Etiket Arşivleri: Cheese Production

Cheese Production Presentation

CHEESE

Definition of Cheese fresh or mature solid or semi-solid product obtained:
• by coagulating milk, skimmed milk, partly skimmed milk, cream, whey cream, or buttermilk, or any combination of these materials, through the action of rennet or other suitable coagulating agents, and by partially draining the whey.

TURKEY’S PRODUCTION
Beyaz , Edirne ,Teneke ,Salamura % 60
Kaşar % 17
Tulum ve Mihaliç % 12
Others % 11

Clarification
(1) Cloth filters: to remove debris at the farm.
(2) Centrifugal clarifiers, medium speed centrifuges, remove particles which escape filtration.
(3) Bactofugation: high speed centrifugal process which separates bacterial cells and spores. Bactofugation removes 95% of the spores of milk
(Clostridium tyrobutyricum reduced but not eliminated)
1-2% of milk solids is transferred to the bactofugate
Standardization of cheese milk composition milk fat or protein or both.
The objective: to obtain the maximum economic return from the milk components.
Cheese yield is mainly determined by the recoveries of protein and fat
Heat treatments
-fully pasteurized milk cheese (63C, 30 min. or 72C, 16 s
-raw milk cheese. No heat treatment, more flavor. “held at 20C or more for a period of 60 days
Thermisation (63-65C, short hold) results in phosphatase positive milk which must be fully pasteurized before cheese making. over pasteurization causes denaturation of whey proteins
The effects are:
Longer flocculation times
Weak or no curd formation
Excessive loss of fines
Poor syneresis (moisture release)
Coarse textured curd with reduced ability to stretch, mat and melt.

Heat treat (55 – 65C, 16 s): subpasteurization to destroy most pathogens, some bacteria survive and contribute to cheese ripening.
This process permits fuller flavor of cheese
current regulatory purposes, subpasteurization is equivalent to raw.

Homogenisation :
fat globule sizes: from 1–15 to less than 2 micrometer.
promotes lipolysis, whitening, and flavour development
increases fat recovery and creates smoother texture in cream cheese.
Increased cheese yield due to greater moisture retention and improved fat and protein recovery.
Other additions before making the curd
Calcium chloride (CaCl2) If the milk is of poor quality for cheese making, the coagulum will be soft: heavy losses of fines (casein), fat, poor syneresis.
Add 5–20 g CaCl2 /100 kg of milk (if excessive curd is very hard)
Saltpetre (NaNO3 or KNO3)
for Clostridia and/or coliform too much saltpetre will also inhibit growth of the starter.
high doses may discolour the cheese, causing reddish streaks and an impure taste.
Max. 30 g/100 kg of milk.
Annatto : orange color for Cheddar
carotenoid similar to -carotene and Vitamin A in structure, but it has no Vitamin A activity.
Alternatives to annatto are:
Beta-carotene which is too yellow and makes the cheese taste like carrots.
-Apo-8-carotenal ( not lost in the whey.)
Adding CO2 by artificial means lowers the pH by 0.1 to 0.3 units, improves the quality)
result in shorter coagulation time or lesser rennet usage.
Development of Starter Cultures
LAB occur naturally in raw milk.
first commercial cultures: powdered starters by Chr. Hansen Labs (Denmark) end of the nineteenth century.
Microbiology of Starter Cultures
Mesophilic Starters (32 C)
Lactococcus lactis:the dominant acidifying mesophile
Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. Cremoris: catabolize citrate to carbon dioxide and the flavor compound, diacetyl.
If procedure includes high temperatures,
( Swiss, Parmesan, and Mozzarella), then a thermophilic lactic acid bacterial culture used.
The mesophilic cultures are the workhorses of the cheese industry, and are used for the majority of cheeses
Thermophilic Starters(45 C)
S thermophilus and species of Lactobacillus (Lb): bulgaricus, helveticus and lactis.
They are used in those technologies where a T> 40 °C is used, such as yogurt, Mozzarella, Emmenthal.

