Sugar Cane and Sugar Beet
Sugar Cane and Sugar Beet are processed in order to produce many different kinds of sugar-caster, granulated, dark brown, soft brown, preserving sugar, muscovado, icing sugar,demerara, sugar cubes and molasses.
Eating too much sugar
Eating too much sugar leads to the build up of plaque and tooth decay. Plaque is a sticky substance made up of bacteria which is found on the teeth. The bacteria breaks down sugar and produces acid that destroys the enamel of teeth.
When a sugar solution is heated to a very high temperature it thickens and turns brown adding flavour and colour. This is known as caramelisation.
If the solution is overheated it blackens and produces an unpleasant taste.
Dextrinisation takes place when starch is cooked in a dry heat such as the grill or oven. It is broken down to simple sugar called dextrin.
Functions of sugar
Sweetens- cakes, biscuits, cooked fruit. Adds colour-browning cakes by caramelisation and dextrinisation.
Flavour enhancer- tomatoes, baked beans, canned vegetables
Aerates-traps air when creamed with fat Decorates-sprinkled sugar, butter icing, icing
Speeds up fermentation-provides food for the yeast
Alternatives to sugar
Artificial sweeteners are low in calories. Manufacturers often use a mixture of artificial sweeteners Bulk sweeteners are similar in taste and are used in similar amounts in recipes.
Intense sweeteners are used in small amounts as they are much sweeter than sugar.