Etiket Arşivleri: Cane Sugar

Sugar Production Technology ( Dr. Mustafa BAYRAM )


Prof. Dr. Mustafa BAYRAM University of Gaziantep, Faculty of Engineering Department of Food Engineering 27310-Gaziantep-TÜRKİYE Rev3-Nov 23, 2014

SUGAR • The word sugar comes from the Indian sarkara. • The chemical name of sugar is sucrose in English and saccharose in some European languages. • Sugar (sucrose, C12H22O11) is one of the families of sugars (saccharides). • All sugars belong to a larger group, known as carbohydrates (sugars, starches, and dietary fibers). • The term sugar substitutes refers to all natural and synthetic (artificial) sugars other than sucrose. • All sweettaste sugars and sugar substitutes are known to us as sweeteners.

GENERAL PROCESSING STEPS Harvesting and transporting to the factory Washing and cleaning Extraction of juice Weighing of raw cane juice Liming of cane juice Clarification of cane juice Filtration of mud from clarifiers

Evaporation Massecuite Crystallization by cooling Centrifuging and purifying Shipping bulk sugar

TYPES • 1-Beet • 2-Cane • Other (fruits, additives, corn, syrups etc.)

1-SUGAR BEET • The root serves as a reservoir for the sugar, which can represent between 15% and 21% of the sugar beet’s total weight. Beet sugar (sugar made from sugarbeet), cane sugar (sugar made from sugarcane), and refined sugar (sugar made from raw sugar) are similar in shape, taste, and other chemical and physical properties.

HISTORY OF SUGAR BEET • Sugar beet was first grown at least 2000 years ago as a garden vegetable. • The vegetable was probably selected from various Beta species growing round the shores of the Mediterranean. • It was widely used for culinary purposes throughout Europe from the Middle Ages onwards. • Beet was grown on a field scale first in the seventeenth century but only as fodder for cattle.

GROWING AREAS OF SUGAR BEETS • Sugarbeet (simply beet) grows in moderately cold climates but can adapt itself to very cold and warmer climates as well. In Europe, it grows almost everywhere, from the southern temperate country of Turkey to the northern cold countries of Sweden, Denmark, and Finland. • In Asia, sugarbeet is grown in Iran, Israel, Lebanon, China, Korea, Japan, the northern part of Pakistan, and a few other countries. In Africa, the northern part of Morocco and Egypt grow sugarbeet.

PROPERTIES • The root of the beet (taproot) contains 75% water and 25% dry matter. The dry matter comprises about 5% pulp. • Pulp, insoluble in water and mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and pectin, is used in animal feed. Sugar represents 75% of the root’s dry matter.


PROCESSING OF SUGAR BEET Reception Storage Dry cleaning Conveying and flumming Flume water treatment Stone and trash separation Beet slicing Juice diffusion Pulp treatment Milk of lime and carbonation Juice purification Sedimentation and filtration Juice evaporation Juice decolorization and sulfination Juice storage Production of specilized sugar product and packaging

2-CANE SUGAR Ø Sugarcane, like wheat, rice, corn and other grains, is of the grass family, Gramineae, characterized by segmented stems, blade-like leaves, and reproduction by seed. Ø Sugarcane is a tropical plant; it has no adaptation to survive freezing and it is dependent on abundant sunlight for healthy growth. Ø The sugarcane plant itself is of the genus Saccharum. Ø The Saccharum has five extant species; two wild (S.spontanium and S.robustum) and three cultivated (S.officinarum, S.barberi and S.sinense).Wild species do not have sugar content. S. Officinarum is the noble sugar cane specie.

Sugar cane is the world’s biggest crop. ØIt has a large amount of sugar(sucrose). Approximately 15%, maximum 20%. Ø80% of it is used for sugar production. ØBrazil, China, India, Cuba, Thailand are some of the biggest producer countries.



DRY CLEANING • The dry cleaning operation is a valuable environmental benefit and a cost savings for the factory.


Beet slicing Slicing beets is the process of cutting beets into long, thin strips, called cossettes.

