BİSKÜVİ VE KRAKER ÜRETİMİNDE TRİTİKALE UNUNUN KULLANIM OLANAKLARI
TRAKYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ FEN BİLİMLERİ ENSTİTÜSÜ GIDA MÜHENDİSLİĞİ ANA BİLİM DALI
Bu araştırmada insan yapımı tahıl olarak bilinen tritikalenin bisküvi ve kraker üretimine uygun olup olmadığı incelenmiştir. Çalışmada materyal olarak; Tatlıcak 97 Tritikale çeşidinden elde edilen un ve bisküvilik yumuşak buğday unu ile hazırlanmış %0 (kontrol), %25, %50, %75 ve %100 tritikale içeren un paçalları kullanılmıştır. Paçalların tümünde nem, kül, protein, sedimantasyon, düşme sayısı, yaş gluten miktarı, alkali su tutma kapasitesi, ekstensograf ve farinograf değerleri belirlenmiştir. Hazırlanan un paçallarından, ticari üretim koşullarında pötibör, kepekli bisküvi ve kraker üretilmiş ve üretilen bisküvi ve krakerler bir yıl süre ile depolanarak her üç ayda bir alınan örneklerde peroksit, serbest yağ asitliği, yağ asitleri kompozisyonu, ransimat değeri, tekstür analizleri ve duyusal analizler yapılarak, raf ömrü süresince bisküvilerde meydana gelen kimyasal ve duyusal değişimler izlenmiştir. Unlarda tritikale kullanım oranı artışına paralel olarak düşme sayısı (sn), gecikmeli sedimantasyon (ml), % kül, % protein, % alkali su tutma kapasitesi, % su absorbsiyonu, hamurun uzamaya karşı gösterdiği maksimum direnç (Rmax.), hamurun sabit deformasyon direnci (R ) ve enerji (A) değerleri yükselirken (P<0.01), % nem, % 5 yaş gluten, gelişme süresi (dk), yoğurma toleransı (MTI), yumuşama değeri ve uzama kabiliyeti (E) değerleri düşmüştür (P<0.01). Bisküvi ve kraker örneklerinde en, boy, kalınlık ve ağırlık ölçümleri yapılmıştır. Tritikale unu kullanım oranının artışıyla ters orantılı olarak bisküvi ve krakerlerin boy ve kalınlık değerlerinde düşüş, ağırlıklarında ise artış saptanmıştır. Raf ömrü süresince tüm bisküvi ve krakerlerde raf ömrünün ilerlemesine paralel olarak; nem, peroksit, serbest yağ asitliği, ve tekstür değerleri yükselirken, ransimat ve pH düşmüştür (P<0.01). Bisküvi ve krakerlerin yağ asitleri kompozisyonunun, ağırlıklı olarak Palmitik asit (%40), Oleik asit (%36), Linoleik asitten ( %13) oluştuğu, diğer yağ asitlerinin ise kompozisyonda %5’ten düşük oranlarda yer aldığı saptanmıştır. Raf ömrü süresince çok fazla olmamakla birlikte palmitik asitte düşme, linoleik ve oleik asitte yükselme görülmüştür. Yapılan bu analizler ve duyusal değerlendirmeler sonucunda tritikale ununun; hiçbir proses ve formül değişikliği yapılmadan pötibör üretiminde %50, kraker üretiminde %25, kepekli bisküvi üretiminde ise %100 oranına kadar kullanımının fiziksel, kimyasal ve duyusal kalite kabul edilebilirlik sınırları içerisinde mümkün olabileceği belirlenmiştir. Yıl:2006 Sayfa:192
POSIBILITY OF USING TRITICALE FLOUR AT PRODUCING BISCUIT AND CRACKER
TRAKYA UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATUREL AND APPLIED SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF FOOD ENGINEERING
In this research, it has been analysed whether triticale, recognised as man-made cereal, is suitable to biscuit and cracker production. İn the study; flour blends including % 0 (control), %25, %50, %75 and %100 triticale prepared using Tatlıcak 97 type triticale flour and wheat flour used for producing biscuits have been used. Moisture, ash, protein, sedimantation, falling number, amount of wet gluten, alcaline water absorption capacity, exthensograph, farinograph,values concerning all blends have been determined. Petitbeurres, branny biscuits and crackers have been produced under commercial production conditions and chemical and sensory alterations occuring in biscuits and crackers during their shelf life have been observed and their peroxide, free fatty acid, fatty acid composition, rancimade values have been observed through texture analyses and sensory analyses on samples taken once three months from the products stored for one year. While falling number (sn), delayed sedimantation (ml), ash %, protein %, alcaline water absorption capacity %, water absorbtion %, maximum resistance the dough shows to stretching (Rmax.), static deformation resistance of the dough (R ) and 5 energy (A) values increase (P<0,01); moisture %, wet gluten %, devolepment period (dk), mixing