Etiket Arşivleri: Cheese Making
• Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk- based food products. Cheese is produced throughout the world in wide-ranging flavours, textures, and forms.
• Cheese consists of proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of
cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep. It is produced by coagulation of the milk protein casein.
Objective of cheese making
To obtain the optimum cheese composition with respect to moisture, acidity (pH), fat, protein and minerals (especially calcium)
Establish the correct structure of the cheese at the microscopic level; and
Ripen to perfection. Grouped according to texture and basic manufacturing procedures there are seven families of cheese.
• Milk from the evening milking is allowed to stand overnight. By natural processes, this milk will have partially separated during its overnight standing period. The cream is skimmed off, and the partially skimmed milk is combined with whole milk from the morning milking.
The milk is gradually heated to 30 to 35 C (86 to 95 F) before acidification and coagulation.
• Acidification: Starter culture is added to milk to change lactose (milk sugar) into lactic acid. This process changes the acidity level of the milk and begins the process of turning milk from a liquid into a solid.
• Fermentation starters (called simply starters within the corresponding context) are preparations to assist the beginning of the fermentation process in preparation of various foods and fermented drinks. A starter culture is a microbiological culture which actually performs fermentation.
Coagulation: Rennet is added to further encourage the milk to solidify , forming a custard -like mass. rennet
• .Rennet An enzyme used to coagulate milk during the cheese making process. Rennet is derived from one of four sources: the stomach lining of a young calf (the enzyme rennin is found in the stomach lining of animals because it aids in the digestion of their mother’s milk)
• plants (typically thistle)
• microbes in fungus and yeast
• Genetically engineered rennet that imitates animal rennet.
Cutting:- It’s then cut into small pieces to begin the process of separating the liquid (whey) from the milk solids (curds).Large curds are cooked at lower temperatures , yielding softer cheeses like Mascarpone and Ricotta. Curds cut smaller are cooked at higher temperatures, yielding harder cheeses like Gruyere and Romano
Stirring, Heating & Draining:- Cheese makers cook and stir the curds and whey until the desired temperature and firmness of the curd is achieved. The whey is then drained off, leaving a tightly formed curd.
Here you can see the cheese maker taking some of the whey out of the vat.
• Salting: Salt adds flavour and also acts as a preservative so the
cheese does not spoil during long months or years of ageing. It also
helps a natural rind to form on the cheese. There are several ways to use salt. Salt can be added directly into the curd as the cheese is
being made. The outside of the wheel of cheese can be rubbed with salt or with a damp cloth that has been soaked in brine. The cheese
can also be bathed directly in vat of brine. Concentrated brine. adding the salt directly into the drained curd
Different handling techniques and salting affect how the curd is transformed into the many cheese varieties made.
The cheese is put into a basket or a mold to form it into a specific shape. During this process, the cheese is also pressed with weights or a machine to expel any remaining liquid. Pressing determines the characteristic shape of the cheese and helps complete the curd formation. Most cheeses are pressed in three to 12 hours, depending on their size.
Ripening: Referred to as affinage, this process ages cheese until it
reaches optimal ripeness. During this process, the temperature and humidity of the cave or room where the cheese ages is closely monitored. For some cheeses, ambient molds in the air give the cheese a distinct flavour. For others, mold is introduced by spraying it on the cheese (brie) or injecting it into the cheese (blue cheese). Some cheeses must be turned, some must be brushed with oil, and some must be washed with brine or alcohol.
Aging should take place in a controlled environment. Different cheeses required different temperatures and humidity’s, however in a small refrigerator temperature is kept at 55°F and 85% humidity. During aging , the cheese should be rotated or flipped periodically to prevent moisture from settling in the cheese and to prevent an inconsistent internal consistency.
