OGYE AGAR BASE (7655)
OGYE Agar Base is used with oxytetracycline in the detection and isolation of yeasts and molds from foods.
Product Summary and Explanation
Mossel, Visser, and Mengerink1,2 described Oxytetracycline-Glucose Yeast Extract (OGYE) Agar for the detection and enumeration of yeasts and molds in clinical specimens, foods, and other specimens of sanitary significance. Mossel et al.1,2 described improved recovery of yeasts and molds compared to acidified agar. This medium is supplemented with oxytetracycline as a selective agent, rather than relying on the low pH of acidified agar to suppress bacterial growth. Acidified agar is commonly used for detection of yeasts and
molds in foods and dairy products, and OGYE Agar Base provides an alternate medium.
Principles of the Procedure
Yeast Extract provides essential vitamins to stimulate the growth of yeasts and molds in OGYE Agar Base. Dextrose is the carbon energy source. Agar is the solidifying agent. The supplement, oxytetracycline, is a selective agent used to inhibit bacterial growth.
Membrane filtration systems are especially used when the sample like drinking water or fruit j uices which can easily pass through the filter and contain really small amount of microorganisms less than 1 CFU/ ml.
About coliform bacteria and why do we do this test:
Coliform bacteria are present in the environment and feces of all warm-blooded animals and humans. Coliform bacteria are unlikely to cause illness. However, their presence in drinking water indicates that disease-causing organisms (pathogens) could be in the water system. Most pathogens that can contaminate water supplies come from the feces of humans or animals. Testing drinking water for all possible pathogens is complex, time-consuming, and expensive. It is easy and inexpensive to test for coliform bacteria. If testing detects coliform bacteria in a water sample, water services search for the source of contamination and restore safe drinking water. There are three groups of coliform bacteria. Each is an indicator of drinking water quality and each has a different level of risk. Total coliform is a large collection of different kinds of bacteria. Fecal coliform are types of total coliform that exist in feces. E. coli is a subgroup of fecal coliform. Labs test drinking water samples for total coliform. If total coliform is present, the lab also tests the sample for fecal coliform or E. coli, depending on the lab testing method. Total coliform bacteria are common in the environment (soil or vegetation) and are generally harmless. If a lab detects only total coliform bacteria in drinking water, the source is probably environmental and fecal contamination is unlikely. However, if environmental contamination can enter the system, pathogens could get in, too. It is important to find and resolve the source of the contamination. Fecal coliform bacteria are a subgroup of total coliform bacteria. They exist in the intestines and feces of people and animals. The presence of fecal coliform in a drinking water sample often indicates recent fecal contamination. That means there is a greater risk that pathogens are present. E. coli is a subgroup of the fecal coliform group. Most E. coli bacteria are harmless and exist in the intestines of people and warm-blooded animals. However, some strains can cause illness. The presence of E. coli in a drinking water sample usually indicates recent fecal contamination. That means there is a greater risk that pathogens are present. Note: E. coli outbreaks receive a lot of media coverage. A specific strain of E. coli bacteria known as E. coli O157:H7 causes most of those outbreaks. When a drinking water sample is reported as “E. coli present,” it does not mean that O157:H7 is present. However, it does indicate recent fecal contamination. Boiling or disinfecting contaminated drinking water destroys all forms of E. coli, including O157:H7.
1. BESİYERİ (ORTAM, VASAT)
1.1. Besiyeri Çeşitleri
1.1.1. Fiziksel Özelliklerine Göre
1.1.2. Kaynaklarına Göre
1.1.3. Kullanım Amacına Göre
1.2. Birçok Besiyerinin Bileşimine Giren Temel Maddeler
1.2.3. Maya Ekstraktı (Yeast Extract)
1.2.4. Et Ekstraktı (Beef Extract)
1.2.5. Tuz (NaCl)
1.2.9. Tampon Maddeler (Buffer)
1.2.10. İnorganik maddeler
1.3. Besiyerinin Sahip Olması Gereken Özellikler
1.4. Besiyeri Formülasyonları
1.5. Etiket Bilgisini Kullanma
1.5.1. Etikette Yer Alan Bilgiler
1.5.2. Etiket Bilgilerine Göre Hesaplama Örnekleri
1.6. Besiyeri Hazırlık Aşamaları
1.6.2. Kaba Aktarma
1.6.5. Besiyeri pH’sının Ayarlanması
1.6.6. Besiyeri pH’ının Ölçülmesi
1.7. Besiyeri Hazırlanan Kaplara Hazırlama Bilgilerini Yazma
1.8. Besiyerlerini Sterilizasyona Hazırlama Aşamaları
2. BESİYERLERİNİN STERİLİZASYONU VE MUHAFAZASI
2.1. Besiyeri Sterilizasyonu ve Aşamaları
2.1.1. Otoklavda Sterilizasyon
2.1.2. Su Banyosunda Sterilizasyon
2.1.3. Filtre ile Sterilizasyon:
2.1.4. Mikrodalga Fırında Sterilizasyon
2.2. Sterilizasyonla İlgili Dikkat Edilecek Noktalar
2.3. Sterilizasyon Sonrası İşlemler
2.3.1. Katkı Maddelerinin Eklenmesi
2.3.2. Sterilize Besiyerinin Petri Kutularına Dökülmesi
2.3.3. Agarlı Besinyerlerinin Yüzeylerinin Kurutulması
2.3.4. Tüplerdeki Besiyerlerine Yapılan İşlemler
2.3.5. Agarlı Besiyerlerinin Yeniden Eritilmesi
2.4. Sterilizasyon Kontrolü
2.5. Besiyerlerinin Muhafazası
2.6. Hazır Ticari Besiyerleri ve Muhafazası
Besiyeri Hazırlama Şekilleri
Dehidre Besiyerlerinden Hazırlama
Kullanıma Hazır Besiyerleri
Besiyeri Bileşimine Giren Maddeler
Beyin ve Kalp Ekstraktı
Diferansiyel (Ayırt Edici; Fark Ettirici) Besiyerleri
Tartım ve Eritme
Petri Kutularına Döküm
Dehidre Besiyerlerinin Depolanması
Hazırlanmış Besiyerlerinin Depolanması
Besiyeri Kalite Kontrolü
Genel amaçlı besiyerleri
Ön zenginleştirme besiyerleri
CULTURE MEDIA & CULTURE METHODS
Bacteria have to be grown (cultured) for them to be identified.