tolerance indeks (MTI), softening value and stretchening capability (E) values decrease (P< 0,01). parallel to increase in use of triticale in flour blends. Width, length, thickness and weight measurements have been done regarding biscuit and cracker samples. Inversely proportional to the increase in use of triticale flour a decrease in the length and width and an increase in the weight of biscuits and crackers have been noticed. Moisture, peroxide, free faty acid and teksture values have increased while rancimade and pH values have decreased during shelf life parallel to the proceeding of shelf life. It has been noticed that fatty acid compositions of biscuits and crackers are mainly consist of palmitic acid (40 %), oleic acid (36 %) and linoleic acid (13 %) while other fatty acids are available in the composition with a value lower than 5%. During the shelf life, although not major, decrease in palmitic acid and increase in oleic acid have been observed. As a result of those analyses and sensory assessments performed it has been determined that use of triticale flour, taking physical, chemical and sensory quality acceptibility into consideration, can be used 50 % in petitbeurre production, 25 % in cracker production and 100 % in branny biscuit production without making any process and formule alterations. Year:2006 Page: 192
Organized industury zone first street number : 10 Melikgazi /Kayseri
SCHEMA OF THE ORGANISATION :
( food engineer ) quality control management
( food eng. )
technical team chief
export – inport
NUMBER OF ENGINEER EMPLOYED :
There is one food engineer in factory, and works as a production manager .On the other hand , the engineer controls the quality of the raw material and products.
BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ORGANISATION :
Ak food ındustry and company is established in 1995 and it was added into Yimpaş Holding group in 1998.Aytaç biscuits , is an institute of Ak food , produce biscuit and choclate varieties. Aytaç biscuit factory is established on 10.000 m2 area which has 6.000 m2 colsed area. There are 170 personels in factory. Factory has 360 tone per mounth capacity. There are two owens for cooking biscuits, two wafer production instution , four dough mixer and fourteen packaging machines. All of the machines did not modernize , uo to now.
FIRST COST ANALYSIS :
FOR AYTAÇ PETIT BEURRE 2,000 GR
Igredients : wheat flour , sugar, hydrogenated vegetable oil , invert sugar , milk powder , salt , emulsifier (lecithin E 322 ) , nature identical flavours ( milk ,vanilin ) regulating substance for acid level ( citric acid E 330 ) , preservative (sodium meta bi sulfite E 223 )
Price : 2,571,318 TL
Packaging materials : box , parcel band , unpressed parcel bag , nylon ,label of aytaç petit beurre
Price : 92,752 TL
For ingredients Price : 351,147 TL
For packaging materials Price : 4,845 TL
TOTAL : 2,664,070 TL
Expense of general production Price : 282,099 TL
Financial expense Price : 11,646 TL
Direct material Price : 242,456 TL
Direct occupation Price : 197,137 TL
TOTAL : 3,753,399 TL
SALE PRICE : 4,750,000 TL
*** EXPENSE OF GENERAL PRODUCTION CONTAINS EXPENSE OF ELECTRIC +
GAS+ BECOME OLD
FOR AYTAÇ WAFERS WITH VANILIN 2000 GR
Ingredients Price : 3,831,804 TL
Packaging materials Price : 234,326 TL
Ingredients Price : 236,596 TL
Packaging materials Price : 8,766 TL
TOTAL : 4,311,492 TL
Expense of general production Price : 282,099 TL
Financial expense Price : 11,646 TL
Direct material Price : 242,456 TL
Direct occupation Price : 197,137 TL
TOTAL : 5,044,829
SALE PRICE : 5,750,000
FOR AYTAÇ SESAME BISCUIT 800 GR
Ingredients Price : 1,219,654 TL
Packaging materials Price : 232,635 TL
TOTAL : 1,451,919 TL
Ingredients Price : 163,193 TL
Packaging materials Price : 7,376 TL
TOTAL : 170,569 TL
Expense of general production Price : 112,840 TL
Financial expense Price : 4,659 TL
Direct material Price : 96,982 TL
Direct occupation Price : 78,855 TL
TOTAL : 1,915,823 TL
SALE PRICE : 2,750,000
The summer practices in faculty of engineering are become compulsory in order to convert the theoritical knowledges that are obtained during education period, into the practices that are really essential in the business period.
