In this experiment we examined with milk. We used different types of milk such as light UHT, raw milk, UHT (half-fat), UHT (full-fat), pasteurized and baby milk. We researched amount of protein, total acidity, total solid, ash, specific gravity and turbidity.
Turbidity test indicates that pasteurization process is done or not. In the raw milk tubes, turbidity was observed as the white precipitation and the result is suitable for the TSE becouse of the raw milk is not applied to heat. In the UHT tubes, faint turbidity was observed which means that the milk is not include microorganisms any more after heat treatment.
Specific gravity is made in detecting adulterations of milk. The aim of examining specific gravity, to look for the components of milk, to determine any fat is hired or not, to observe any water is added into. Adding water lowers the specific gravity, since it reduces the percentage of solids which are dissolved in the liquid part of milk. If the specific gravity of a sample of milk is below 1.030 or above 1.034, the milk may be considered to be adulterated. We observed different results in the two raw milk that are one of 1.03( was examined by the group 2) and the other( was examined by the group 8) is 1.026. Therefore we can say water may be added into the milk of group 8.
In this experiment, our aim is to demostrate the working principles of concentric tube heat exchanger operating under paralel and counter flow conditions and the observe the effect of flow rate and hot water temperature variation the performance charasteristics of a concentric tube heat exhanger.
A heat exchanger is used when it is necessary to transfer heat from one fluid to another without mixing the fluids. Two types of heat exchangers, parallel flow and counter flow, will be examined in this lab. The parallel flow heat exchanger has the hot and cold fluids flowing in the same direction whereas the two fluids flow in the opposite direction with a counter flow exchanger. The effect of flow rate variation on the performance characteristics of a counter flow heat exchanger will be studied also.
In that experiment, we studied on plate and frame filter press by using mint solution. Filtration is an important unit process which is used in fruit juice, oil, etc. industries. The principles behind filtration are basically very simple. All that is involved is the separation of a solid from the liquid in which it is suspended by passing the liquid through a porous medium with pore sizes too small to allow passage of the solid particles. In the plate and frame filter press method, the solid particles are separated from liquid part by using high pressure. Solid particles are separated with filters which can not pass from filter, so their particle size is so high with respect to filter pores. Pressure is help to separate the particles by increasing flow rate of liquid.
Flow rate is one of the most important effect on filtering. Because in increasing flow rate, the separation of cake increase with increasing time and depending on pressure. Type of filters and pore size of the filters are the other effects. Because of these effects quality of filtration change. Also pore size effect the quality, the small pore size increases the clarification of the liquid.
In filtration the liquid passes through two resistances in series; that of the cake and that of the filter medium. The filter medium resistance, which is the only resistance in clarifying filters, is normally important only during the early stages of cake filtration. The cake resistance is zero at the start and increase with time as filtration proceeds. However, according to our results the cake resistance of mint didn’t increase with time. Time for filtrate collection decreased and this was not expected result.
Stanley E. Charm, Sc.D; Fundamentals of Food Engineering, Third Edition, 1978, Avi Publishing Company, Inc.
Christi J. Geankoplis, Transport Processes and Unit Operations , Third Editions; 1993, Prentice Hall International, Inc.
D.A. Blackadder, R.M. Nedderman, A Handbook of Unit Operations
In this experiment we have tried to understand how the pipe length, fluid flow rate, bending, elbows, and valves are affecting the head of the fluid that is flowing in side a particular type of pipe such as steel.