JUICE DIFFUSION Continuous diffusers can be divided into three main groups: ■ Tower diffusers ■ Slope diffusers ■ Drum diffusers

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DIFFUSION PROCESS Factors influencing the diffusion operation are the following: q pH q Draft q Temperature q Retention time q Cossette quality q Microbiological activity

PULP TREATMENT Pulp dryers are of two types: ■ Drum dryer ■ Steam-powered dryer


JUICE PURIFICATION • The purification of the diffusion juice occurs in a two-step operation: • ■ Liming • ■ Carbonation (CaO + CO2 → CaCO3↓). • The goals of juice purification are as follows: Ø ■ Removal of all insoluble substances Ø ■ Removal of certain soluble substances (nonsugars) Ø ■ Production of a thermostable juice with minimum hardness

• It is helpful to outline the classical juice-purification process (for orientation which consists of the following 13 steps: • 1. Diffusion-juice heating : The diffusion juice is heated to about 86ºC. • 2. Preliming: Lime (at a small amount of 0.2 to 0.7% OB) is added to the juice to reach an alkalinity of about 0.15% CaO and about 8.5 pH value. • 3. Prelimed-juice heating: Prelimed juice is heated to about 88ºC. • 4. Mainliming: More lime is added to the juice (1.0 to 2.0% OB) to obtain a pH of about 12.0 to complete the reactions of the nonsucroses with the lime. • 5. Limed-juice heating : Limed juice is heated to about 90ºC. • 6. First carbonation: Carbonation gas is added to the juice to reach a pH of about 10.8 to precipitate the excess lime and limesalts (hardness).

• 7. Mud separation: The precipitate from the first-carb juice is separated by using mudseparation equipment, such as clarifi ers or fi lter thickeners, to produce clear juice and a thicker product, called carbonation mud. • 8. Mud thickening: The mud is further thickened in cake fi ters (rotary-drum filters or filter presses) to produce limecake, also known as carbonation-lime residue (a by-product of the beet-sugar factory). • 9. First-carb filtration: The clear juice from clarifiers (or thickening filters) is filtered with the first-carb fi lters. • 10. First-carb juice heating : The filtered juice is heated to about 92ºC.

• 11. Second carbonation: More gas is added to the juice to reach a pH of a about 9.0 to precipitate (as much as possible) the excess lime and limesalts. • 12. Second-carb filtration: The juice is filtered by second- carb filters. • 13. Second-carb safety filtration: The filtrate is filtered again by safety filters to prevent any fine, suspended solids entering the evaporators. (Note: Not all factories are equipped with safety filters.) • Several purifi cation systems (such as BMA, DDS, DORR, and Putsch) use the defeco technique. Here, three common systems are explained: • ■ BMA system (used all over the world) • ■ DDS system (used mostly in Europe) • ■ Dorr system (used mostly in the United States)

SEDIMENTATION AND FILTRATION This section talks about of to produce clear thin juice. If sedimentation (settling) and filtration are not performed properly, the juice purification station is affected, which may slow or shut down other stations as well. (CaO + CO2 → CaCO3↓).

TYPES OF FILTERS Ø Pressure-leaf (U.S.) filters Ø■ Centrifugal filters Ø■ Screen (Sibomat) filters Ø■ Bag-pressure filters ØRotary-Drum Filters

JUICE EVAPORATION • A single-effect evaporation operation is not efficient because the vapor has a large amount of energy and low pressure. Therefore, sugar factories use multiple-effect evaporation, in which the partially concentrated juice leaving the first effect is introduced into the second effect, and the vapor produced from the first effect is used as a heating medium to heat the second effect.

HEAT EXCHANGERS • ■ Tube heat exchanger (Robert, Thin-film evaporators ) • ■ Plate heat exchanger

JUICE DECOLORIZATION AND SULFITATION (Note: Because the color of in-process products is different from factory to factory and even in the same factory from one day to the next) The chemistry of color formation is too complex to indicate with simple chemical equations.