By appropriate procedures they have to be grown separately (isolated) on culture media and obtained as pure for study.
The original media used by Louis Pasteur – urine or meat broth
Liquid medium – diffuse growth
Solid medium – discrete colonies.
Colony – macroscopically visible collection of millions of bacteria originating from a single bacterial cell.
Cooked cut potato by Robert Koch – earliest solid medium
Gelatin – not satisfactory
– liquefy at 24oC
Used for preparing solid medium
Obtained from seaweeds.
No nutritive value
Not affected by the growth of the bacteria.
Melts at 98oC & sets at 42oC
2% agar is employed in solid medium
Types of culture media
I.Based on their consistency
a) solid medium
b) liquid medium
c) semi solid medium
II.Based on the constituents/ ingredients
a) simple medium
b) complex medium
c) synthetic or defined medium
d) Special media
Media for biochemical reactions
III.Based on Oxygen requirement
– Aerobic media
– Anaerobic media
Solid media – contains 2% agar
Colony morphology, pigmentation, hemolysis can be appreciated.
Eg: Nutrient agar, Blood agar
Liquid media – no agar.
For inoculum preparation, Blood culture, for the isolation of pathogens from a mixture.
Eg: Nutrient broth
Semi solid medium – 0.5% agar.
Eg: Motility medium
Simple media / basal media
– Eg: NB, NA
– NB consists of peptone, meat extract, NaCl,
– NB + 2% agar = Nutrient agar
Media other than basal media.
They have added ingredients.
Provide special nutrients
Synthetic or defined media
Media prepared from pure chemical substances and its exact composition is known
Eg: peptone water – 1% peptone + 0.5% NaCl in water
Substances like blood, serum, egg are added to the basal medium.
Used to grow bacteria that are exacting in their nutritional needs.
Eg: Blood agar, Chocolate agar
Liquid media used to isolate pathogens from a mixed culture.
Media is incorporated with inhibitory substances to suppress the unwanted organism.
Selenite F Broth – for the isolation of Salmonella, Shigella
Alkaline Peptone Water – for Vibrio cholerae
The inhibitory substance is added to a solid media.
Mac Conkey’s medium for gram negative bacteria
TCBS – for V.cholerae
LJ medium – M.tuberculosis
Wilson and Blair medium – S.typhi
Potassium tellurite medium – Diphtheria bacilli
These media contain an indicator which changes its colour when a bacterium grows in them.
Mac Conkey’s medium
Christensen’s urease medium
A media which has substances incorporated in it enabling it to distinguish between bacteria.
Eg: Mac Conkey’s medium
Distinguish between lactose fermenters & non lactose fermenters.
Lactose fermenters – Pink colonies
Non lactose fermenters – colourless colonies
Media containing any fermentable substance.
Eg: glucose, arabinose, lactose, starch etc.
Media consists of 1% of the sugar in peptone water.
Contain a small tube (Durham’s tube) for the detection of gas by the bacteria.
Media used for transporting the samples.
Delicate organisms may not survive the time taken for transporting the specimen without a transport media.
Stuart’s medium – non nutrient soft agar gel containing a reducing agent
Buffered glycerol saline – enteric bacilli
These media are used to grow anaerobic organisms.
Eg: Robertson’s cooked meat medium, Thioglycolate medium.
BIOCHEMICAL TEST & REACTIONS
They provide additional information for the identification of the bacterium.
The tests include:
Triple sugar iron agar (TSI)
Detects the presence of an enzyme “oxidase” produced by certain bacteria which will reduce the dye – tetramethyl-p-phenylene diamine dihydrochloride.
Positive test is indicated by the development of a purple colour.
Oxidase positive – Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Neisseriae
Oxidase negative – Salmonella, Shigella
TRIPLE SUGAR IRON AGAR (TSI)
It is a composite media used to study different properties of a bacterium – sugar fermentation, gas production and H2S production.