What is Raw Milk? ● Comes directly from a farm animal and is filtered and cooled before use ● It is not pasteurized, so it has a higher vitamin content than heat-treated milk ● Pathogens may be found in the milk such as Mycobacterium, brucella, and salmonella ● All cases of salmonella outbreaks in the past two decades have been in pasteurized milks because of the lack of cleanliness in factories ● U.S. federal law dictates that raw-milk cheese made to sell must be aged longer than 60 days to prevent the development of pathogenic bacteria
What is Homogenized Milk? ● It has been heat-treated and pressurized ● Doing this breaks up the butterfat globules into very small particles so that they are distributed evenly throughout the milk ● This milk produces a curd that is smoother and less firm than that of raw milk, so most people add calcium chloride to the cheese ● It also requires up to twice the amount of rennet as does raw milk ● Farm-fresh milk does not have to be homogenized, but store bought is usually pasteurized and homogenized
Pasteurized Milk ● This milk has been heat- treated to destroy pathogens ● It kills all bacteria, which is why it is necessary to add bacterial starter to cheeses ● Pasteurization makes proteins, vitamins, and milk sugars less available, and it destroys the enzymes that help the body to assimilate them
Ultra-Heat-Treated (UHT)/ Ultra- pasteurized Milk ● Heat-treated milk at ultra high temperatures (275 to 300 degrees) make it possible to keep milk for several months prior to opening ● This makes it possible for large milk companies to buy out small local farmers because they can transport the milk across the country ● The protein in the milk is completely denatured and it is just as well to drink water ● These milks come in foil-lined containers that are generally boxes; “organic” doesn’t mean healthy
History of Cottage Cheese ● Originated in eastern and central Europe ● Was popular in colonial America ● Name from the fact that it was made in local cottages ● Other names for it are “Farmer cheese” and “Pot Cheese” (because it is made in a pot) Was made from raw milk poured into a pot and set in a fairly warm spot The bacteria and the high levels of lactic acid from the unpasteurized milk turned the milk protein into soft white curds Could be sliced and warmed to 100 degrees for several hours for sour tasting cheese ● Could drain curds without cooking for a lactic acid type of cheese ● Or the curds were pressed after cooking to produce “farmer cheese”
Small-Curd Cottage Cheese (Yield: 1.5 pounds) Ingredients ● 1 gallon pasteurized milk ● 1/8 teaspoon calcium chloride diluted in 1/4 cup water (if using store- bought milk) ● 1 packet direct-set mesophilic starter ● 1-2 tablespoons heavy cream (optional) ● cheese salt (optional)
Cooking the Curds Steps 1-7 (Altered for Length) 1. Heat the milk to 72 degrees. Add calcium chloride. 2. Add the starter. Cover and let set at 72 degrees for 16-24 hours. 3. Cut the curd into 1/4-inch cubes and set for 15 minutes. 4. Increase the heat by one degree per minute until it reaches 100 degrees. 5. Maintain temperature for 10 minutes. 6. Increase temperature to 112 over a 15-minute period. 7. Maintain temperature for 30 minutes.
Finishing The Cottage Cheese Steps 8-14 8. Let curds settle. 9. Pour off the whey and put curds into a colander lined with cheesecloth and tie it up. Dip the curds in cool water for a less sour cheese. 10. Drain the bag for several minutes. 11. Rinse the bag in ice water to cool and drain the bag for 5 minutes. 12. Untie the bag and place the curds in a bowl. Add heavy cream to produce a creamier texture. 13. Add salt to taste. 14. Store in fridge up to a week.
The Cottage Cheese Experience Flaws ● I pressed the cheese at the end of the process, without instruction to. This caused the cheese to end up a little dry. ● I added a bit more cheese salt than I meant to. Successes ● I learned that to keep the cheese at 72 degrees for 16- 24 hours I did not have to keep the burner going, I just had to keep the cheese in a warm room. ● I was able to keep the temperature increases very gradual and accurate.
