  • Drum dryer

  • It is consist of a drum of about 0.75-1.5 m in diameter and 2-4 m length, heated internally usually by steam and rotated on its horizontal axis.

  • Inlet steam temperature range 180 0C-200 0C.

  • Drum Surface Temperature :120-1700C

  • Drum Rotation Speed :2-6 rpm

  • Collection

Dry products from drum dryer are collected.

These products are sent to the hammer milling.

  • Hammer Milling

    A hammer mill is a mill whose purpose is to shred or crush aggregate material into smaller pieces by the repeated blows of little hammers.

  • PACKAGING

  • EQUIPMENT LIST

  • Steam generator,

  • Rotary drum heater,

  • Steam pressure meter,

  • Water drainage valve,

  • Material distribution pipeline,

  • Flow regulating valves,

  • Discharge scraper,

  • Material collecting hopper.

  • CRITICAL PARAMETERS

  • Water Content

  • Drum Surface Temperature :120-1700C

  • Drum Rotation Speed :2-6 rpm

  • CONTROL POINTS

  • Dust formation

  • Metal detection

  • PROPERTIES OF FINISHED PRODUCT

Physical Properties

  • Appearance : Fine white powder

  • Smell : Neutral

  • Shape: Not uniform, like ellipsoidal

  • Color : White

  • Swelling capacity : increased

  • High water solubility

  • High water absorption

  • Viscosity : increased

  • Size of the starch granules : reduced

  • Moisture content : 8 % max.


Potato Flake Production ( Fatma ATALAY )

POTATO FLAKE PRODUCTION

PROPERTIES OF POTATO IN GENERAL

  • Potato is a starchy root vegetable of Central American origin.

  • Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L) is being used as a very old source of food, were even being used by people in Continental America before C. Columbus’s discovery.

  • Potatoes are rich in terms of Potassium, Vitamin C, Calcium, Vitamin A and carbohydrates.

Raw Material: RUSSET Potato

A russet potato is a type of potato that is large, with dark brown skin and few eyes. The flesh is white, dry, and mealy, and it is suitable for baking, mashing, and french fries.

What is Potato Flakes;

Are the most important form of dehydrated potato products. Includes; potato granules, pellets, powder, shredded and sliced potato. Potato flakes can be used anywhere, where one would use mashed potatoes like instant mashed potatoes, croquettes, pasta and fabricated snacks.

Potato Flake’s Official Introduction to Food Industry;

  • Flake-form instant mashed potatoes date back at least to 1954;

  • two United States Department of Agriculture researchers were issued a patent for “Drum drying of cooked mashed potatoes” (U.S. Patent 2,759,832);

  • which describes the end product specifically being “as a thin sheet or flake”.


Refined Olive Pomace Oil ( Ali İNAN )

FE-401 FOOD TECHNOLOGY
REFINED OLIVE POMACE OIL

INTRODUCTION

Olive pomace is the pulpy residue from olives after pressing.

The total of olive weight, the pomace 70 – 90 %, the stone 9-27% and the seed about 2-3%.

Pomace contains about 2-8 % residual oil.

Olive pomace oils, obtained by refining of the oil extracted from the olive pomace.

The purpose of processing the remaining pulp from olive oil production is to produce edible oil.

Olive pomace should be delivered immediately  to the extraction factory (on the same day it is produced) for drying in order to avoid any increases in acidity in the olive-pomace oil.

 After drying, pomace extracted by hexane to yield raw olive-pomace oil

Raw olive-pomace oil must be refined to become edible.

The edible product sold as olive-pomace oil is refined olive-pomace oil

PROCESS STEPS

1)DRYING THE POMACE

2)EXTRACTION

3)DISTILLATION

4)REFINING

FLOWCHART

DRYING

Halt the fermentation of the pomace.

Carried out by blowing hot air over the pomace in a drum screen.

Lower the moisture content to around 5-6%

The hot drying gases are used at high

temperatures (400°C to 700°C).

Final temperature of finished product not more than 70–80 °C.

EXTRACTION

 Preparation of the fatty pulp

 Extraction with hexane

 Desolventizing of the extracted pulp

  Types of Extractors

Batch Extractor

    Pulp placed in an upright reactor

and sprayed with the hexane.

    Commonly used for extraction.

Continuous Extractor

    Pulp washed with hexane.