Function of Starter Cultures
1- acidification, (enhances the expulsion of whey , promotes the development of the texture)
2- texture enhancement, pH dictate the texture
3-flavor development.
4- Eye formation
5- health benefits.

possible causes of starter culture inhibition:
-antibiotics
-natural immunoglobulins bind to bacteria, forming clumps that eventually settle in the vat
– inhibitor is formed via the lactoperoxidase reaction
-Chemical agents used to sanitize cheese vats can occasionally inhibit cultures
-bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria
coagulation of milk proteins (casein) by one of:
A) milk-clotting enzyme, rennet( most cheeses.)
B) Direct acidification of milk to pH 4.6, or in situ production of acid by starter bacteria( cottage cheese)
C) Heat/acid coagulation, in which hot milk (80–90°C) is acidified to pH 4.6–5.3.(ricotta, quark)
Rennets
‘rennet’ : milk-clotting enzyme prepared from calf stomach, ( contains the active enzyme chymosin (rennin).
Chicken pepsin and papain are used in some countries for cheese-making.
Also, rennets from kid and lamb stomachs are available.

Rennet marketed in form of a solution with a strength of 1:10 000 to 1:15 000( one part of rennet can coagulate 10 000 – 15 000 parts of milk in 40 minutes at 35°C. )
Rennet in powder form is normally 10 times stronger than liquid rennet.
Two stabilizing factors:
1-‘hairy’ layer of surface active protein, called kappa-casein , on the surface of the micelle.
2-negative charge on the micelles. At the pH of milk the micelles are negatively charged so they repel each other.

So,two ways to coagulate milk;
1- to remove the hairy layer(enzymic coagulation.)
2- to neutralize the negative charge ( by acidification or a combination of high temperature and acidification. )
Acid coagulation
by lactic bacteria or glucono-delta-lactone (GDL is slowly hydrolysed to gluconic acid in the presence of water).
Example: cottage and bakers cheese and quark and yoghurt, commercial butter milk, kefir etc.
Heat-Acid coagulation
whey proteins become sensitive to acid coagulation after heat treatment. (ie ricotta cheese)
80 C for at least five minutes to completely denature (unfold) the whey proteins
Continue heating and acidify slowly with gentle agitation.
CHEESE MAKING STEPS
Setting the Vat
Handling Rennets
firm coagulum in 30 – 40 min.
must be diluted (about 20 times): uniform distribution.
Only 2 ppm of chlorine will destroy 40% of rennet activity in 3 minutes.
hard water( pH >7.0) decreases rennet activity.
3 Cutting The Curd
Proper cutting: important for quality and yield.
Improper cutting: the loss of fines.
Determination of curd cutting time
early and late cutting cause losses of fines.
to determine cutting time.
Manual testing: ready to cut if it breaks cleanly when a flat blade is inserted at 45o angle to the surface and then raised slowly.
oscillating viscometry, thermal conductance and sonication have been tested experimentally.
Some plants cut by the clock.
Curd size ( affects moisture and fat retention)
High temperature and low moisture varieties: smallest curd( size of rice grains.)
Medium moisture cheeses(Cheddar): 1 cm cubes.
High moisture varieties like soft ripened cheese: 2 cm