Although I and my friends are students now we will be engineers in any organisation after a short time. Those, we have to appreciate these summer practices well and these summepractices gain too many advantages to us. So, the observations and searchings those are done about; the works in the organization, informations about the responsibilities of the all departments’ staff and their relationships, the things those must be done in the plant
and the other topics are belong to the student’s own and to his/her responsibility.
THE REPORT’S OWN LABRATORY APPARATUS
* Sensible balance
=> weighing materials
* Infrared spectroscopy
=> controlling moisture content
* Ash owen => controlling ash
* Distillation apparatus => distillating water
* pH meter => measuring pH
* Refraktometer => controlling glucose brix
* Shaker for sedimentation => shaking
* Desicator => preventing the gaining moisture
* Gluten dryer => drying the wet gluten
In labratory , we use the analytical methods such as gravimetric , volumetric and spectroscopic
In determination of moisture content by infrared spectroscopy , we used spectroscoric analytical method.Also in sedimentation index , volumetric ; and in determination of amount of ash gravimetric analysis is used.
We have not done any microbiological analysis in labratory since there is not any apparatus.
There is not any chemical or microbiological test on water which we used for production ; only the water is distilled.
QUALITY CONTROL OF RAW MATERIAL AND PRODUCT
MOISTURE CONTENT :
* Sample is put into apparatus
*Result is recorded as % moisture content
We looked for the moisture content of flour , biscuit , wafer
DETERMINATION OF SEDIMENTATION INDEX
* 3,2 gr flour is weighed and put into covered graduated cylinder
* 50 ml bromfenol blue solution is added into cylinder and the graduated cylinder is shaked rapidly.
* It is put on shaker for 5 minutes
* Than 25 ml of lactic acid prapanol solution is added and again put on shaker for 5 minutes
* And than cylinder is put on levelled place and waited for 5 minutes
* Volume of sedimentation is recorded.
( recorded value ) * ( 100 – 14 )
sedim value = ——————————————————-
( 100 – humidity )
DETERMINATION OF GLUTEN :
Gluten is a matter which occurs from expanding of proteins by gaining water . Wet gluten can only be get from wheat in cereals. It is an important criter on making yeasted bread.
Determination of amount of wet gluten is phscochemical analysis and it depends on washing the dough which is prepared from wheat flour , with water.
Dough is prepared in glass from 5 gr of wheat flour and 2.5 ml of % 2 salt solution. It is mixed and after waiting 2-3 minutes , dough is washed and starch is separated fom dough.
After than dough is dried in gluten drier. Amount of gluten is weighed ( D1 ) and recorded.
% gluten = ———————————————- * 100
TOTAL WEIGHT OF DOUGH
GLUCOSE BRIX CONTROL
* Glucose brix is measured by refraktometer and recorded.