In that experiment we have seen that the flow rate causes head change, also the head losses are changing on a particular fitting or in a straight pipe. This is the case that was expected by looking the head loss equations, that is caused by the interaction of the fluid molecules with the inner side of the pipe surface molecules. In the experiment we have found that the friction factor or the fanning factor and the K values are changing by the change of the fluid flow rate by inversely. That is caused by the interaction of the fluid molecules and the pipe surface molecules as mentioned previously, when the fluid moves faster and faster the interaction between them is getting lower and by the consequence of this the factors values getting lower, but in the other hand the head losses are getting larger than the slower flow rates, that is caused by the velocity which is effect by the power of 2, and that is why the flow rates cause larger changes in head losses. For the flowing fluids velocity change cause change of Reynolds’s number, that determines the type of flow, weather it is laminar or turbulent, which is directly effects the characteristics of the flow, and changes all values, constants and other variables that are effecting the flow, and the flow regime. If we look for the overall changes in head losses while friction factor is getting smaller, since velocity getting larger by the square power the head losses getting larger when the flow rates increase. Other factors for the head losses in a piping system are the minor factors that are caused affecting the head loss while a fluid flows in a pipe, but not so much effectively changes the head of the fluid. They caused small head losses in the system, that is why they are called minor factors. Also by looking our experiment we can also figure out the effects of these fitting on the system. For the elbows, expansion or contraction parts, bends there is not so much head loss, but this is not the mean of that we can neglect the effect of these. When the number of these fittings are much enough, they can cause very effective head losses. The valves are much effective for the head loss than the bending or expansion, but in our data there is an inconsistency for the gate valve versus different flow rates, this can be occur by the U tube which was connected to the each end of the gate valve, there can be excess air, which can change the pressure of the water, and can make us to read incorrectly the value of the piezometer.
In conclusion we have make some observations during the experiment, and have taken some notes about the experiment, also after the experiment, by calculating the required values we have get an idea about how the friction effects the flow, and also the effects of pipe types and the fittings on the flow. Moreover we have learned how the flow type and the flowing material’s viscosity affecting in a flow.
In this experiment, we have learned the working principals of dry milling, and how it effects the wheat particles, also which changes occurs during the milling of wheat. In the other hand, some quality parameters are also was discussed, and how they are changing by which parameters has been considered too. The tampering was also discussed, and the effects of the tempering was learned.
We have done dry milling in our experiment, and we have recorded the sieving results, which gives us the distrubution of particle diameter. We have used two types of sieves; the milling machine’s sieves and, specifically designed sieving machine which screen diameters are known. According to our data, we could not able to obtain 100 % flour at first sieving, but we get fractions instead of this. Also some of these were bran particles which can not ground in to so fine particles. Also this may be caused by the gap between the crushing rolls, which can be not so close to each other. According to other data, we also could not be able to get the all feed that we hav introduced into the machine. There was some losses, they may be due to loss of water by evaporation during the milling, which apply large shear stress on wheat and cause high temperature increase in microregions, and the losses can be occur because of formation of fine particles, and suspending in the milling machine. This problem also, seen in the industry, which can cause explosion due to fine particle formation. These particles can be charged statically, and can be explode soon.
In the experiment, we have looked for the ash content of the flour, which is a quality parameter for the flour. We have looked first three sieves for the ash content. The results show us, the first sieve has highest ash content value, and the third has lowest ash content value. This was because of the accumulation of the bran particles on the first sieve. They contains more minerals than the endosperm. This was the expected result.
In this experiment, the rheological properties of sumac concentrate was determined with different brix values in different temperature ranges (10, 20, 30 oC) and obtain some data related with shear stress, shear rate and viscosity. The graphs which is plotted according to these data was interpreted by Power law and Arrhenius equation and we have found that sumac concentrate shows Non-Newtonion fluid behaviour.
In the work of Chemical engineering, heat exchanger is an essential part of a unit operation. Double pipe heat exchanger is an excellent example to demonstrate the principle of heat transfer using a simple-structured equipment.
In this experiment we worked on concentric tube heat exchanger. The principle of this device is to cool a hot fluid or to heat a cold fluid by using countercurrent or cocurrent flow. The external surface of the exchanger is insulated to minimize losses in the system, hot water is fed through the iner pipe, with cooling water in the outer annulus.
We worked the concentric heat exchanger with different flow rates and different temperatures to measure the THout, TCin and Tcout values.
The purpose of this experiment is that to prepare media from nutrient agar for cultivating microorganisms. Bacteria have special requirements to grow. In order to see bacterial growth, a medium is needed. A MEDIUM is a nutritional environment for bacteria to grow. There are two primary forms of media: Liquid (Broth) and Solid (Agar). The most common solid medium used to grow bacteria in a microbiology lab is Nutrient Agar. The most common liquid medium used in the lab is Nutrient Broth. AGAR is derived from the extract of seaweed (an alga).Agar contains two main components: agarose and agaropectin. Agar contains solidifying factors and therefore has a gelatin like nature. Some agars are used in cooking and preparation of ice cream. The most familiar food is Jell-O. Nutrients such as peptone, tryptone, soy, and beef extract, salt, calcium, magnesium, water, and manganese are added to the agar or broth providing the bacterium with a proper growing environment.