In addition to peptone, yeast extract & agar, it contains 3 sugars – Glucose, Lactose, Sucrose.
The Iron salt – Ferric citrate indicates H2S production.
Phenol red is the indicator.
It is an orange red medium with a slant and a butt.
pH of the medium – 7.4
Yellow – Acid
Pink – Alkaline
Yellow slant / Yellow butt (A/A) – Lactose fermenters.
Pink slant / Yellow butt (K/A) – Non lactose fermenters.
Pink slant / no colour change (K/K) – Non fermenters
Black colour – H2S production.
Gas bubbles or crack in the medium – gas production.
LF – E.coli, Klebsiella
NLF – Salmonella, Shigella
H2S – Proteus
Done in Simmon’s Citrate medium.
To detect the ability of certain bacteria to utilize citrate as the sole source of carbon.
Contains Sodium citrate and bromothymol blue as the indicator.
If citrate is utilized, alkali is produced which turns the medium to blue.
Citrate positive – blue colour
Citrate negative – green colour
Positive – Klebsiella
Negative – E.coli
Done in Christensen’s urease medium.
This test is used to detect organisms that produce urease.
Urease produced by the organisms split urea into ammonia and CO2.
Urease positive – pink colour
Urease negative – yellow colour
Positive – Proteus, Klebsiella
Negative – E.coli, Salmonella
Culture methods employed depend on the purpose for which they are intended.
The indications for culture are:
To isolate bacteria in pure cultures.
To demonstrate their properties.
To obtain sufficient growth for the preparation of antigens and for other tests.
For bacteriophage & bacteriocin susceptibility.
To determine sensitivity to antibiotics.
To estimate viable counts.
Maintain stock cultures.
Culture methods include:
Pour plate method
Anaerobic culture methods
Used for the isolation of bacteria in pure culture from clinical specimens.
Platinum wire or Nichrome wire is used.
One loopful of the specimen is transferred onto the surface of a well dried plate.
Spread over a small area at the periphery.
The inoculum is then distributed thinly over the plate by streaking it with a loop in a series of parallel lines in different segments of the plate.
On incubation, separated colonies are obtained over the last series of streaks.
Provides a uniform surface growth of the bacterium.
For bacteriophage typing.
Antibiotic sensitivity testing.
In the preparation of bacterial antigens and vaccines.
Lawn cultures are prepared by flooding the surface of the plate with a liquid suspension of the bacterium.
Stroke culture is made in tubes containing agar slope / slant.
Provide a pure growth of bacterium for slide agglutination and other diagnostic tests.
Prepared by puncturing a suitable medium – gelatin or glucose agar with a long, straight, charged wire.
Demonstration of gelatin liquefaction.
Oxygen requirements of the bacterium under study.
Maintenance of stoke cultures.
POUR PLATE CULTURE
Agar medium is melted (15 ml) and cooled to 45oC.
1 ml of the inoculum is added to the molten agar.
Mix well and pour to a sterile petri dish.
Allow it to set.
Incubate at 37oC, colonies will be distributed throughout the depth of the medium.
Gives an estimate of the viable bacterial count in a suspension.
For the quantitative urine cultures.
Liquid cultures are inoculated by touching with a charged loop or by adding the inoculum with pipettes or syringes.
Continuous culture methods
It does not provide a pure culture from mixed inocula.
ANAEROBIC CULTURE METHODS
Anaerobic bacteria differ in their requirement and sensitivity to oxygen.
Cl.tetani is a strict anaerobe – grows at an oxygen tension < 2 mm Hg.
Production of vacuum
Displacement of oxygen with other gases
Reduction of medium
Production of vacuum:
Incubate the cultures in a vacuum desiccator.
Displacement of oxygen with other gases
Displacement of oxygen with hydrogen, nitrogen, helium or CO2.
Eg: Candle jar
Alkaline pyrogallol absorbs oxygen.
McIntosh – Fildes’ anaerobic jar
Consists of a metal jar or glass jar with a metal lid which can be clamped air tight.
The lid has 2 tubes – gas inlet and gas outlet
The lid has two terminals – connected to electrical supply.
Under the lid – small grooved porcelain spool, wrapped with a layer of palladinised asbestos.
Inoculated plates are placed inside the jar and the lid clamped air tight.
The outlet tube is connected to a vacuum pump and the air inside is evacuated.
The outlet tap is then closed and the inlet tube is connected to a hydrogen supply.
After the jar is filled with hydrogen, the electric terminals are connected to a current supply, so that the palladinised asbestos is heated.
Act as a catalyst for the combination of hydrogen with residual oxygen.
Commercially available disposable envelope.
Contains chemicals which generate H2 and CO2 on addition of water.
Cold catalyst – in the envelope
Indicator is used – reduced methylene blue.
Colourless – anaerobically
Blue colour – on exposure to oxygen
Absorption of oxygen by incubation with aerobic bacteria, germinating seeds or chopped vegetables.
Reduction of oxygen
By using reducing agents – 1% glucose, 0.1% Thioglycolate