DETERMINATION OF AMOUNT OF ASH
* The crucible is taken from desicator and weighed ( M0)
* 3-5 gr of flour is added into crucible and again weighed ( M )
* And than crucible is put into ash owen for 2-2,5 hour
* After ash owen it is put in etuv for cooling
* And than the crucible is weighed ( M1 )
( M1 – M0 ) * 100 *100
% ASH = ———————————————-
( 100 – R ) * M
M1 => after owen ,weight of crucible
M0 => weight of empty crucible
M => weight of crucible and weight of flour
R => Humidity
Ash is an important criter , it shows us the amount of mineral matter. Big amount of mineral matter is found in bark of wheat. So , while wheat was grinding if the bark can be separated exactly , amount of ash will be small amount. In addition , there are some enzymes in bark and they cause spoilages and make difficult of digestion.
At the same time , when the flour with the larege amount of ash is used , the products such as biscuits contains large amount of ash and it does not adjust TSE.
During the production , the quality control is made by production manager. He looks for the availability of products. He controls the cooking , pacjaging of the products.
After production , we get samples from the products in certain time durations , and control the quality of products. We look the moisture content and ash content of the products.
* Wafer must be as its own flavour and smell
Wafer Covered wafer
Moisture content maximum % 6 —–
Water activity maximum —– 0,4
Amount of ash in dried matter 0,75 1
* Bıscuıt must be brittle and as its own flavour and smell
* Moisture content in pure biscuits must be maximum % 6
* Amount of ash in biscuits with salt must be maximum % 1,5
in biscuits with sugar must be maximum %1,0
in pure biscuits must be maximum % 1,0
in non-pure biscuits must be maximum % 3,0
Minimum % 7 – Maximum % 12
% 7 – 9 gluten in flour is used for products with small amount of oil
% 9 – 10 gluten in flour is used for chisel tips such as petit beurre
% 10 – 12 gluten in flour is used for cake and craker
*** In our experiments we found % gluten in 9 – 10 range and
it adjusts TSE
36 and large very good
25 – 36 good
15 – 24 enough
14 – small not enough
***sedimentation value shows the quality of gluten if it has low value in flour , the product will be spread extremly. At the same time if it has high value , the product will not be spread enoughly.
*** In our experiments we found sedim value 28 – 31 range and it is a good value for production
*** In our experiments we found the moisture content of flour % 10 -11 range , and we found the amount of ash of flour % 0,3 – 0,4 range ; so our founded results adjust TSE
In this summer practise I converted my theoretical knowledges which we learn up to know to practise, and also I get informations about our working areas.
Looking factory ; There is one food engineer and also is not enough for this factory. Because engineer works as a production manager and he can not do more works at the same time. As a result of this ; usually he does not control the quality of material or con not control the workers. And also this causes the fall of profile.
The works on factory , is not operated by automotion techniques ,that is human power becomes more significant. This may have some advantages together with some disadvantages.
Using man power contributes to the Turkish economy as a job area for employers. However , in such factories which use the man power at high proportions , should be more careful during production. The food production requires really hygenic conditions. The importance of hygenity must be explained to workers clearly and the all necessary equipments must be supplied by management. These conditions must be made by this factory too as a respnsibility of organisation.
Also ; in order to get a good yield on production , the relationships between workers and staff should be better , the needs of workers might be supplied well. Another observed point is that ; instruments in the labratories are old and these devices should be renewed by following new technology. This is important in order to get accurate and correct results. And also ; the machines which are used during the production must be renewed. Because the quality of products is falling down. For example the owens , which are used for cooking biscuits , don’t cook exactly. Because it is so old , the biscuits in production band are cooked differently. In addition to this , packaging machines are old so wastage in packaging is increased in important case. Beside these , during my practise any chocolate production didn’t operated. So I couldn’t get any information about chocolate production. Because of this my pracctise text does not include chocolate production. In this factory , chocolate production is made in only winter.
All above mentioned cases are observed by me during my practise term. This practise gained me new experiences ; such as How to attitude on the plant ? , How an engineer interfere to any problem in any production ? , What are the responsibilities of engineer ? and so on. Briefly I get many informations and experience related with Industry.
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