DISTILLATION

Distillation of the oil-hexane mixture (miscella) in a distiller.

Try to remove the hexane from the oil as soon as possible at a temperature of around 100–110 oC.

The finished product to be lower than 150 ppm of hexane in oil.

WHY DOES IT NEED REFINING ?

 Because ;

The crude pomace oil obtained is a high acidity (more than 3% as oleic acid)

Dark green oil (high chlorophyll content)

High waxes content

Unpleasant odor and taste.

REFINING

Degumming

Neutralization

Bleaching

Winterization

Deodorization

DEGUMMING

Achieved by hydrating the gums using 0.1% concentrated phosphoric acid

Reduction of phospholipid content.

Precipitation with acids.

To remove precipitate.

NEUTRALIZATION

 The crude pomace oil obtained is a high acidity (more than 3% as oleic acid)

Removes nearly all free-fatty acid by converting them into oil-insoluble soaps.

The oil-insoluble soaps are separated by centrifuge in the batch neutralizers.

Chemical reaction with caustic soda.

Caustic soda + Acid        Soap + Water

BLEACHING

Remove the unpleasant colors of the alkali neutralized pomace oil

The oil is heated to 100℃.

Stirred with the bleaching earth for 30 min under a vacuum (30-40 mmHg)

Bleached oil removed from the activated earth and charcoal by filtration.

WINTERIZATION

The elimination of any compound that might cause the final product to appear cloudy

Removes waxes and high melting triacylglycerols.

The process is based on crystallization (5–8 ℃).

Increase the size of crystals.

The crystals are separated with filtration.

DEODORIZATION

 Final treatment step in the refining process.

Treatment of undesirable odours.

150 ℃ to  260 ℃.

Steam is used to better tastes and aromas

 Absolute vacuum between 0.2– 0.4 mbar.

IMPORTANT ANALYSIS

 1)DETERMINATION of FATTY ACID CONTENTS

 2)DETERMINATION of WAXES

 3)DETERMINATION of FREE FATTY ACIDS (FREE ACIDITY)

 4)DETERMINATION of PEROXIDE VALUE

 5)DETERMINATION of STIGMASTADIENES

 6)DETERMINATION of STEROL COMPOSITION

 GENERIC CHEMICAL COMPOSITION PARAMETERS

QUALITY PARAMETERS

Thanks for your attention


Ready to Eat Köfte ( Çiğdem ÖKSÜZ )

Definition of product

Properties of raw material

Process line diagram

Control points and parameters

Analysis

Technologies

Alternative technologies

Properties of finished product

It is believed to originate from the city and

region of  Tekirdağ and hence also known as Tekirdağ Köfte.

Meat (veal) (84%)

Salt (1.4%)

Garlic (0.1%)

Sodium bicarbonat (0.7%)

Black papper (0.3%)

Onion ( 3 %)

Cumin (1%)

Egg (1.2%)

Breadcrumbs (8.3%)

Mincing

  Instead of using a cutter, the grinder and mixer can be used at the same time.

Baking

1-Frying is an alternative but it is not used because the Tekirdağ köfte has a special cooking technique.

   So we use oven baking

Microbial analysis

Physical analysis

Chemical analysis

Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria count

Coliform count

  1. Coli

Salmonella

pH measurement

Moisture content

Color measurement

Texture analysis

Determination of Ammonia by the Nessler Method

Protein analysis by Kjeldahl

Ash content

Fat content

Odor (with GC or nose)

Flavor

Shape (with eyes)

According to Turkish codex:

 protein of not animal origin cannot be used in köfte (Starch, soy) but, Herbal protein and starch from spice or breadcrumbs can be maximum 5%

Total meat protein should be at least 12% bymass.

The product center temperatures hould be at least 72 oC  at baking process.

The fat content of mincer products obtained from such products is at most 25% bymass.And salt contents hould be at least 2% bymass.

Bone is used in the bone flour and animal feed industries.

Fat is used in the animal feed industry.


Corn Bread ( Büşra DURAK )

CORN  BREAD

H.OKAN DOĞAN

BÜŞRA DURAK

MERVE ETİZ

OSKAR DÜZGÜN

SEHER HİLOOĞLU

BUKET GÜNEŞ

HISTORY OF BREAD

The first bread produced was probably cooked versions of a grain-paste, made from roasted and ground loped by  accidental cooking or deliberate experimentation with water and grain flour.

