Etiket Arşivleri: Biscuit

Bisküvi ve Kraker Üretiminde Tritikale Ununun Kullanım Olanakları ( Selda GÜNDOĞDU SERTAKAN )

DOKTORA TEZİ

BİSKÜVİ VE KRAKER ÜRETİMİNDE TRİTİKALE UNUNUN KULLANIM OLANAKLARI

TRAKYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ FEN BİLİMLERİ ENSTİTÜSÜ GIDA MÜHENDİSLİĞİ ANA BİLİM DALI

ÖZET

Bu araştırmada insan yapımı tahıl olarak bilinen tritikalenin bisküvi ve kraker üretimine uygun olup olmadığı incelenmiştir. Çalışmada materyal olarak; Tatlıcak 97 Tritikale çeşidinden elde edilen un ve bisküvilik yumuşak buğday unu ile hazırlanmış %0 (kontrol), %25, %50, %75 ve %100 tritikale içeren un paçalları kullanılmıştır. Paçalların tümünde nem, kül, protein, sedimantasyon, düşme sayısı, yaş gluten miktarı, alkali su tutma kapasitesi, ekstensograf ve farinograf değerleri belirlenmiştir. Hazırlanan un paçallarından, ticari üretim koşullarında pötibör, kepekli bisküvi ve kraker üretilmiş ve üretilen bisküvi ve krakerler bir yıl süre ile depolanarak her üç ayda bir alınan örneklerde peroksit, serbest yağ asitliği, yağ asitleri kompozisyonu, ransimat değeri, tekstür analizleri ve duyusal analizler yapılarak, raf ömrü süresince bisküvilerde meydana gelen kimyasal ve duyusal değişimler izlenmiştir. Unlarda tritikale kullanım oranı artışına paralel olarak düşme sayısı (sn), gecikmeli sedimantasyon (ml), % kül, % protein, % alkali su tutma kapasitesi, % su absorbsiyonu, hamurun uzamaya karşı gösterdiği maksimum direnç (Rmax.), hamurun sabit deformasyon direnci (R ) ve enerji (A) değerleri yükselirken (P<0.01), % nem, % 5 yaş gluten, gelişme süresi (dk), yoğurma toleransı (MTI), yumuşama değeri ve uzama kabiliyeti (E) değerleri düşmüştür (P<0.01). Bisküvi ve kraker örneklerinde en, boy, kalınlık ve ağırlık ölçümleri yapılmıştır. Tritikale unu kullanım oranının artışıyla ters orantılı olarak bisküvi ve krakerlerin boy ve kalınlık değerlerinde düşüş, ağırlıklarında ise artış saptanmıştır. Raf ömrü süresince tüm bisküvi ve krakerlerde raf ömrünün ilerlemesine paralel olarak; nem, peroksit, serbest yağ asitliği, ve tekstür değerleri yükselirken, ransimat ve pH düşmüştür (P<0.01). Bisküvi ve krakerlerin yağ asitleri kompozisyonunun, ağırlıklı olarak Palmitik asit (%40), Oleik asit (%36), Linoleik asitten ( %13) oluştuğu, diğer yağ asitlerinin ise kompozisyonda %5’ten düşük oranlarda yer aldığı saptanmıştır. Raf ömrü süresince çok fazla olmamakla birlikte palmitik asitte düşme, linoleik ve oleik asitte yükselme görülmüştür. Yapılan bu analizler ve duyusal değerlendirmeler sonucunda tritikale ununun; hiçbir proses ve formül değişikliği yapılmadan pötibör üretiminde %50, kraker üretiminde %25, kepekli bisküvi üretiminde ise %100 oranına kadar kullanımının fiziksel, kimyasal ve duyusal kalite kabul edilebilirlik sınırları içerisinde mümkün olabileceği belirlenmiştir. Yıl:2006 Sayfa:192

Anahtar Sözcükler: Tritikale, bisküvi, pötibör, kepekli bisküvi, kraker, duyusal özellikler, raf ömrü.