All bacteriological media must first be sterilized before it can be used. Distilled water is added to agar, heated to a boil then autoclaved. An AUTOCLAVE sterilizes the bacterial growth medium so that a pure culture can be obtained. The autoclave sterilizes the medium by subjected it to a temperature of 121° C for 15 to 20 minutes. It uses steam under pressure to obtain this temperature. This will kill any heat resistant bacteria that have contaminated the medium. Once autoclaved, the agar can then be poured into a PETRI PLATE or test tube. When placed in a test tube, it can either be tilted on a slanted board so that it will solidify at a SLANTor remain upright to solidify into a DEEP. Broths are dissolved with water, added to test tubes, capped then autoclaved.
Media must include source of C, N, P, S, 4 of the 6 major nutrients (CHNOPS), as well as micronutrients. These are usually present as trace contaminants in water, on glassware, or in chemicals used to make media.
Media can be liquid or solid. Use for different purposes:
Liquid media: easiest to prepare and use. Good for growing quantities of microbes needed for analysis or experiments. Unless inoculated with pure culture, cannot separate different organisms.
Solid media: usually made by adding agar, seaweed extract, to appropriate liquid. 1.5% agar is standard for plates. Agar melts at 80-90 deg. C, will remain liquid until temperature cools to 40-42 deg. C. Very few microbes can degrade agar, so it is normally not a source of C, and acts as inert gelling medium.
Synthetic of Defined Media: usually relatively simple media, all components are known. Useful for photoautotrophs, also in some experimental situations where want to select mutants unable to use certain compounds, or for radioisotope labeling. Example: you want to select a microbe that can obtain all its nitrogen from atmospheric N2. You would prepare synthetic medium with sources of C, P, and S, but no N source. Organisms would be unable to grow unless they can fix nitrogen from air.
Complex Media: composition of media not completely known. Often made from inexpensive organic materials such as slaughterhouse wastes (tryptic digests called tryptone, trypticase, etc.), soybeans, yeast wastes from brewing (rich source of vitamins), animal blood, etc. All our standard laboratory media in MCB 229 are complex media, such as Tryptone agar, TSA (trypticase soy agar), Nutrient agar, etc.
Selective Media: media favors the growth of one or more microbes. Example: bile salts inhibit growth of most gram-positive bacteria and some gram-negative bacteria, but enteric bacteria adapted to life in animal gut can grow well. Include bile salts in some media such as EMB, MacConkey agar (will use later in this course) to select for enteric.
Differential Media: media allows distinguishing between different bacteria that grow. Ex: MacConkey agar has color indicator that distinguishes presence of acid. Bacteria that ferment a particular sugar (e.g., glucose in culture media) will produce acid wastes on plates, turn pH indicator red. Bacteria that cannot ferment the same sugar will grow but not affect pH, so colonies remain white.
Note that it is possible to design a medium that is both selective and differential.
Sterilization of Media and Equipment:
Sterilization denotes the use of physical or chemical agents to eliminate all viable microbes from a material, whereas disinfection generally refers to the use of germicidal chemical agents to destroy the potential infectivity of a material and need not imply elimination of all viable microbes. Sanitizing refers to procedures used to lower the bacterial content of utensils used for food without necessarily sterilizing them. Antisepsis usually refers to the topical application of chemicals to a body surface to kill or inhibit pathogenic microbes.
Heat is generally preferred for sterilizing materials excepts those that it would damage. The agent penetrates clumps and reaches sites that might be protected from a chemical disinfectant. Fungi, most viruses and vegetative cells of various pathogenic bacteria are sterilized within a few minutes at 50 to 70 °C and the spores of various pathogens at 100 °C. The spore of some saprophytes, however, can survive boiling for hours. Because absolute sterility is essential for culture media and for the instruments used in major surgical procedures, it has become standard practice to sterilize such materials by steam in an autoclave at a temperature of 121 °C (250 °F) for 15 to 20minutes.