WHAT IS CORN BREAD?

Corn bread’s compositions is %50 of corn flour and %50 of wheat flour.

Little salt and sugar added in these mixture, after fermented dough is baked.

INGREDIENTS

Corn flour

Wheat flour

Yeast

Salt

Water

Sugar

Oil

WHEAT FLOUR

Quality parameters;

Strength of flour gluten,

Amount of protein,

Quality of protein,

Kneading and fermentation tolerance,

Water retention capacity of the flour.

Gluten content;

Form the backbone of the dough,

Hold the CO2 gas in the dough,

Desired gluten is flexible,

As a result of these; bread is porous and high in the volume.

CORN FLOUR

High amount of carbohydrate present in corn flour,

It rich for E,  A, B2 vitamin, protein, calcium, phosphate,

Regulate blood sugar,

Good for digestion,

Rich for unsaturated fatty acid,

Regulate cholesterol.

WATER

Gives desired fluid structure of the dough,

Provide medium for fermentation,

Medium hardness water should be used,

YEAST

Increases the dough volume,

Faster CO2  production,

Yeast activities optimum temperature is; 25 – 30 ˚C,

80 – 85 % moisture

SALT & SUGAR

SALT

Adds flavour,

Improves the dough structure.

SUGAR

For easy fermantation,

For desired taste,

For desired crust color.

OIL

Make dough softer,

The amount of oil is dependent type of bread.

EQUIPMENT LIST

MIXER,

VOLUMETRIC DOUGH DIVIDERS,

CONICAL ROUNDER,

MOULDERS,

PROOFING UNITS,

PROOF BOX CLIMATE CONDITIONER,

REVOLVING OVEN,

PACKAGING.

MIXING

White flour, corn flour, water, sugar, yeast, salt and oil are mixed.

MIXER

Homogeneous and low friction mixing action due to wide diameter spiral and peripheral dough circulation around the bowl,

Stainless steel spiral dough hook and heavy duty stainless steel bowl,

Dual speed control,

Mixing capability for small and heavy batches,

Mixing head up/down motion via hydraulic system.

FERMANTATION

Fermantation required for; high volume bread

CUT-WEIGHT

Equipment of cut and weight works accordings to volumetric principle,

Velocity  of cut:12 -16 beat /min.

ROUNDING

Rounding provide smooth surface before shaping increase properties of holding of gas,

Different models enabling dough rounding from 50 to 1600 grams between the rounding cone and adjustable or fixed rounding tracks,

Ideal and smooth rounding through long rounding tracks,

Channels with on/off switch blowing warm air to prevent dough sticking.

INTERMEDIATE PROOFER

Desired shape of dough easily.

Intermediate proofer: depending on capacity.

Number of pockets and trays vary depending on the intermediate proof time required.

The pockets and trays are easily removable for sanitation and maintenance.

SHAPING

Firstly,dough is flatten and remove of gas in the dough after give desired shape,

If dough kneading slack, gas can’t remove from dough so,occur big pores in bread,

Range of shaping will adjust correctly,

FERMANTATION ROOM

Purpose of fermentation room, provide same volume everywhere in dough before baking,

Stainless steel frames,

High efficiency by polyurethane constructed walls,

Inside lumination allowing easy observation of the proofing process.

Proof Box Climate Conditioner

Separate temperature and humidity controls for a perfectly balanced proof box condition,

Sensitive temperature control through a thermostat,

Sensitive humidity control through sensors,

Automatic water level control with a solenoid valve,

Long-life operation with stainless steel construction.

BAKING

Used revolving oven

235-240˚C(30-40 min)

 Revolving Oven

Excellent baking performance as a result of high volume, low velocity air flow and quick recovery time,

High thermal efficiency and durable stainless-steel heat exchanger and stainless-steel interior panels,

High capacity self-contained steam generating system,

Low level providing easy loading and     discharging,

Easily adjustable damper.