COLOR FORMATION IN SUGARBEET PROCESSING • Colorants are not present in beet juice but are formed during the processing (sugarbeet is an off-white color, but processed beet juice is colored). During processing, colorants in in-process products form because of the following reasons: • ■ High pH • ■ High temperature • ■ Interaction of organic nonsugars

JUICE DECOLORIZATION • Juice decolorization is performed by two methods: • Decolorization by ion-exchange resin • Decolorization by activated carbon

JUICE SULFITATION • Juice Sulfitation is the process of adding sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the juice to reduce color and prevent color formation in the next steps of operation. SO2 inhibits the browning (Maillard) reaction that forms coloring compounds during evaporation and crystallization. • It is used also as a biocide to kill microorganisms in the diffuser

JUICE STORAGE • STORAGE CONDITIONS Juice storage requires a high level of care before and during storage. The following factors have to be considered: • ■ Dry substance • ■ pH • ■ Purity • ■ Temperature • ■ Filtration • ■ Cleanliness

SYRUP CRYSTALLIZATION Three classes of crystallization: Two types of crystallizers are used in ü Flashing crystallization sugar plants: (crystallization by evaporation Ø Evaporating crystallizers under vacuum) Ø Cooling crystallizers ü Evaporating crystallization Evaporating crystallizers are of two (crystallization by evaporation) types: Ø Batch crystallizers ü Cooling crystallization Ø Continuous crystallizers (crystallization by cooling)

Sugar Drying, Storing, And Packing Flow diagram of sugar drying, storing, and packing

Control Parameters During Sugar Beet Production 1- Debris ,dirt, soil etc. component • 2-Debris ,dirt, soil etc. component • 3-Debris ,dirt, soil etc. component • 4-Stone and trash component • 5-Clearity total mass component • 6-Temperature, Ph • 7-Flow rate, Pressure,Density, Color … • 8-Pressure, Ph, Kss, dry substance concentration, hardness of molasses,sosa ash requırement, rection time,BOD, COD,( Pressing) • 9- Flow rate, Pressure,Density, Color,Turbidity, Ph, temperature • 10-Purity, Turbidity, Flow rate, Pressure,Density, Ph,( Purif )

• 11-Purity, Turbidity, Flow rate, Pressure,Density, Filter cake resistant, Rate of carbonization, • 12-Amount of heat and flow requirement, heat loss • 13-Flow rate, Pressure,Density, Color,Turbidity, temperature, Ph, • 14-Flow rate, Pressure,Density, Color,Turbidity, temperature, saturation coefficient of mother • 15-liquior,viscosity, Sulfide amount, • 16-Density, Color, purity, viscosity • 17-Size of cristallization, density, color, • 18-hardness of molasses,viscosity of molasses, pestisides, • 19-Color, density,vacuum, • 20-Color, density, purity, level of sugar…


PRODUCTION OF DIFFERENT SUGARS Specialty sugars are all sugar products except the normal crystal size granulated-refined sugar (GR sugar). This definition includes: Ø Special crystal-size sugar Ø Powdered sugar Ø Brown sugar Ø Cube sugar Ø Adant sugar Ø Candy-crystal sugar Ø Cone sugar (loaf sugar) Ø Liquid and liquid invert sugar

BY PRODUCTS •Ethanol •Bioelectricity •Bioplastics •Biohydrocarbons •Animal feed

ETHANOL Sugarcane ethanol is an alcohol-based fuel produced by the fermentation of sugarcane juice and molasses. Because it is a clean, affordable and low-carbon biofuel, sugarcane ethanol has emerged as a leading renewable fuel for the transportation sector. Ethanol can be used two ways: -Blended with gasoline at levels ranging from 5 to 25 percent to reduce petroleum use, boost octane ratings and cut tailpipe emissions. -Pure ethanol – a fuel made up of 85 to 100 percent ethanol depending on country specifications – can be used in specially designed engines.

Bioelectricity Brazilian sugarcane mills learned to harness the energy stored in bagasse by burning it in boilers to produce bioelectricity. As a result, these mills are energy self-sufficient, producing more than enough electricity to cover their own needs. A growing number of mills also generate a surplus, which is sold to distribution companies and helps to light up numerous cities throughout Brazil. In early 2010, sugarcane mills supplied about 2,000 average megawatts, or 3 percent of Brazil’s electricity requirements, thanks to bioelectricity. Bioplastics With volatile oil prices and growing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, the chemical industry is looking for renewable alternatives to diversify its sources of raw materials. Sugarcane ethanol has emerged as an important ingredient to substitute for petroleum in the production of plastic. These so -called “bioplastics ” have the same physical and chemical properties as regular plastic (the most common type is known technically as PET) and maintain full recycling capabilities.