In using an autoclave, it is important that flowing steam be allowed to displace the air before building up pressure , for in steam mixed with air, the temperature is determined by the partial pressure of the water vapour. Thus, if air at 1 atm (15 psi) remains in the chamber and steam is added to provide an additional gauge pressure at 1 atm, the average temperature will be only 100° (that of steam at 1 atm). More over, heating will be uneven because the air will tend to remain at the bottom of the chamber.
Pasteurization is now used primarily for milk. It consists of heating at 62 °C for 30 minutes or in “flash” pasteurization, at a higher temperature for a fraction of a minute. The total bacterial count is generally reduced by 97% to 99%. Pasteurization is effective because the common milk borne pathogens (tubercle bacillus, Salmonella, Streptococcus, and Brucella) do not form spores.
Moist heat and Dry heat:
Sterilization by heat involves protein denaturation and the melting of membrane lipids as a consequence of disruption of multiple weak bonds. Among these, hydrogen bonds between a >C=O and an HN< group are more readily broken if they can be replaced with hydrogen bonds. Accordingly, sterilization requires a higher temperature for dry than for wet material. Reliable sterilization of glassware and instruments in a dry oven requires 160 °C for 1 to2 hours. In addition, bacteria and viruses, like isolated enzymes, are more stable in an aqueous medium when the water concentration is reduced by the presence of a high concentration of glycerol or glucose.
The role of water in heat denaturation of proteins is illustrated by the usefulness of steam in pressing woolen fabrics (e.i. in shifting the multiple weak bonds between fibrous molecules of keratin).
When a suspension of bacteria is frozen, the crystallization of the water results in the formation of tiny pockets of concentrated solution of salts, which do not themselves crystallize unless the temperature is lowered below the eutectic point (about -20°C for NaCl); at this temperature, the solution becomes saturated, and the salt also crystallizes. The localized high concentrations of salt, and possibly the ice crystals, damage the bacteria, as shown by their increased sensitivity to lysozyme. Only some of the cells are killed, but repeated cycles of freezing and thawing result in the progressive decrease in the viable count.
With radiation of decreasing wavelength, the killing of bacteria first becomes appreciable at 330nm and then increases rapidly. The sterilizing effect of sunlight is attributable mainly to its content of UV light (300-400 nm). Most of the UV light approaching the earth from the sun, and all of that shorter than 290 nm, is screened out by the ozone in the outer regions of the atmosphere; otherwise, organisms could not survive on the earth’s surface.
This mechanism is not convenient for routine laboratory use, but intense source of radioactivity are now being used to sterilize food. Public fear of danger from the irradiation is unwarranted, as the activated mutagenic molecules produced by the irradiation are extremely short-lived.
Ultrasonic and sonic waves:
In the supersonic (ultrasonic) range, with a frequency of 15,000 to several hundred thousand per second, sound waves denature proteins, disperse a variety of materials, and sterilize and fragment bacteria. The effect has not been of practical value as a means of sterilization, but it is useful for disrupting cells for experimental purposes (sonication).
Bacteria- free filtrates may be obtained by the use of filters with a maximum pore size not exceeding 400nm.This procedure is used for solutions that cannot tolerate sterilization by heat (e.g. sera an media containing proteins or labile metabolites). The early, rather absorptive filters of asbestos or diatomaceous earth were replaced by unglazed porcelain or sintered glass, and these in turn have been replaced by nitrocellulose membrane filters of graded porosity. Membrane filters can also used to recover bacteria quantitatively for chemical and microbiological analysis.
Chemical methods of microbial control: Most of the chemical agents are used for disinfecting and cannot achieve sterility. The term disinfectant is restricted to those that are rapidly bactericidal at low concentrations. The activity of a disinfectant depends upon the pathogen/nature of material being disinfected.
Salts: Pickling in brine or thermal treatment with solid NaCl has been used for many centuries as a means of preserving perishable meats and fish. Bacteria differ widely in susceptibility.