Revolving Oven

PACKAGING  

Necessary for;

Increase shelf-life

Sanitary condition

Prevent contamination

MIXING CP

Amount of raw materıal

Mixing time

FERMANTATION CP

Fermantation time(2-3h)

Amount of salt and yeast (%1yeast), (%1salt)

Temperature (27˚C)

INTERMEDIATE  PROOFER CP

FERMANTATION ROOM CP

 Temperature(37-40˚C)

 High relative humidity(80-85%)

 Time(30 min)

BAKING CP

Time (30-40 min)

Temperature(235-240˚C)

Chemical  Analysis In Wheat Flour

        Moisture content determination

        Protein (crude)

        Ash content

        Acidity

PhysicalChemical Analysis(wheat flour)

        Determination of gluten

   Falling number

Analysis of dough

       Extensogrof

       Fermantogrof

       Alveogrof


Energy Bar ( Çilem Merve KIRINTI )

ENERGY BAR

Submitted by

Çilem Merve KIRINTI

Görkem KIRMIZIDAM

Aslıhan KURT

K.Burcu KOŞAR

Birsen LAFTAN

Ömer Faruk MİR

Advisor    

Prof. Dr. Fahrettin GÖGÜŞ                  

INTRODUCTION

Food bars are combinations of ingredients that provide food in a solid, low moisture form

They are consumed as a source of nutrients, as opposed to confectionery bars, which are consumed as sweet products

FEATURES OF BARS

The mysteries of controlling the texture of food bars can be understood only by a return to basic scientific principles

Positive features were identified as low cohesiveness, moistness of the bar mass, and moisture absorption

Negative features were described as hardness, roughness of the mass, excessive cohesiveness, and excessive density

About HIstory

Also known as snack bars or nutrition bars

The first energy bars were called “Space Food Sticks,” released in the late 1960s

They were manufactured by the Pillsbury Company

Evolution of bar market size and composition

Types of Bars formulations and compositions

RAW MATERIALS

IngredIents

Types of Bar

ENERGY BAR productION
FLOW CHART

PROCESS

Bars can be manufactured as;

Baked

Slab line

Cold extruded

PreparatIon of wet IngredIents

PREPARATION OF WET INGREDIENTS

The corn syrup is used between 80 and 82° brix

Syrup is heated to 88 °C

Texture depends on the temperature of mixing, shear, and mix time

MIxIng

For all bar types, the process starts with a mixing

Cooked syrup is added as 42% with dry ingredients in a mixer

To provide high shearing force to obtain  high viscosity doughs

PressIng

Mixture is placed onto a conveyor

Mixture travels under rollers

To form it into a slab, or sheet

Compress into thick sheet

cuttING

Bars are cut with using mechanical or ultrasonic cutting machine

CoolIng

The product is transferred onto a takeaway conveyor to feed a cooling tunnel

The temperature of product down to room temperature

packagIng

Products are packaged with;

polyethylene

Shelf-life of bars is changeable between 9 to 12 months

QualIty parameters

Sugar content ;25%

Moisture content ;12%

aw range ; 0.45 to 0.65

Color ; Changeable for product

Texture ;Crunchy

mICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

Mesophilic aerobic bacteria count < 104

Yeast and molds count < 103

Osmophilic yeast count < 102

E.coli, Staphylococus Aureus, Salmonella should not included

THANKS FOR LISTENING US..


Macaroni ( Merve ÇİNPOLAT )

401 FOOD TECHNOLOGY

MACARONI

SUBMITTED BY

MERVE ÇİNPOLAT

ÇAĞLA EFTELYA DURSUN

OSMAN BERAT KELEKÇİ

ESMA DURMAZ

DİCLE DOĞAN

SÜMEYYE KILINÇ

SUPERVISOR: Prof.Dr. Şenol İBANOĞLU

Consumption of Macaroni kg Per Person

Composition and Type of  Macaroni

  • Standart macaroni contains only semolina and water.

  • Whole wheat macaroni contains whole wheat semolina and water,

  • Enriched macaroni contains semolina, water, vitamins and minerals.

  • Fortified macaroni contains semolina, water, vitamins, minerals and protein.

QUALITY PARAMATERS OF MACARONI

  • Increasing volume,

  • Increasing weight

  • Amount of matter passing through to cooking water,

  • Colour after cooking,

  • Stickiness.

WHY SHOULD YOU EAT MACARONI

Macaroni;

  • Cheap,

  • Delicious,

  • Available,

  • Has higher protein and energy,

  • Practical.

How Macaroni Should Be ?

  • The main factor is quality of durum wheat. The better durum wheat means the better semolina. Thus, good semolina affects quality of macaroni well.

