Etiket Arşivleri: Elie Metchnikoff

Probiotics

PROBIOTICS

Definition

Live microbial feed supplements that have beneficial effects on the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance.

HISTORY

Elie Metchnikoff

At the start of the 20th century, Russian noble prize winner and father of modern immunology, Elie Metchnikoff, a scientist at the Pasteur institute, was the first conceptualize “probiotics”.

In 1907 Metchnokoff proposed that the acid producing bacteria in fermented milk products could prevent “fouling” in the large intestine and if consumed regularly, lead to a longer, healthier life

In early 1930’s, in Japan, Minoru shirota developed a fermented milk product called Yakult (probiotic yogurt like product made by fermenting a mixture of skimmed milk with a special strain of Lactobacillus casei shirota).

Probiotic term coined in 1965 by Lilly and Stillwell.

Newborn Microbiota

Initially depends on

Mother’s microbiota maternal vaginal and intestinal flora constitutes the source of bacteria, which colonizes the intestine of new born.

Mode of deliver

Birth environment

Rarely genetic factors

After infantry probiotics supplied from raw foods; such as lactic acid fermented foods such as yogurt, cheese and probiotic supplements.

Factors affecting the intestinal micro ecosystem

Antibiotics and other drug intake
Microbial infections
Diet (highly processed, low fiber foods)
Chronic diarrhea
Stress
Chlorinated water
Radiation and chemotherapy
Colonic therapies for detoxification

Characteristics of Effective Probiotics

Able to survive the passage through the digestive system.
Able to attach to the intestinal epithelia and colonise.
Able to maintain good viability.
Able to utilise the nutrients and substrates in a normal diet. non pathogenic and non toxic.
Capable of exerting a benificial effect on the host.
Stability of desired characteristics during processing, storage and transportation.
Anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, immunostimulatory.