Ph.D. THESIS

POSIBILITY OF USING TRITICALE FLOUR AT PRODUCING BISCUIT AND CRACKER

TRAKYA UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATUREL AND APPLIED SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF FOOD ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

In this research, it has been analysed whether triticale, recognised as man-made cereal, is suitable to biscuit and cracker production. İn the study; flour blends including % 0 (control), %25, %50, %75 and %100 triticale prepared using Tatlıcak 97 type triticale flour and wheat flour used for producing biscuits have been used. Moisture, ash, protein, sedimantation, falling number, amount of wet gluten, alcaline water absorption capacity, exthensograph, farinograph,values concerning all blends have been determined. Petitbeurres, branny biscuits and crackers have been produced under commercial production conditions and chemical and sensory alterations occuring in biscuits and crackers during their shelf life have been observed and their peroxide, free fatty acid, fatty acid composition, rancimade values have been observed through texture analyses and sensory analyses on samples taken once three months from the products stored for one year. While falling number (sn), delayed sedimantation (ml), ash %, protein %, alcaline water absorption capacity %, water absorbtion %, maximum resistance the dough shows to stretching (Rmax.), static deformation resistance of the dough (R ) and 5 energy (A) values increase (P<0,01); moisture %, wet gluten %, devolepment period (dk), mixing tolerance indeks (MTI), softening value and stretchening capability (E) values decrease (P< 0,01). parallel to increase in use of triticale in flour blends. Width, length, thickness and weight measurements have been done regarding biscuit and cracker samples. Inversely proportional to the increase in use of triticale flour a decrease in the length and width and an increase in the weight of biscuits and crackers have been noticed. Moisture, peroxide, free faty acid and teksture values have increased while rancimade and pH values have decreased during shelf life parallel to the proceeding of shelf life. It has been noticed that fatty acid compositions of biscuits and crackers are mainly consist of palmitic acid (40 %), oleic acid (36 %) and linoleic acid (13 %) while other fatty acids are available in the composition with a value lower than 5%. During the shelf life, although not major, decrease in palmitic acid and increase in oleic acid have been observed. As a result of those analyses and sensory assessments performed it has been determined that use of triticale flour, taking physical, chemical and sensory quality acceptibility into consideration, can be used 50 % in petitbeurre production, 25 % in cracker production and 100 % in branny biscuit production without making any process and formule alterations. Year:2006 Page: 192

Key words: Triticale, Biscuit, Petitbeurre, Branny biscuit, Cracker, Sensory properties, Shelf life.


Aytaç Biscuits Summer Practice Report

INFORMATION ABOUT THE ORGANISATION

NAME OF THE ORGANISATION :

Yimpaş Ak Food Industry and Occupation

LOCATION OF THE ORGANISATION :

Organized industury zone first street number : 10 Melikgazi /Kayseri

SCHEMA OF THE ORGANISATION :

TEAM MANAGER

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT

TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT

Production manager

FINANCIAL DEPARTMENT

( food engineer )                quality control management

( food eng. )

marketing

sales response

technical team chief

 export – inport

machinist

electrical chief

NUMBER OF ENGINEER EMPLOYED :

There is one food engineer in factory, and works as a  production manager .On the other hand , the engineer controls the quality of the raw material and products.

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ORGANISATION :

Ak food ındustry  and company is established in 1995 and it was added into Yimpaş Holding group in 1998.Aytaç biscuits , is an institute of Ak food , produce biscuit and choclate varieties. Aytaç biscuit factory is established on 10.000 m2 area which has 6.000 m2 colsed area. There are 170 personels in factory. Factory has 360 tone per mounth capacity. There are two owens for cooking biscuits, two wafer production instution , four dough mixer and fourteen packaging machines. All of the machines did not modernize , uo to now.

FIRST COST ANALYSIS :

FOR AYTAÇ PETIT BEURRE 2,000 GR

Igredients : wheat flour , sugar, hydrogenated vegetable oil , invert sugar , milk powder , salt , emulsifier (lecithin E 322 ) , nature identical flavours ( milk ,vanilin ) regulating substance for acid level ( citric acid E 330 ) , preservative (sodium meta bi sulfite E 223 )

Price : 2,571,318 TL

Packaging materials : box , parcel band , unpressed parcel bag , nylon ,label of aytaç petit beurre

Price : 92,752   TL

WASTAGE

For ingredients                                                                      Price : 351,147  TL

For packaging materials                                                        Price : 4,845  TL

TOTAL : 2,664,070 TL

Expense of general production                                             Price : 282,099  TL

Financial expense                                                                  Price : 11,646  TL

Direct material                                                                      Price : 242,456  TL

Direct occupation                                                                  Price : 197,137  TL

TOTAL : 3,753,399  TL

SALE PRICE : 4,750,000  TL

*** EXPENSE OF GENERAL PRODUCTION CONTAINS EXPENSE OF ELECTRIC +

GAS+ BECOME OLD

FOR AYTAÇ WAFERS WITH VANILIN  2000 GR

Ingredients                                                                            Price : 3,831,804 TL

