Etiket Arşivleri: Cereal

Post-Harvesting Processing


1.-Total post-harvest cereal system

General information

Each type of cereal requires a specific post-harvest treatment, however, there are certain general principles that apply to most of them.

Cereals undergo a number of processing stages between harvest and consumption. This chain of processes is often referred to as the total post-harvest system. The post-harvest system can be split into three distinct areas.

The first is the preparation of harvested grain for storage. The second, which is referred to as primary processing, involves further treatment of the grain to clean it, remove the husk or reduce the size. The products from primary processing are still not consumable.

The third stage (secondary processing) transforms the grains into edible products. Primary processing involves several different processes, designed to clean, sort and remove the inedible fractions from the grains.

Primary processing of cereals includes cleaning, grading, hulling, milling, pounding, grinding, tempering, parboiling, soaking, drying, sieving.
Secondary processing of cereals (or ‘adding value’ to cereals) is the utilisation of the primary products (whole grains, flakes or flour) to make more interesting products and add variety to the diet. Secondary processing of cereals includes the following processes: fermentation, baking, puffing, flaking, frying and extrusion.

Puffing. Puffed grains are often used as breakfast cereals or as snack food. During puffing, grains are exposed to a very high steam pressure which causes the grain to burst open. The puffed grains can be further processed by toasting, coating or mixing with other ingredients.

Flaking. Flaked cereals are partially cooked and can be used as quick-cooking or ready to eat foods. The grains are softened by partially cooking in steam. They are then pressed or rolled into flakes which are dried. The flakes are eaten crisp and should have a moisture content of below 7%.

Fermentation. Doughs made from cereal flour can be fermented to make a range of products.

Baking. Doughs and batters made from cereal flours are baked to produce a range of goods.

Extrusion. Extrusion involves heating and forcing food (usually a dough) through a small hole to make strands or other shapes. The extruded shapes then undergo further processing such as frying, boiling or drying. Extruded products include pastas, noodles, snack foods and breakfast cereals. Projects and small businesses may involve only one or several of the activities in the total chain, from the growing of crops through to the production of edible products. Some small businesses are set up to clean and package wholegrains. These businesses can be successful as there is very little need for equipment. However, as with all businesses, there must be a clear demand for the product.

Cereal Technology Sample Question Paper

Q.1) (a) Answer any THREE questions
a) Give the nutritive value of rice.
b) Enlist four major and four minor cereal grains cultivated in India. State its importance in human diet.
c) What is tempering? Give two reasons of Tempering of wheat before miling
d) Compare the traditional and recent products from cereals with respect to four point such as nutrition value, shelf life, packaging and examples.

Q.1) (b) Answer any ONE questions
a) With the help of flow sheet, show the nutrients losses steps during milling of wheat and corn.
b) Give the recipes of Bread, Biscuits, and Cake.

Q.2) Answer any FOUR questions
a) Which methods are used for cleaning of cereal (mentions four) Describe any one of them.
b) Draw labeled diagram structure of sorghum.
c) List the by-product of Rice Milling Industry and describes its utilization.
d) Draw labeled structure of corn.
e) Drown the labeled sketch of De-hulling process of Rice Milling. Describe its principle.
f) What is parboiling of rice? State its two advantages.

Q.3) Answer any FOUR questions 
a) What precautions needs to be taken when storage of milled flour?
b) Classify the bread according to uses of ingredient and method of dough preparation.
c) What is malting? Why malted grain are used for beer production.
d) What is corn steep liquor? State its two industrial uses.
e) Give the varieties of maize and barley.

Q.4) (a) Answer any THREE questions
a) What is gluten? State its role in the manufacturing of biscuits.
b) Draw flow sheet of manufacturing process of sorghum starch.
c) Describe any two methods of mixing of ingredients of cake.
d) Give any two Recipes of cereal bared infant food.

Q.4) (b) Answer any ONE questions
a) Classify the breakfast cereal products. List eight snacks foods obtained from cereals.
b) Describe with flow sheet manufacturing process of pasta products.

Q.5) Answer any TWO questions
a) Describe the procedure of estimation of alcoholic acidity of wheat flour. Describe the procedure of estimation of gluten Content from wheat flour.
b) With the help of flow sheets describe manufacturing process of sorghum syrup.
c) Draw the flow sheet of corn flakes manufacturing process .Give its recipe.

Q.6) Answer any FOUR questions
a) What is HFCS? How corn glucose syrup is converted into fructose syrup.
b) What is Extruder? State its two application in food industry.
c) What is saccharification and liquefication?
d) List eight premix made using cereal.
e) How to corn starch is converted into corn syrup.

Alternative Cooking Methods of Vegetables and Cereal Products


In this study, I try to give information about traditional cooking methods and new cooking methods. Firstly, I explain what is cooking and why is it necessary. For people to mature, grow up and continue their life in a healthy way, one of the most important requirements is food. So, people are needed to different flavors, different odors, different appearance, different taste and most importantly reliable food.

Since, the earliest foods consumed to be cooked, so, we have many traditional cooking methods such as boiling, grilling, poaching, steaming, tanporary… In recent years, cooking techniques has evolved with the development of technology such as microwave, baking, radio frequency, ohmic, infrared, induction, impingement…

Many techniques have been developed for distinct food and according to the required properties. These requirements are save time, Money and suitable device for each food. I tried to explain the technology in here.


Bu çalışmada, geleneksel ve yeni pişirme metodları hakkında bir takım bilgi vermeyi deneyeceğim. İlk olarak, pişirme nedir ve neden gereklidir? Olgun, gelişen ve yaşamını sürdüren insanlar için gereksinimlerden en önemlisi gıdadır. Böylece insanlar farklı lezzet, koku, görünüş ve lezzete ihtiyaç duyarlar.

Çok eski yıllardan beri gıdalar pişirilerek tüketilir. Birçok geleneksel metoda sahibiz, örneğin; haşlama, ızgara, sıvıda pişirme, buharda pişirme, tandır… Son yıllarda teknolojinin gelişmesiyle pişirme teknikleri de gelişti örneğin mikrodalga, radyo frekans, ohmik…

Farklı gıdalar için ve ihtiyaca göre yeni teknikler geliştirildi. Bu ihtiyaç ya da gereksinimler paradan ve zamandan tasarruf veya gıda türüne uygun cihaz kullanmaktır. Burada ben bu teknikleri anlatmayı denedim.