Etiket Arşivleri: Design

Food Processes ( Dr. Ali Coşkun DALGIÇ )

SECTION SIX FOOD PROCESSES

Principles of Food Process Design

Process Design is used in the design of entirely new (grass-roots) plants, but mostly in the expansion of existing production facilities, and in plant upgrading and modernization. New and improved processing facilities are necessary to meet the demands for new products, improved quality, process control, energy saving, and strict safety and environmental requirements. Economics and profitability must always be taken into account when designing new or upgraded processing plants.

Process and plant design are based on the following traditional engineering disciplines:

  • Chemical Engineering, which is concerned with the physical and engineering properties of materials, construction of process flowsheets, material and energy balances, equipment sizing, and plant utilities.

  • Mechanical Engineering, which deals with detailed engineering design of process and utility equipment, piping and material transport equipment, installation and maintenance of industrial equipment, and heating / air conditioning of industrial buildings.

  • Electrical Engineering is concerned with electrical power (e.g., motors), industrial lighting, process control, and automation of the processing plant.

  • Industrial Engineering is concerned with efficient plant operation, better utilization of material and labor resources, time-motion studies, and application of the various occupational and public health regulations at the local, state, and federal levels.

The design of food processes and food processing plants is based on the same principles of process (chemical) design, with the additional requirements for food safety and food quality. Food processes, processing equipment, and processing plants must comply with strict hygienic (sanitary) regulations.

Optimization of food processes is based on maximum preservation effect with minimum quality damage to the food product, and minimum health hazard to the consumers


Chapter-7: Control System Design

Control objectives (based on management – financial objectives, process knowledge and operational requirements) for the plant.

Safety. It is imperative that industrial plants operate safely so as to promote the well being of people and equipment within the plant and in nearby communities.

Environmental Regulations. Industrial plants must comply with environmental regulations concerning the discharge of gases, liquids and solids beyond the plant boundaries.

Product Specifications and Production rate. In order to be profitable, a plant must make products that meet specifications concerning product quality and production rate.

Economic Plant Operation. It is an economic reality that the plant operation over long periods of time must be profitable. Thus, the control objectives must be consistent with the economic objectives.

Stable Plant Operations. The control system should facilitate smooth, stable plant operation without excessive oscillation in key process variables. Thus, it is desirable to have smooth, rapid set- point changes and rapid recovery from plant disturbances such as changes in feed composition.