Manual cutting
cutting harps ( stainless steel frame).
cutting time : The knives should be pulled (not pushed) to cut the curd cleanly.
Automated cutting
curd size:f( design of the vat, agitators, speed of cutting (rpm), duration of cutting)
Cheddar and American varieties:4 rpm for 7 – 13 min.
increased cutting time increases curd particle size: maximum fat recovery.
Heating/cooking/scalding
promotes contraction of the curd accompanied by expulsion of whey (syneresis).
Heating: step-wise progression, since too rapid heating causes the exterior of the curds to harden and actually reduce syneresis.
Heating beyond 44°C is called scalding.
9.5 Draining
Draining time should be uniform at about 20 min to prevent variation from vat to vat. ( if water is added back to the curds, then so-called “sweet” or low-acid cheeses will result)
6 Washing
Lactose content can be adjusted by moisture removal (syneresis), fermentation, or leaching with water.
Sometimes relatively hot water (eg., Gouda) is used to dry the curd and develop its texture.
Pressing
Pressing varies from little or none for soft cheese up to 172 kPa for firm Cheddar cheese.
The warmer the curd, the less pressure required.
9.9 Salting ( normally 3-7 %)
1-before pressing,2- surface salting after pressing, 3- brine salting.
Purposes of Salting
Promote further syneresis
Slow acid development
suppress spoilage bacteria. Lactics are more salt tolerant than pathogens and spoilage bacteria.
Promote controlled ripening and flavour development.
Salty flavour
Brine salting:
Concentration 16 – 25% NaCl
Time: 20 kg cheese, 5 days or sometimes several weeks
Brine pH should be adjusted to the pH of the cheese. ( pH of 5.2 – 5.6)
Still, the most commonly used system is to place the cheese in a container with brine.
The containers should be placed in a cool room at about 12 – 14°C.
Ripening processes: chemical and physical changes
breakdown of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates (acids and sugars) modifies flavour, texture.
Ripening: from nil for fresh cheese to 5 years
interior ripening (most hard ripened cheese such as Cheddar and Italian types) may be ripened with rind formation or may be film wrapped before curing.
surface ripening include smear ripened and mould ripened
Factors Affecting Yield
Casein: principal yield determining factor. ( absorbs water, minerals and own weight)
Fat: also a principal yield component. Fat interferes with syneresis and, therefore, also contributes more than its own weight.
Cheese moisture. 1% increase causes about 1.8% increase in cheese yield.
Cheese salt. extra 0.1% salt means extra 0.14% yield
Process control parameters that affects yield
Careless cutting.
Heating too fast at early stages of cooking
Salting too soon after milling of Cheddar: rapid salt uptake, rapid synerisis, increased solubility of casein. Yield is, therefore, reduced by losses of protein, fat and soluble solids.
High temp pressing: loss of fat.
Proteolytic cultures or coagulating enzymes cause protein losses before and after cutting.
Washing removes soluble solids.
Defects Caused by Lactic Acid Bacteria
Pediococci and lactobacilli : convert (+)lactate to (−)lactate, form insoluble calcium lactate crystals, undesirable white specks in ripened Cheddar.
heterofermentative LAB (e.g. Lactobacillus brevis, L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum): open texture due to gas production.
In Swiss-type cheeses, some strains of L. bulgaricus produce a pink discoloration(due to propionibacteria. )
Defects Caused by Coliform Bacteria
coliforms : indication of poor sanitation( killed by pasteurization.)
grow rapidly in cheese during the first few days of storage.
The metabolites of coliforms : lactic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, succinic acid, ethanol, 2,3-butyleneglycol, H2 and CO2.
The production of H2 and CO2 results in early gas blowing of the cheese.
Manufacture of Blue Cheese( internally mold ripened, P. roquefortii )
allow O2 to enter the interior of the cheese and to allow CO2 out. ( cheese to breathe)
O2 supply is not generally a problem for surface mould-ripened cheeses, but for internally mould-ripened cheeses, ( a set of large bore needles (D= 0.24 cm) may be used to pierce the cheese for air to penetrate )
Cheddar Cheese
originated around the village of Cheddar, England, 30% of total cheese production of the World.
Moisture:of 35–40%, manufactured by renneting at 30 °C, cutting the coagulum into small pieces, cooking to 40 °C, drainage of the whey and pressing the curd.
textured in the vat (‘cheddared’), milled and dry-salted
molded, pressed for 12–16 h, and matured for 3–12 months, or longer.
Cheese with Eyes
Swiss cheese, easy to make but the hardest cheese to make well.
depends on two independent processes.:
-requires excellent curd handling (correct for eyes to form.)
-precise control of fermentation to poduce gas that ultimately results in eye formation.
the milk is usually standardized to 3% fat.
too much fat: too soft curd
not enough fat : too hard ……………….to poor eye development
-CO2 formation must be slow and steady.
-If too much CO2 is produced all at once or the curd is too firm: large or exploded holes are formed.
If the curd is too soft and the weak spots too numerous, then many small eyes will form.
-without a rind, the CO2 could escape
( impermeable bags provide an easy remedy)
Pizza cheese
-stretches a particular distance when a slice is moved from plate to mouth.
-remains white and resists browning even when the pizza is baked quickly at extremely high temperatures.
-Minimum fat leakage
Mozzarella is prized less for its flavor and more for its physical and functional attributes. ( unusual ability to stretch, retain fat, melt evenly, and provide a chewy mouth feel.)
These properties are influenced by the culture, the coagulant, the manufacturing conditions, and post-manufacturing handling and storage.
The metabolic activities of the thermophilic starter culture bacteria have a major impact on the finished product.
During chaddering S. thermophilus and L. helveticus (or L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) metabolize only the glucose ; the galactose is released back into the curd.
(exposed to high baking temp. reducing sugars react with amino acids, via the non-enzymatic Maillard rxn, to from brown pigments.)
moderate browning may be desirable, excessive browning or blistering is undesirable.
to reduce the galactose concentration in the cheese
– by simply washing the curds,
– by using cultures that can ferment galactose.( using mesophilic Lactococcus Lactis, requires lower cooking temp).
streching cheese : less proteoylitic activity is required
non-stretching cheese: greater proteolysis may be encouraged
extensive proteolysis: “soft” and “gummy,” cheese, less amenable to shredding.
During baking, the fat melts and liquefies, but is retained by the protein matrix( If disrupted, the fat leaks out.)

