Etiket Arşivleri: FE 206

FE 206 Food Microbiology I Lecture #1 ( Dr. Çisem Bulut ALBAYRAK )


    Department of Food Engineering

  • FE 206 Food Microbiology I

  • Lecture #1

  • Cisem Bulut Albayrak, Ph.D.

  • FE 206 Food Microbiology I

  • Section I

  • Tuesdays

  • Lecture 08:30-10:15

  • Lab 10:30-12:15

  • Textbook

  • Doyle and Buchanan, Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 2013, 4th ed. ASM Press, ISBN: 978-1555816261

  • Available in University Library as e-book

  • Grading

  • Attendance

  • Student attendance is mandatory and students must attend all sessions

  • Small tolerance may be shown

  • At least 70 % attendance in lectures and

    80% in labs are expected

  • Binomial nomenclature

  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • Escherichia coli

  • Homo sapiens

  • Types of Microorganisms in Food

  • Important Microorganisms in Foods







  • Fungus – Fungi

  • Chytridiomycetes-Members are found in soil, fresh water, and saline estuaries.

  • Zygomycetes- fungi that reproduce sexually by forming zygospores

  • Ascomycetes

  • Basidiomycetes

  • Deuteromycetes (Fungi Imperfecti): No known sexual growth

  • Fungus physiology and structure

  • Most fungi are multicellular, forming a network of hyphae (sing. hypha)

  • Hyphae that extend above the surface can produce asexual spores called conidia (sing. conidium)

Conidia are often pigmented and resistant to drying

  • Hyphae form compact tufts called mycelia

  • Most fungal cell walls are made of chitin

  • Fungal Diseases

  • Fungi can cause disease (mycosis) in plants and animals

–Mycoses in humans range in severity from “athlete’s foot”     to       histoplasmosis

  • Fungal Reproduction and Phylogeny

  • Asexual reproduction in three forms

–Growth and spread of hyphal filaments

–Asexual production of spores

–Simple cell division (budding yeasts)

  • Some fungi produce spores as a result of sexual reproduction

–Sexual spores can originate from the fusion of two haploid cells to form a diploid cell (ascospores, basidiospores, zygospores)

–Spores are resistant to drying, heating, freezing, and chemicals

  • Ascomycetes

  • Key genera: Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Microsporum, Morchella

  • Around 50,000 species of molds, yeasts, an plant parasites

  • Also known as (aka) Sac fungi

  • Budding Yeast

  • Basidiomycetes

  • Key genera: Agaricus, Amanita

  • Over 30,000 described species

  • Many are recognizable as mushrooms and toadstools

–Also yeasts and pathogens of plants and humans

  • Undergo both vegetative and sexual reproduction

  • Zygomycetes

  • Key genera: Rhizopus, Mucor, Encephalitozoon

–Known primarily for food spoilage

–Commonly found in soil and decaying plant material

–All are coenocytic (multi nuclei)

–Sexual spores are called zygospores

  • Rhizopus stolonifer (black bread mold) is representative

  • Microsporidia: unicellular, obligate parasites

–Often infect immune-compromised individuals

  • Important Bacterial Groups

  • Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

–Gram (+), non-sporulating rods/cocci, produce lactic acid

Lactobacillus, Lactococcus

  • Acetic acid bacteria

–Gram (-), obligate aerobic, chemoorganotrophic


  • Butyric acid bacteria

–Spore forming anaerobes

Clostridium butyricum

  • Important Bacterial Groups

  • Proteolytic bacteria

  • Lipolytic bacteria

  • Thermophilic bacteria

  • Psychrophilic bacteria

  • Halophilic bacteria

  • Sporeformers

  • Sources of Microorganisms in Foods

  • Water

–Water used in production


  • Plants and Plant Products

–Human pathogens from contaminated soil, water

–Mold from soil

  • Sources of Microorganisms in Foods

  • Food Utensils and Packaging Materials

–Open served foods

  • Intestinal Tract of the Human and Animals


E. coli, Salmonella



  • Sources of Microorganisms in Foods

  • Food Handlers

–Personal hygiene

  • Food Ingredients



  • Sewage!!!

  • Sources of Microorganisms in Foods

  • Animals, Birds, and Fish

–Natural flora of animals

  • Air, Dust, and Soil

–Bacterial spores

–Fungus spores

  • Miscellaneous Sources

  • Animal feeds, Rodents, Insects

  • Primary Sources of Microorganisms

  • Pathogenic Escherichia coli – intestine

  • Salmonella – intestine, poultry, eggs

  • Campylobacter jejuni – poultry

  • Staphylococcus aureus – nasal cavity

  • Streptococcus pyogenes – nasal cavity

  • Listeria monocytogenes – cheese, milk, fish

  • Bacillus cereus – starchy foods, rice, pasta

  • Brucella – raw milk and products

  • Clostridium perfringens – soil

  • Resources

  • Brock Biology of Microorganisms, Pearson

Microbial Growth – Kinetics First Order ( FE 206 – Lecture 4 )

FE-206 Food Microbiology1

Spring 2016


  • Microbial Growth – Kinetics First Order

  • First Order Kinetics

Food microbiology is concerned with all phases

Of microbial growth (lag,log, stationary, death phase).Growth curves are normally plotted as the number of cells on a log scale or log10 cell number versus time.