Packaging materials                                                              Price : 234,326  TL

WASTAGE

Ingredients                                                                            Price : 236,596  TL

Packaging materials                                                              Price : 8,766 TL

TOTAL : 4,311,492  TL

Expense of general production                                             Price : 282,099  TL

Financial expense                                                                  Price : 11,646  TL

Direct material                                                                      Price : 242,456  TL

Direct occupation                                                                  Price : 197,137  TL

TOTAL : 5,044,829

SALE PRICE : 5,750,000

FOR AYTAÇ SESAME BISCUIT 800 GR

Ingredients                                                                            Price : 1,219,654  TL

Packaging materials                                                              Price : 232,635  TL

TOTAL : 1,451,919  TL

WASTAGE

Ingredients                                                                            Price : 163,193  TL

Packaging materials                                                              Price : 7,376  TL

TOTAL : 170,569 TL

Expense of general production                                             Price : 112,840 TL

Financial expense                                                                  Price : 4,659  TL

Direct material                                                                      Price : 96,982  TL

Direct occupation                                                                  Price : 78,855  TL

TOTAL : 1,915,823 TL

SALE PRICE : 2,750,000

INTRODUCTION

The summer practices in faculty of engineering are become compulsory in order to convert the theoritical knowledges that are obtained during education period, into the   practices that are really essential in the business period.
Although I and my friends are students now we will be engineers in any organisation after a short time. Those, we have to appreciate these summer practices well and these summepractices gain too many advantages to us. So, the observations and searchings those are done about; the works in the organization, informations about the responsibilities of the all departments’ staff and their relationships, the things those must be done in the plant
and the other topics are belong to the student’s own and to his/her responsibility.

THE REPORT’S OWN LABRATORY APPARATUS

* Sensible balance

=> weighing materials

* Balance

* Infrared spectroscopy

=> controlling moisture content

* Etuv

* Ash owen                                        => controlling ash

* Distillation apparatus                      => distillating water

* pH meter                                         => measuring pH

* Refraktometer                                 => controlling glucose brix

* Shaker for sedimentation                => shaking

* Desicator                                         => preventing the gaining moisture

* Gluten dryer                                   => drying the wet gluten

In labratory , we use the analytical methods such as gravimetric , volumetric  and spectroscopic

In determination of moisture content by infrared spectroscopy , we used spectroscoric analytical method.Also in sedimentation index , volumetric ;  and in determination of amount of ash gravimetric analysis is used.

We have not done any microbiological analysis in labratory since there is not any apparatus.

There is not any chemical or microbiological test on water which we used for production ; only the water is distilled.

QUALITY CONTROL OF RAW  MATERIAL AND PRODUCT

MOISTURE CONTENT :

* Sample is put into apparatus

*Result is recorded as % moisture content

We looked for the moisture content of flour , biscuit , wafer

DETERMINATION OF SEDIMENTATION INDEX

* 3,2 gr flour is weighed and put into covered graduated cylinder

* 50 ml bromfenol blue solution is added into cylinder and the graduated cylinder is shaked rapidly.

* It is put on shaker for 5 minutes

* Than 25 ml of lactic acid prapanol solution is added and again put on shaker for 5 minutes

* And than cylinder is put on levelled place and waited for 5 minutes

* Volume of sedimentation is recorded.

CALCULATION :

                              ( recorded value ) * ( 100 – 14 )

sedim value = ——————————————————-

                                          ( 100 – humidity )

DETERMINATION OF GLUTEN :

Gluten is a matter which occurs from expanding of proteins by gaining water . Wet gluten can only be get from wheat in cereals. It is an important criter on making yeasted bread.

Determination of amount of wet gluten is phscochemical analysis and it depends on washing the dough which is prepared from wheat flour ,  with water.

Dough is prepared in glass from 5 gr of wheat flour and 2.5 ml of % 2 salt solution. It is mixed and after waiting 2-3 minutes , dough is washed and starch is separated fom dough.

After than dough is dried in gluten drier. Amount of gluten is weighed ( D1 ) and recorded.

CALCULATION :

                                            D1

% gluten    =  ———————————————-  * 100

TOTAL WEIGHT OF DOUGH

GLUCOSE BRIX CONTROL

* Glucose brix is measured by refraktometer and recorded.