Many Mozzarella producers freeze the cheese within a few days of manufacture,to control proteoliytic activity.
Beyaz peynir, Edirne peyniri, Salamura peyniri, Teneke peyniri
60% of total cheese (10.3% milk product)
Raw milk—fat adjustment—-raw or pasteurized (both used in production)
If it is not going to be stored at 2C at least 60 days better to use pasteurized milk.
Milk held at 65-70C for 30 mins.
If milk is pasteurized. L. acid culture added
-At 28 C (generally 100 kg milk+5 or 6 cm3), rennin mixed with water (1:10) then mixed with milk.

-1,5-2,5 hrs for curd formation(if we put too much rennin cheese will be very hard in cold storage and very soft at warm temp.)
How to decide when curdling whey?
Dip your finger into cheese, pull to surface, if it does not stick to finger, smooth movement—then ready
if curd breaks and sticks to finger it is not ready.
If curd release light green water and it is to hard—over curdling occurred.
then cut into 3 cm cubes in cloths—-hang curd 2-3hours—put weight on curd—6-7 hours—cut 7 cm cubes—salting.
Keep cheese cubes in 14-20% saline water for 5 hrs.
Final cheese—-50% water, 5%salt
Saline water temperature 10-15C—sprinkle salt – – – – – – –wait for 1 day—put salt to the surfaces and place into tin cans—10-12 hrs resting—-then put saline water—-then soldered—cold storage (4-6C, at least 60 days).
Reason of some white cheeses melting breakage when go up tin can (fault in cheese)
Excess rennin usage
Keeping at high temperature—pepsin too active—breaks proteins
Not leaving – – – line after salting for one day
Kaşar Cheese:
Milk— (30-40C, rennin, 1 hr)—curd—breaking curd into a rice size—remove whey—press curd which is covered with cheese cloth 3-4 hrs.
Mixing curd in 65-75C water (for 3-4 minutes) then kneading (2-3 minutes)—
put into shaping molds—rest 1 day—salting (rest one day) continue up to 7 on top –wash them with whey—keep one week for drying
Tulum Cheese:
No heating—first steps similar
Raw cheese—break into chick bean size—salting 4-5%—put into tulum (skin of sheep or goat)—tight packing to remove air—put into cool place for 90-120 days.
BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand)
amount of oxygen required by bacteria to decompose organic matter(aerobic conditions).
solubility of oxygen in water, about 9 mg/ lt at 20C, so strong wastes must be diluted
CnHaObNc +(n+a/2-b/2-3c/4) O2 ® nCO2 + (a/2-3c/2) H2O + CNH3
Normally 20 days is required to complete rxn.
In 5 days 70-80% of rxn is completed.
So 5 day incubation is considered to be enough
BOD5 (in mg oxygen/l)
WHEY
For milk—whey ( as liquid ~90%), and cheese (~10%)
Whey: 5% lactose, 94% water, 1% lactoalbumin, globulin, minerals, vitamins
Types of whey;
Types Titratable acidity pH
Sweet 0.1-0.2% (rennin) 5.8-6.6
Medium 0.2-0.4% (rennin + acid) 5.0-5.8
Acid 0.4-0.6% (acid) 4.5-5.0
Why it is so bad to environment: “high BOD (30000-60000)”
Solution to whey problem:
Waste treatment: assume it as undesirable product and treat it
Waste management: trying to take care of it (recycling and using as fertilizer)
Whey utilization: Direct use of whey in foods