Cane Sugar



The sugar requirements of the world are supplied from 2 main sources . The sugar cane is one of them. Climatically sugar cane is a tropical plant. The sugar cane requires ; • High Temperature • Ample supply of water during the growing period. It has average 2- 10 meters lengths

The sugar production by 70 % on the world is supplied from sugar cane. There are two important reasons : • Cost of sugar production from sugar cane lower than sugar beet. • Sugar cane is harvested 2 times per years but sugar beet only one.

High Quality Cane Low Quality Cane Sugar Sugar Cane water in (100 kg 50 kg 40 kg cane sugar ) Sugar ratio in cane 22 % 17 % water Amount of gur in ( 100 10 kg 7 kg kg cane sugar ) The sugars are synthesised by the cane plant from water and atmospheric carbon dioxide.

The sugar process is divided Ø Harvesting Ø Entry or transportation of the sugar cane Ø Milling Ø Clarification Ø Evaporation Ø Crystallization Ø Separation Ø Refining Ø Drying Ø Storage


When sugar cane is ready for harvesting it stands two to four metres tall. Farmers harvest their cane between June and December when rainfall is less frequent and the plant’s sugar content is at its highest. Traditionally, the cane has been burnt before harvesting to remove leaves, weeds and other trash which impede harvesting and milling. However it is now common for sugarcane to be harvested green rather than burnt.



•Sugar is obtained from the cane at mills located near centers of production. •The cane first goes through a washer, then is cut into small pieces by revolving knives. •After this step the small pieces are shredded. The shredder is a large powerful hammermill that shreds the cane into a fibrous material. The cells in the cane stalk containing the sugar juice are ruptured but no juice is extracted at this stage. •After this preparation, the juice from the sugar cane can be extracted.


The shredded cane is fed through a series of crushing mills to extract the sugar rich juice, which is then pumped away for further processing. The remaining fibre is called bagasse. The crushers consist of two large grooved rollers mounted horizontally, and then one above of the others. On the upper roller heavy hydraulic pressure is maintained




The limed juice enters a gravitational settling tank: a clarifier. The juice travels through the clarifier at a very low superficial velocity so that the solids settle out and clear juice exits. The mud from the clarifier still contains valuable sugar so it is filtered on rotary vacuum filters where the residual juice is extracted and the mud can be washed before discharge, producing a sweet water . The juice and the sweet water are returned to process. Brix 15°- 18° Purity 80-87 Reducing sugars 0.4- 1.0%. Ash 0.4-0.7%. CaO mgms/litre 600-800 P2O5 mgms/litre 60-300 N2 0.03-0.04% pH 5.2-5.4


Ash and Water Clarifier ASH AND WATER CLARİFİER


The clarified juice is concentrated to syrup by boiling off excess water in a series of connected vessels. Under automatically controlled conditions in the evaporator station, each subsequent vessel operates under decreasing pressure with the last one being under almost a total vacuum. After this step the syrup is ready to go to the high- vacuum boiling pans.



Concentration of the syrup from the evaporator is continued in vacuum pans. Very small seed crystals are introduced to the concentrating syrup and these begin to grow in size. When the crystals reach the required size, the mixture of crystals and syrup is discharged from the pan.



The sugar crystals are separated from the syrup in centrifugal machines that have an action similar to a spin- dryer. After leaving the centrifugals, the moist raw sugar is tumble dried in a stream of air and transferred to bulk storage bins. The separated syrup is reboiled and further sugar is crystallized. After three boilings no further sugar can be economically removed. The residual sugar is called molasses.



The purpose of the refinery is to remove impurities from sugar crystals. The refinery accepts raw sugar as its feed material. The sugar is dissolved (melted) and the colour is removed by various clarification processes. The final refining steps include melting the brown or raw sugar, decoloring by passing through carbon filters, recrystallizing in vacuum boiling pans, and drying by centrifuging.



The deterioration of sugar is retarded and the loss in test is reduced if the moisture content of the sugar is reduced. The water content of raw sugar is generally within the range 0.5-2%. With a dryer, this may be reduced to between 0.2 and 0.5%. This gives a saving in two directions: • The sugar keeps better • The polarisation and the titre increase immediately, in proportion to the water removed, and the financial gain so realised is much greater than loss of weight due to the water evaporated.