  • Its color should be gold color

  • Air bubbles and some black or white points do not observed when it is front of light.

  • During the cooking it should be elastic and intact.

OUR RAW  MATERIAL

INGREDIENTS

  • SEMOLİNA

  • Is the coarse,purified wheat middling’s of triticum durum wheat.

  • Macaroni,breakfast cereals,puddings and couscous.

  • Diameter of semolina is 125-140 micrometers.

  • Has amber color.

WATER

  • Medium hardness,

  • Colorless,

  • Odorless,

  • Flavorless

  • Drinking water property,

  • High microbial quality,

Process Of Macaronı

Kneading

  • Kneading is a process,the semolina and water combined on the tank mixed by a horizontal,flat,screw and mixer.

  • Semolina has 13-15% moisture content.

  • Temperature of semolina should be 25°C

  • Kneading process takes about 15-20 minutes.

Vacuumming

  • The dough which is kneaded enough comes to the compartment where the air is pieces.Vacuum is applied here for 3-5 minutes.

Vacuum chamber to remove air bubbles are present in the macaroni extrusion process prior to the pasta press.

Vacuum is applied to reduce air bubbles formation in macaroni.

 Pressing

  • The kneaded pasta dough comes to the mold with a certain pressure.

  • High quality of production

Cutting

  • The paste through the mold is converted to the desired shape.

Pre Drying

The pre drying reduces the moisture content of the macaroni to  18-22 %.

  • The necessary time change according to the shape of macaroni (40-150 minutes ) in the drying cabin,the hot air that provides drying is spread on the product by means of fans.

  • Moisture released during product is removed from the environment by absorbing system.

  • The temperature increases as the product moves through the cabinet.

  • This provides the moisture balance of the inner and outer surface of the product.It also prevents cracking and breaking.

Dryıng System of Macaroni

  • Moving system

  • Constant system

  • Long springs arranged with suspension system first and last drying in drying chambers.After the cooling process again the system is suspended with the suspension system.

Final Drying

  • At the end of this period,the moisture content of the pasta is reduced to 12,5-13 %.The time and temperature applied are between 40-50 °C and 55-65 % relative humidity,depending on the type of pasta and the method used.

  • This process takes 4-5 hours.

Cooling

  • This process increase the quality and provide the stabilization of the macaroni.Reduces the risk of crack formation.

  • This stage is called shocking.

  • At the end of the drying, macaroni is cooled in maximum 12.5% moisture content in 28-32˚C.

  • Cooling step is done using cooling air suddenly. And then, cooled macaroni are storage in storaged silos.

  • After the cooling our product ready for the packaging

Packaging

  • Cooled macaroni is packaged in 500gr or 250gr packet by packaging machines.

  • Cellulose film , polyethylene and cellophane are used for packaging material.

  • There are two filling section ;

  • Vertical filling section.

  • Horizontal filling section.

RAW MATERİALS ANALYSIS

  • For water; Microbial test (E. Coli )

  • For semolina;

  • 1) Moisture Content Analysis

  • 2) Hectoliter Value

  • 3) Protein Content

  • 4) Impurity Determination

  • 5) Gluten Content

  • 6) Sedimentation Analysis

Codex of macaronı

CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS ANALYSIS OF COOKED MACARONI

  • color analysis

  • firmness during cooking

  • texture properties

  • amount of substance passing water from pasta

  • total amount of organic matter

PRODUCT PARAMETERS

  • Moisture content

  • Protein content

  • Amount of ash

  • Color measurement


Corn Oil Production ( Buket KOŞAR )

FE 401 FOOD TECHNOLOGY

CORN OIL PRODUCTION

BUKET KOŞAR

NURBANU TANIŞ

SAMYELİ HARBİYECİ

SELİN GÜLEÇ

HATİCE ERDOĞAN

SUPERVISOR: PROF. DR. FAHRETTİN GÖĞÜŞ

HISTORY

Corn, Zea mays L., a plant belonging to the grass family, is native to both North an South America.

It was the staple grain of the Indians for centuries before Europeans reached the New World.

In 1889, Theadere and Benjamin Hudnut made a machine which extracts the corn oil from corn germ.

Industrial Uses of Corn

Human food

Animal feed

Starch production

Glucose syrup production

Oil production

Flour production

Alcohol and whiskey production