Cheese Production

Bel Paese «Country:Italy Milk:cow milk Texture:semi-soft

Bel Paese is from the Lombardy region of Italy.

• It is a modern, creamery, semi soft cheese and has a light, milky aroma.

• It is matured for 6-8 weeks.

Edam ( Holland, semi-hard to hard cheese)

It comes in a shape of ball covered with distinctive red wax.

• Edam is produced from skimmed or semi-skimmed milk.

• usually consumed young, when the texture is elastic and the flavor is smooth, sweet and nutty.

Black-wax coating means that Edam has been matured for at least 17 weeks.

MYSOST A Norwegian speciality, mysost is a firm, mild tasting whey cheese with a distinctive caramel-like aroma and a golden brown

colour. It is made by boiling down whey with milk, cream and other ingredients until a thick brown mass is formed, which is then shaped

into blocks of cheese.

Mysost — “whey cheese” is also called brunost “brown cheese”.

Myse is Norwegian for whey.

Emmental (Switzerland, hard cheese, unpasteurised thin rind is covered by paper )

The aroma is sweet ,flavor is very fruity

Emmental has walnut-sized holes one of the most difficult cheeses to be produced because of it’s complicated hole-forming

fermentation process.

Feta (Greece, soft)

• Feta is one of the most famous cheeses in Greece. Feta is solid, but crumbly with some fissures.

• Pure white, it has a milky fresh acidity.

• today most feta is made with pasteurized milk.

• It has a fat content of 40 – 50%.

Gouda (Holland, semi-hard) Named after the Dutch town of Gouda.

• It accounts for more than 60% of the cheese produced in Holland.

• It is round with very smooth, yellow, waxed rind.

• The flavor is sweet and fruity. As time passes, the taste intensifies and becomes more complex.

• Mature Gouda (18 months plus) is coated in black wax which provides a stark contrast to the deep yellow interior.

• Gouda is considered to be one of the world’s great cheeses.

• It is both a table cheese and a dessert cheese, excellent with fruit and wine.

Grana (Italy, hard)

• One-quarter of Italian milk production goes on Grana cheese.

• aged for up to four years, still have a smooth texture

Halloumi (Cyprus, hard)

• It is a stretched curd cheese produced from sheeps’s, cow’s or goat’s milk.

• It has a shape of small loafs in different sizes.

• The cheese has no rind.

• Chopped mint is often added to the curd.

• Halloumi is a perfect cooking cheese.

• It will hold it’s shape after grilling or frying. It is very similar to Mozzarella.

Limburger( Belgium,soft,pasteurised,culture,rennet)

The smooth, sticky, washed rind is reddish-brown with corrugated ridges.

• The yellow interior hints at sweetness but the taste is spicy and aromatic, almost meaty.

• Curd is cut up, then heated, rectangular moulds, and then it is salted and left to ripen in high-humidity conditions for two weeks.

Matures for several months. Limburger has a legendary aroma which is due to enzymes, breaking down proteins on the surface

of the cheese.

Mihalic ( Turkey, hard, sheeps milk) various sizes and shapes, usually balls or slices, stored in brine.

• The curds are placed in hot water and stirred

• Then left in the water to harden and acquire a firm, slightly elastic texture and finally are salted and dried.