Sugar Dryer and Cooler SUGAR DRYER AND COOLER


The finished product is stored in large concrete or steel silos. It is shipped in bulk, big bags or 25 – 50 kg bags is used to industrial customers or packed in consumer-size packages to retailers. The dried sugar must be handled with caution, as sugar dust explosions are possible.


Sample Determinations to be Number of made determination in 24 hours SUGAR CANE a)Cane fiber Fiber 1 b)Cane juices Brix 24 Sucrose 2 First mill juice Purity 2 Alkalinity Acidity 2 Brix 24 Sucrose 2 Purity 2 Mixed juice Reducing sugar 2 Ash 1 Alkalinity Acidity 2

Brix 24 Sucrose 2 Last mill juice Purity 2 Alkalinity Acidity 2 Brix 24 Sucrose 2 Clarified juice Purity 2 Alkalinity 2 c)Syrup Brix 2 Sucrose 2 Purity 2 Reducing sugar 2 Ash 2 Acidity 2 Sucrose 24 BAGASSE Fiber 2 Dry substance 12


Brix 24 a)Juices Sucrose 2 Purity 2 Alkalinity 2 b)Filter-press cake Sucrose 2 Water 2 SUGAR Sucrose 2 a)Sugar Reducing sugar 2 Water 2 Ash 2

b)Fill mass Brix Each strike Sucrose Each strike Purity Each strike c)Molasses First molasses Brix Each strike Sucrose Each strike Purity Each strike Clerget Each strike Exhausted molasses Brix Each strike Sucrose Each strike Purity Each strike Clerget Each strike


From ‘’TS 861’’ Properties White Sugar Class 2 (refined) Class 2 (crystal) Crystal sugar Cutting sugar Crystal sugar Cutting sugar Polar sugar,Z,min 99,7 99,7 99,7 99,7 Invert 0,04 0,04 0,04 0,04 sugar,%,(w/w),max Conductivity 0,0108 0,0108 0,027 0,027 ash,%,(w/w),max Color type (Crystal 4 4 9 9 color),Braunschweig score,max Solution color, 22,5 22,5 45 45 ICUMSA units,max Loss of 0,06 0,1 0,06 0,1 drying,%,(w/w),max Sulfur dioxide 15 15 15 15 (SO2),mg/kg,max Arsenic(As), 1 1 1 1 mg/kg,max Copper(Cu), 2 2 2 2 mg/kg,max Lead(Pb), mg/kg,max 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 Starch and None None None None others,%,(w/w),max material None None None None



1. Breaking the hard structure of the cane 2.Grinding the cane •-knives •The crushed cane •-shredders multiple sets of •-crushers three roller mill are •-or a combination most commonly used although of these process some mills consist of four,five or six rollers in multiple sets.


1. Pressure Filtration „ 2. Chemical Treatment -Phosphatation both processes required the -Carbonation addition of lime. Phosphoric acid, lime ( as lime sucrate to increase solubility) and polyacrylamide flocculent to produce a calcium phospate floc. The lime is added neutralize the organic acid, and temperature of the juice raised to about 95C

Sugar cane juice obtained in the efficiency is by the technology used. .100kg equipment used by the manufacturer to the top three roller rattan cane juice never not draw more than 50 kg.

Sugar produced in more than one hundred countries around the world.And appaximately 74 percent of sugar produced from sugar cane produced. „The main application areas of -sweets, -sugar and flour product, -ice cream, -candy, -jam, -marmalede, -alcoholic and non alcoholic beverages.

Also due to the content of cellulose in the production of paper and paperboard used. „As more ethanol is used as fuel in cars.Brazil , ethanol production from sugar cane plants burning the remaining 34 percent of the positive energy from waste are sugar f ree. „In many countries including Brazil ,especially bioethanol produced from sugar cane as fuel in cars. „ Rum produced from sugar cane in Cuba.

Sugar refinery bleaching technology,due to the nature of coal dust used in the early years.However nowadays this type of modern techonolgy the used of bleaching agents is not necessary and these system have been abondoned.

Sugar cane is grown in Çukurova in Turkey. But is limited to the production of sugar used in industry. People used to made sugar cane juice and mollasses absorb. In addition given the leaves feed the animals. Pamace is used as the fuel and fertilizer stams.


Handbook of Cane Sugar Engineering – E. Hugot (3rd Edition)1986 Sugar And Sweetener Yearbook, U. S. Department Of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Washington, DC, June 1995.