DETERMINATION OF AMOUNT OF ASH

* The crucible is taken from desicator and weighed ( M0)

* 3-5 gr of flour is added into crucible and again weighed ( M )

* And than crucible is put into ash owen for 2-2,5 hour

* After ash owen it is put in etuv for cooling

* And than the crucible is weighed ( M1 )

CALCULATION

                           ( M1 – M0 ) * 100 *100

% ASH       =  ———————————————-

                             ( 100 – R ) * M

M1 => after owen ,weight of crucible

M0 => weight of empty crucible

M  => weight of crucible and weight of flour

R   => Humidity

Ash is an important criter , it shows us the amount of mineral matter. Big amount of mineral matter is found in bark of wheat. So , while wheat was grinding if the bark can be separated exactly , amount of ash will be small amount. In addition , there are some enzymes in bark and they cause spoilages and make difficult of digestion.

At the same time , when the flour with the larege amount of ash is used , the products such as biscuits contains large amount of ash and it does not adjust TSE.

During the production , the quality control is made by production manager. He looks for the availability of products. He controls the cooking , pacjaging of the products.

After production , we get samples from the products in certain time durations , and control the quality of products. We look the moisture content and ash content of the products.

TSE

WAFER

* Wafer must be as its own flavour and smell

CHEMICAL SPECIFITIES

Wafer                     Covered wafer

Moisture content       maximum  %                                             6                              —–

Water activity            maximum                                               —–                             0,4

Amount of ash in dried matter                                                  0,75                              1

BISCUIT

* Bıscuıt must be brittle and as its own flavour and smell

GENERAL SPECIFITIES

* Moisture content in pure biscuits must be maximum      %   6

* Amount of ash in biscuits with salt must be maximum     % 1,5

in biscuits with sugar must be maximum     %1,0

in  pure  biscuits must be maximum           %  1,0

in non-pure biscuits must be maximum      %  3,0

GLUTEN SPECIFICATION

Minimum  %  7   –     Maximum   % 12

% 7 – 9   gluten in flour is used for products with small amount of oil

% 9 – 10  gluten in flour is used for chisel tips such as petit beurre

% 10 – 12  gluten in flour is used for cake and craker

***  In our experiments  we found  %  gluten  in 9 – 10  range and

it adjusts  TSE

SEDIMENTATION SPECIFICATION

36   and large                                           very good

25      –       36                                           good

15     –        24                                           enough

14    –    small                                            not enough

***sedimentation value shows the quality of gluten if it has low value in flour , the product will be spread extremly. At the same time if it has high value , the product will not be spread enoughly.

*** In our experiments we found sedim value 28 –  31 range and it is a good value for production

*** In our experiments we found the moisture content of flour    % 10  -11 range , and we found the amount of ash of flour  % 0,3 – 0,4 range ; so our founded results adjust TSE

CONCLUSION

In this summer practise I converted my theoretical knowledges which we learn up to know to practise, and also I get informations about our working areas.

Looking factory ; There is one food engineer and also is not enough for this factory. Because engineer works as a production manager and he can not do more works at the same time. As a result of this ; usually he does not control the quality of material or con not control the workers. And also this causes the fall of profile.

The works on factory , is not operated by automotion techniques ,that is human power becomes more significant. This may have some advantages together with some disadvantages.

Using man power contributes to the Turkish economy as a job area for employers. However , in such factories which use the man power at high proportions , should be more careful during production. The food production requires really hygenic conditions. The importance of hygenity must be explained to workers clearly and the all necessary equipments must be supplied by management. These conditions  must be made by this factory too as a respnsibility of organisation.

Also ; in order to get a good yield on production , the relationships between workers and staff should be better , the needs of workers might be supplied well. Another  observed  point is that ; instruments in the labratories are old and these devices should be renewed by following new technology. This is important in  order to get accurate and correct results. And also ; the machines which are used during  the production must be renewed. Because the quality of  products is falling down. For example the owens , which are used for cooking biscuits , don’t cook exactly. Because it is so old , the biscuits in production band are cooked differently. In addition to this , packaging machines are old so wastage in packaging is increased in important case. Beside these , during my practise any chocolate production didn’t operated. So I couldn’t get any information about chocolate production. Because of this my pracctise text does not include chocolate production. In this factory , chocolate production is made in only winter.

All above mentioned cases are observed by me during my practise term. This practise gained me new experiences ; such as How to attitude on the plant ? , How an engineer interfere to any problem in any production ? , What are the responsibilities of engineer ?  and so on. Briefly I get many informations and experience related with Industry.