• The cheese is used in salads or in baked dishes.

Monterey Jack( USA, Semihard)The Monterey Jack was developed by a Californian Scot, David Jacks in 1882

• Monterey Jack’s consistency depends on its maturity; most softer varieties (common in Ameri-can supermarkets) is aged for one

month, while grating Jack is aged for upwards of 6 months.

• Older Jacks are smeared with oil and pepper to maintain softer rinds.

• Monterey Jack has a buttery, bland taste and melts easily.

Mozzarella (Italy, soft) The plastic, buffalo milk cheese

• Pasteurized milk is curdled, the curd is cut.

• Extra time in the vat is allowed so that the curd can sink to the bottom and so that the lactic acids can soften the curd to make it

easier to knead.

• The curd is treated with extremely hot water (>80 C ) and is kneaded into a shiny lump.

Neufchatel(France, soft)

• soft-white, table cheese

• It has aroma and taste of mushrooms.

• Unlike other soft-white-rinded cheeses, Neufchatel has a grainy texture.

• Neufchatel comes in a variety of shapes, such as squares, cylinders and hearts.

Parmesan (Italy,Parma, hard) one of the world’s most popular and widely-enjoyed cheeses.

• Curd is cut and then heated, while stirring the curd to encourage whey runoff.

• The curd is further cooked.

• then pressed in cheesecloth-lined moulds.

• After two days, the cheeses are removed and salted in brine for a month, then allowed to mature for up to two years in very

humid conditions.

Provolone (Italy, semihard) all-purpose cheese used for cooking, dessert purposes and even grating.

• It is traditional, creamery, stretched, curd cheese.

• This cheese appears in various shapes.

• The thin, hard rind is golden-yellow and shiny.

• Sometimes it is waxed.

• Dolce (mild Provolne) is aged for two to three months, and it is smooth with a thin waxed rind.

Quark ( Germany, soft,smooth texture)

• Quark simply means “curd” in German

• Quark can be made from whole, skimmed or semi-skimmed milk or even buttermilk.

• Soft and moist, like a cross between yogurt and fromage frais, it should taste lemon-fresh.

• This cheese ripens within a few days.

Ricotta ( Italy, soft)

• It is white, creamy and mild.

• It is primarily made with cow’s milk whey which is heated ,Citric acid is added to encourage destabilization and separation

• Proteins from the whey separate rise and coagulate; the proteins (lactalbumin) are skimmed off and put in a basket to drain for

two days after which the “cheese” is ready for market.

• There are three distinct varieties of ricotta: ricotta salata moliterna (ewe’s milk whey), ricotta piemontese (cow’s milk whey + 10%

milk) and ricotta romana (a byproduct of Romano cheese production).

Roquefort ( France, semi-hard) Roquefort is considered as the “King of cheeses”.

• It had a tingly pungent taste and ranks among blue cheeses.

• It has the cylinder-shape with sticky, pale ivory, natural rind.

• Ripe Roquefort is creamy, thick and white on the inside and have a thin, burnt-orange skin.

• The ripening of the cheeses is in the natural, damp aired caves found under the village of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon.

• It is the quality of the milk, the processing of the curd, the adding of “Penicillium roqueforti” and finally the ripening in natural

caves that give us this unique and remarkable cheese.

• This cheese has a distinct bouquet and a flavor that combines the sweet burnt-caramel taste of sheep’s milk with the sharp,

metallic tang of the blue mould.

Stilton (England, semi hard,55% fat)

• “The King of Cheeses” Stilton is a blue-mould cheese with a rich and mellow flavor and a piquant aftertaste.

• It has narrow, blue-green veins and a wrinkled rind which is not edible.

• Stilton is milder than Roquefort or Gorgonzola, and is equally excellent for crumbling over salads or as a dessert cheese, served

with a Port Wine.

• There are two types of Stilton: Blue and White Stilton.

• Rennet is added to milk after an hour curd forms. The curd is drained and moulded. One week passes and then Stiltons are allowed to mature for 6 to 8 months.