  • Table First order kinetics to describe exponential growth and inactivation

  • Growth Kinetics

g can be calculated by

g=t/n=(0.3 t)/”log10N-log10N0 “

Example: Initial population is 103 CFU/ml and incerased to 106 cells in 300 min. What is generation time?

g=”0.3∗300″ /(6-3)=30 min or you can first calculate µ and then calculate g.

2.3log(N/N0)= µ t            µ =0.023min-1  and g=0.693/ µ

                                            g=30.13 min

 µ  can be obtained by slope of straight line when the log numbers of the cell is plotted  against time.

Ex:Ground meat manufactured with N0=1.2*104 CFU/g.

How long it be held at 7°C before reaching a level of 108CFU/g (for  µ=0.025 h-1)


108 =1.2*104e0.025t

t=361.12 h

  • Death Kinetics-

Killing can be by heat, radiation,acid,bacteriocin and other lethal agents is also governed by first order kinetics.

D value=amount of time required to reduce N0 by 90% is the most frequently used constant.

The relationship between k and temperature is explained by arrhenius equation

k=A eEa/RT

  • Z value

Zvalue= a number of degees required to change in the D values by a factor 10, or

It is the temperature required for one log10 reduction in the D-value.

z-value  is used to determine the time values with different D-values at different temperatures with its equation shown below:

where T is temperature in °F or °C.

This D-value is affected by pH of the product where low pH has faster D values on various foods. The D-value at an unknown temperature can be calculated [1] knowing the D-value at a given temperature provided the Z-value is known.

For example: If Dvaue at 121 °C is 1.5 min and z value is 10 °C. The D value at 131 °C will be 0.15 min.

  • Importance of Being small size

(Surface area)/volume=(4πr^2)/(4/3 πr^3 )=3/r      high ratio

Cell mass is close to cell surface, no circulatory metabolism are required  and this limits the size of bacteria to microscopic dimensions.

As the cell size increases, the s/v ratio decreases, which adversely affects the transport of nutrients into and end-products out of the cell.

  • Microbial Growth Characteristics in Foods


2.Metabiotic Growth

3.Symbiotic Growth

4.Synergistic Growth


6.Antagonistic Growth


  • 1.Competition

Energy and nutrient sources are often present in limiting concentrations; microorganisms compete each other for nutrients and results in exclusion of slower growing species.

Foods contain a mixed population of microorganisms. Competition among the different kinds of microorganisms in food determines which one will outgrow the others and cause its characteristics types of changes.

  • 2. Metabiotic (Sequential) Growth

Different types of microorganism present normally in foods, but the predominant  types can change with time during storage.

Ex: If the food is packaged in a bag with a little bit of air(e.g. ground meat),the aerobes will grow first and utilize O2. The environment will become anaerobic, in which anaerobes grow favorably.

Ex: In most food fermentations metabiotic growth is observed.

In Sauerkraut fermentation,4 different bacterial species grow in succession, one creating the favorable conditions for the next one.

First ,coliform grow produce acid and activate the growth of lactic acid bacteria.

second, Leuconoctoc mesenteroides ;

 third Lb. plantarum

Last, acid tolerant Lb. brevis

  • 3.Symbiotic Growth

Two or more microorganisms help one another during growth in food.

In yogurt;there are two types of lactic acid bacteria.

  1. S. thermophilus

2.Lb. bulgaricus

  1. thermophilus produces small quantities of formic acid and stimulates Lb. Bulgaricus.

Lb. bulgaricus produce aminoacid inturn these products stimulate the growth Str. thermophilus

  • 4.Synergistic Growth

When two types of microorganism grow together and may able to bring changes which could not produce alone.

Acetaldehyde is desirable flavor component in yogurt.

  1. thermophilus produce 8 ppm Acetaldehyde

Lb. bulgaricus produce 10 ppm Acetaldehyde in milk independently,when they grow together, they produce 30ppm Acetaldehyde .

  • 5.Commensalism

Microorganisms may not  effect each other but one organisms uses the substrate whic isproduced by other.

For ex: cellulose hydrolyzing microorganisms  produce glucose and cellulose non hydrolyzing micoorganims use this glucose.

One population benefits while latter remain  unaffected.

  • 6.Antagonistic Growth

Microorganisms can adversely affect each other, one kill the other. Some Gr(+) bacteria produce antimicrobial components that can kill many other types.

For ex: L. lactis ssp. lactis produce bacteriocin called nisin and inhibits Gr(-)bacteria.

  • III. Chemical Changes Caused my microorganisms

1.Changes in nitrogenous organic compounds

2.Changes in organic carbon compounds

  1. a) Carbohydrates

b)Organic acids

c)Other compounds


e)Pectic substances