Heavy Metals: The various metallic ions can be arranged in a series of decreasing antibacterial activity. With small inocula, Hg + and Ag +. At the head of the list, are effective at less than 1 ppm because of their high affinity for –SH groups. The antibacterial action of Hg 2+ can be reversed readily by sulfhydryl compounds.
Phenol and Phenol derivatives: Phenol (carbolic acid) has an anaesthetic effect at concentration below 1% but at concentrations above 1% it has significant antibacterial effect. Phenol and its derivatives (phenolics), exert antimicrobial effect by damaging plasma membrane, denaturing proteins and inactivating enzymes. The phenolics contain a molecule of phenol that has been chemically altered to reduce its irritating qualities and increase its antibacterial activity in combination with soap or detergent. They are often used as disinfectants. Cresols are a group of phenolic found in Lysol. Another phenolic derivative a bisphenol -hexachlorophene is ingredient in soaps and lotions used as disinfectants. It is effective against gram positive streptococci, and staphylococci which cause skin infections.
Halogens: Particularly chlorine and iodine are antimicrobial agents effective against all kinds of bacteria, many endospores, fungi, and viruses. Iodine inhibits the microbial protein synthesis by combining with the amino acid tyrosine. The germicidal action of chlorine is due to the formation of hypochlorous acid, which forms when chlorine is mixed with water. A liquid form of compressed chlorine is used for disinfecting drinking water, swimming pools, and sewage. Also hypochlorite solutions (200ppm Cl2) are used to sanitize clean surfaces in the food and the dairy industries and in restaurants.
Alcohols: Effective against bacteria and fungi but not endospores and viruses. Alcohol denatures proteins and dissolves lipid component of cell membranes. Alcohol has the advantage of acting rapidly and evaporating without leaving any residue. Ethanol and isopropanol are the two important alcohols most commonly used.
600 mL Nutrient agar
600 mL distilled water
a piece of folio
a piece of cotton
Firstly, required amount of nutrient agar was calculated. This amount was 12gr. for 600 mL, then 12gr. of nutrient agar was weighed and was put in Florence flask. Next, 600 mL of distilled water was added above 12gr. of nutrient agar. Afterwards, solution was heated until it completely dissolved and solution had clear appearance, then the prepared solution in Florence flask was put in the autoclave at 121 °C for 2 hours for sterilisation. Solution was cooled to about 45 °C after than 2 hours. Finally, about 20 mL of solution was poured into each Petri plate and solutions in Petri plate were waited until it solidified.
In this experiment, we prepared Nutrient Agar Media for Petri plate. Previously, a certain amount of nutrient agar was mixed with distilled water and then solution was heated, and it was put in autoclave for sterilization, after then two hours as far as about 45 °C it was cooled. Afterwards, approximately 32 Petri plates it was poured.
During experiment, we learned to prepare different media according to a certain microorganisms and a certain purposes. These media are anaerobic, synthetic, transport, enriched, selective, differential and microbiological assay media. For example; in anaerobic media; oxygen is removed from media with reducing agent, in synthetic media; their chemicals and concentration is known and identified, in transport media; microorganism is transferred from place to other place temporarily, in enriched media; number of scarce microorganisms are increased, but during this process growth of other microorganisms are not prevented, in selective media; growth of a special microorganisms is supplied and growth of other microorganisms are prevented, in differential media; appearance and size of microorganisms are determined with indicator, in microbiological assay media; concentration of some substances are measured. These media are prepared from nutrient broth and nutrient agar that broth represents liquid media and agar represents solid media.
Some media are slant media shape some media also are vertical shape. Slant media provide a large surface area so slant media is convenient for aerobic organisms, in vertical (deep) media, microorganism is cultivated toward the penetration of media and Petri plate also supplies a large surface area and because of this it supplies growth of microorganisms in a short time.
Finally; sterilization of media and equipment were learned during experiment. Moreover, required criteria one by one was told us. For sterilization, applied processes are classified as physical and chemical methods. Physical methods are heat, wet sterilization, tyndallization dry heat sterilization, radiation, freezing and bacteriological filtration. Chemical methods are salt, phenol and phenol derivatives, halogens, and alcohols. Chemical and physical methods and their effects on the microorganisms and equipment were learned and examined.