Etiket Arşivleri: ENZYMES

Introduction to Enzymology

Introduction to Enzymology

• Functional Properties

• Nomenclature

• Enzyme specificity

• Enzyme regulation

Enzymes – Biological catalysts

• By definition a Catalyst :
– Accelerates the rate of chemical reactions
– Capable of performing multiple reactions (recycled)
– Final distribution of reactants and products governed by equilibrium properties

• Enzymes are biological catalysts
– Proteins, (a few RNA exceptions)
– Orders of magnitude faster than chemical catalysts
– Act under mild conditions (temperature and pressure)
– Highly Specific
– Tightly Regulated

Enzymes are critical for every aspect of cellular life

Enzyme Properties

• Vital for chemical reactions to occur in the cell (the breaking, forming and rearranging of bonds on a substrate (reactant) )

• Modified substrate (now a product) often performs a different task

• Consequence:
Transformation of energy and matter in the cell Cell-cell and intracellular communication Allows for cellular homeostasis to persist




Submitted to:

Dr. Gul Shahnaz

Submitted by:

Group 1 A
Adeel Afzal
Fatima Saleh
Fatima Zahid
Maida Shafiq
Najia Hafeez


Mechanism of Enzyme Action
Enzyme Kinetics



 Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up the rate of the biochemical reaction.

 Most enzymes are three dimensional globular proteins (tertiary and quaternary structure).

 Some special RNA species also act as enzymes and are called Ribozymes e.g. hammerhead ribozyme.


 The active site of an enzyme is the region that binds substrates, co-factors and prosthetic groups and contains residue that helps to hold the substrate.

 Active sites generally occupy less than 5% of the total surface area of enzyme.

 Active site has a specific shape due to tertiary structure of protein.

 A change in the shape of protein affects the shape of active site and function of the enzyme.

Enzyme Immobilization ( Jahir Ahmed )

What Is Enzyme Immobilization ?

Enzyme immobilization may be defined as a process of confining the enzyme molecules to a solid support over which a substrate is passed and converted to products.

What Is An Immobilized Enzyme?

An immobilized enzyme is one whose movement in space has been restricted either completely or to a small limited region.

Why Immobilize Enzymes?

Protection from degradation and deactivation.

Re-use of enzymes for many reaction cycles, lowering the total production cost of enzyme mediated reactions.

Ability to stop the reaction rapidly by removing the enzyme from the reaction solution.

Enhanced stability.

Easy separation of the enzyme from the product.

Product is not contaminated with the enzyme.

An Ideal Carrier Matrices For Enzyme Immobilization


Physically strong and stable.

Cost effective.


Reduction in product inhibition.