History of Mozzarella Cheese ● First made by the monks of San Lorenzo di Capua, Italy, from sheep’s milk ● In 16th century water buffalo were introduced to Naples and the rich milk of those animals started to be used
30-minute Mozzarella (3/4-1 pound) Ingredients ● 1.5 teaspoons citric acid dissolved in 1/2 cup cool water ● 1 gallon pasteurized whole milk ● 1/4 teaspoon liquid rennet diluted in 1/4 cup cool water ● 1 teaspoon cheese salt (optional)
Cooking The Curds Steps 1-5 (Altered for Length) 1. Stir in citric acid solution to the milk at 55 degrees 2. Heat milk to 90 degrees 3. Stir in diluted rennet while heating milk to between 100-105 degrees. Turn off heat. 4. After five minutes the curds will look like thick yogurt and have a shine. The whey will be clear. 5. Scoop out curds and put into a microwavable bowl. Press curds with hands and pour off whey.
Finishing Mozzarella Cheese Steps 6-9 6. Microwave curds for 1 minute and drain excess whey. Fold cheese over with hands or a spoon. 7. Microwave two more times for 35 seconds each. Add salt after the second time. Knead after each time. 8. Kead quickly until it is smooth and elastic. Reheat if the curds start to break apart. 9. Roll the cheese together. Eat warm or place them in a bowl of ice water for 1/2 hour to cool the cheese evenly.
The Mozzarella Experience Flaw ● I attempted to make a second batch with local farm milk, but I heated it to 120 degrees (15 degrees over desired temperature). The curds did not come together and they were of the consistency of ricotta cheese. The heat killed all of the bacteria that helped to produce nice curds. Success ● The first batch of cheese I made with store bought milk came out really well and tastes good!
The History of Chèvre ● Chèvre is the french word for “goat” ● The flavor specific to goat cheese comes from the fatty acids capric, caproic, and caprylic. ● Goat’s milk doesn’t contain carotene which produces a white cheese. ● It is said that goats were brought to France by the Moors in the 8th century. ● It is one of the popular cheeses made in France.
Chèvre (1.5 pounds) Ingredients ● 1 gallon pasteurized whole goat’s milk ● 1 packet direct-set chèvre starter
Cooking and Draining the Curds Steps 1-4 1. Heat the milk to 86 degrees. Add the starter and stir to combine. 2. Cover and let set at a room temperature above 72 degrees for 12 hours. 3. Line a colander with butter muslin. Ladle the curds into the colander. tie the corners of the muslin into a knot and hang the bag over the sink for 6-12 hours. (A shorter time produces a cheese spread; a longer time makes cream cheese-type consistency.) 4. Store in a covered container in the fridge for up to a week.
The Chèvre Experience Flaw ● The only regret I have about making this cheese was not adding some herbs to give it a different flavor. Successes ● This was a very simple cheese to make. ● I think having the farm-fresh milk made the cheese taste fresh and very goat-like.
Where the Ingredients Came from Cow’s Milk: Store Bought Goat’s Milk: Gemini Health Emporium (Produced Locally) Cheese Cultures: Mesophilic Starter, Chevre Starter Cheese Rennets: Liquid Animal Rennet Cheesemaking Additives: Citric Acid, Calcium Chloride, Cheese Salt http://www.cheesemaking.com/ Watch Video “Ricki Carroll Artist and Cheesemaker
My Interview with Ricki Carroll Question and Answer Highlights Do you believe that spreading cheesemaking techniques is important to continue culture? Any lost art brings a person in more of a balance with nature and that is important. I feel that what I have brought to this country and to the world is very important and it is spreading like wildfire, so I guess it is important to many others as well. We currently have over 80,000 people reading our monthly online newsletter and ship over 300 orders a day to customers around the world. I know that you have a farm where you collect fresh milk for your cheese, is this an important factor in cheesemaking? We do not have our own animals anymore. We use milk that is locally produced in our town for our cheese making. Again, the fresher the better. Could the everyday consumer find enough time to make cheese? Yes, some of the soft cheeses take 10 minutes of work